Surgical treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis: Tokyo Guidelines.
ABSTRACT: Cholecystectomy has been widely performed in the treatment of acute cholecystitis, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly adopted as the method of surgery over the past 15 years. Despite the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an elective treatment for symptomatic gallstones, acute cholecystitis was initially considered a contraindication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The reasons for it being considered a contraindication were the technical difficulty of performing it in acute cholecystitis and the development of complications, including bile duct injury, bowel injury, and hepatic injury. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now accepted as being safe for acute cholecystitis, when surgeons who are expert at the laparoscopic technique perform it. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been found to be superior to open cholecystectomy as a treatment for acute cholecystitis because of a lower incidence of complications, shorter length of postoperative hospital stay, quicker recuperation, and earlier return to work. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis has not become routine, because the timing and approach to the surgical management in patients with acute cholecystitis is still a matter of controversy. These Guidelines describe the timing of and the optimal surgical treatment of acute cholecystitis in a question-and-answer format.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common surgical diagnoses encountered by general surgeons. Despite its high incidence there remains a range of treatment of approaches. Current practices in biliary surgery vary as to timing, intraoperative utilization of biliary imaging, and management of bile duct stones despite growing evidence in the literature defining best practice. Management of patients with acute cholecystitis with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) results in better patient outcomes when compared with delayed surgical management techniques including antibiotic therapy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. Regardless of this data, many surgeons still prefer to utilize antibiotic therapy and complete an interval LC to manage acute cholecystitis. The use of intraoperative biliary imaging by cholangiogram or laparoscopic ultrasound has been demonstrated to facilitate the safe completion of cholecystectomy, minimizing the risk for inadvertent injury to surrounding structures, and lowering conversion rates, however it is rarely utilized. Choledocholithiasis used to be a diagnosis managed exclusively by surgeons but current practice favors referral to gastroenterologists for performance of preoperative endoscopic removal. Yet, there is evidence that intraoperative laparoscopic stone extraction is safe, feasible and may have added advantages. This review aims to highlight the differences between existing management of acute cholecystitis and evidence supported in the literature regarding best practice with the goal to change surgical practice to adopt these current recommendations.
Project description:Introduction:We report an extremely rare case of acute acalculous cholecystitis on a COVID-19 patient. In our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed on a COVID-19 patient. Presentation of case:A COVID-19 patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and a multidisciplinary team decided to perform a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) as the first treatment. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not found in the bile fluid. Because of deterioration of the patient's clinical conditions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy had to be performed and since the gallbladder was gangrenous, the severe inflammation made surgery difficult to perform. Discussion:Acalculous cholecystitis was related with mechanical ventilation and prolonged total parenteral nutrition, in this case the gangrenous histopathology pattern and the gallbladder wall ischemia was probably caused by vascular insufficiency secondary to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome of COVID-19 pneumonia. The percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTBD) was performed according to Tokyo Guidelines because of high surgical risk. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was next performed due to no clinical improvement. The absence of viral RNA in the bile highlights that SARS-CoV-2 is not eliminated with the bile while it probably infects small intestinal enterocytes which is responsible of gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Conclusions:Although the lack of evidence and guidelines about the management of patient with acute cholecystitis during COVID-19 pandemic, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, at most preceded by PTGBD on high surgical risk patients, remains the gold standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis on COVID-19 patients.
Project description:Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute biliary inflammation/infection (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis), according to severity grade, have not yet been established in the world. Therefore we formulated flowcharts for the management of acute biliary inflammation/infection in accordance with severity grade. For mild (grade I) acute cholangitis, medical treatment may be sufficient/appropriate. For moderate (grade II) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed. For severe (grade III) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support such as ventilatory/circulatory management is required. After hemodynamic stabilization is achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. For patients with acute cholangitis of any grade of severity, treatment for the underlying etiology, including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient's general condition has improved. For patients with mild (grade I) cholecystitis, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment. For patients with moderate (grade II) acute cholecystitis, early laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy is preferred. In patients with extensive local inflammation, elective cholecystectomy is recommended after initial management with percutaneous gallbladder drainage and/or cholecystostomy. For the patient with severe (grade III) acute cholecystitis, multiorgan support is a critical part of management. Biliary peritonitis due to perforation of the gallbladder is an indication for urgent cholecystectomy and/or drainage. Delayed elective cholecystectomy may be performed after initial treatment with gallbladder drainage and improvement of the patient's general medical condition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In some randomized trials successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystitis is associated with an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay when compared with open cholecystectomy. Other studies did not confirm these results and showed that the potential advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystitis can be offset by a high conversion rate to open surgery. Moreover in these studies a similar postoperative programme to optimize recovery comparing laparoscopic and open approaches was not standardized. These studies also do not report all eligible patients and are not double blinded. DESIGN: The present study project is a prospective, randomized investigation. The study will be performed in the Department of General, Emergency and Transplant Surgery St Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital (Bologna, Italy), a large teaching institutions, with the participation of all surgeons who accept to be involved in (and together with other selected centers). The patients will be divided in two groups: in the first group the patient will be submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 hours after the diagnosis while in the second group will be submitted to laparotomic cholecystectomy within 72 hours after the diagnosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ISRCTN27929536 - The ACTIVE (Acute Cholecystitis Trial Invasive Versus Endoscopic) study. A multicentre randomised, double-blind, controlled trial of laparoscopic versus open surgery for acute cholecystitis in adults.
Project description:To compare the clinical safety and outcomes of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.Pertinent studies were selected from the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases, references from published articles, and reviews. Seven randomized controlled trials (early laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy) were selected. Conventional meta-analysis according to Cochrane Collaboration was used for the pooling of the results.Seven trials with 1106 patients were included. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of bile duct injury (Peto odds ratio 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 4.72); P = 0.54) or conversion to open cholecystectomy (risk ratio 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.20); P = 0.50). The total hospital stay was shorter by 4 days for early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (mean difference -4.12 (95% confidence interval -5.22 to -3.03) days; P < 0.00001).Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy during acute cholecystitis is safe and shortens the total hospital stay.
Project description:Early cholecystectomy within 72 hours has been shown to be superior to late or delayed cholecystectomy with regard to outcome and cost of treatment. Recently, immediate cholecystectomy within 24 hours of onset of symptom was proposed as standard procedure for the management of fit patients presenting with acute cholecystitis. We sort to find out if there are any differences in surgical outcomes between patients managed within 24 h and those managed 25-72 h following symptom begin for acute cholecystitis.A retrospective analysis was performed. The outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 h were compared to those of patients managed 25-72 h following symptom onset for acute cholecystitis.35 patients managed 25-72 h following begin of symptoms were matched with 35 patients with similar baseline features, medical comorbidities and disease severity managed within 24 hours of symptom onset. There were no significant differences in the duration of surgery, postoperative complications, rate of conversion and length of hospital stay.Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis within 24 hour of symptom onset is not superior to surgery 25-72 hour after symptoms begin. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis therefore can be safely performed anytime within the golden 72 h.
Project description:Acute cholecystitis is a life-threatening emergency in elderly patients. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the commonly used management strategies for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis as well as resulting mortality and re-admission rates.Data from all consecutive elderly patients (≥ 80 years) admitted with acute cholecystitis in England from 1997 to 2012 were captured from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Influence of management strategies upon mortality was analyzed with adjustment for patient demographics and treatment year.47,500 elderly patients were admitted as an emergency with acute cholecystitis. On the index emergency admission the majority of patients (n = 42,620, 89.7%) received conservative treatment, 3539 (7.5%) had cholecystectomy, and 1341 (2.8%) underwent cholecystostomy. In the short term, 30-day mortality was increased in the emergency cholecystectomy group (11.6%) compared to those managed conservatively (9.9%) (p < 0.001). This was offset by the long-term benefits of cholecystectomy with a reduced 1-year mortality [20.8 vs. 27.1% for those managed conservatively (p < 0.001)]. Management with percutaneous cholecystostomy had increased 30-day and 1-year mortality (13.4 and 35.0%, respectively). The annual proportion of cholecystectomies performed laparoscopically increased from 27% in 2006 to 59% in 2012. Within the cholecystectomy group, laparoscopic approach was an independent predictor of reduced 30-day mortality (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.25). Following conservative management, there were 16,088 admissions with further cholecystitis. Only 11% of patients initially managed conservatively or with cholecystostomy received subsequent cholecystectomy.Acute cholecystitis is associated with significant mortality in elderly patients. Potential benefits of emergency cholecystectomy in selected elderly patients include reduced rate of readmissions and 1-year mortality. Laparoscopic approach for emergency cholecystectomy was associated with an 84% relative risk reduction in 30-day mortality compared to open surgery.
Project description:The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors for conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and risk factors for postoperative complications in acute calculous cholecystitis. The most common complications arising from cholecystectomy were also to be identified.A total of 499 consecutive patients, who had undergone emergent cholecystectomy with diagnosis of cholecystitis in Meilahti Hospital in 2013-2014, were identified from the hospital database. Of the identified patients, 400 had acute calculous cholecystitis of which 27 patients with surgery initiated as open cholecystectomy were excluded, resulting in 373 patients for the final analysis. The Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications was used.Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was initiated in 373 patients of which 84 (22.5%) were converted to open surgery. Multivariate logistic regression identified C-reactive protein (CRP) over 150 mg/l, age over 65 years, diabetes, gangrene of the gallbladder and an abscess as risk factors for conversion. Complications were experienced by 67 (18.0%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression identified age over 65 years, male gender, impaired renal function and conversion as risk factors for complications.Advanced cholecystitis with high CRP, gangrene or an abscess increase the risk of conversion. The risk of postoperative complications is higher after conversion. Early identification and treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis might reduce the number of patients with advanced cholecystitis and thus improve outcomes.
Project description:Acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) is the most frequent complication of cholelithiasis and represents one-third of all surgical emergency hospital admissions, many aspects of the disease are still a matter of debate. Knowledge of the current evidence may allow the surgical team to develop practical bedside decision-making strategies, aiming at a less demanding procedure and lower frequency of complications. In this regard, recommendations on the diagnosis supported by specific criteria and severity scores are being implemented, to prioritize patients eligible for urgency surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment for ACC and the procedure should ideally be performed within 72 h. Early surgery is associated with better results in comparison to delayed surgery. In addition, when to suspect associated common bile duct stones and how to treat them when found are still debated. The antimicrobial agents are indicated for high-risk patients and especially in the presence of gallbladder necrosis. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and in some cases with antifungal agents is related to better prognosis. Moreover, an emerging strategy of not converting to open, a difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and performing a subtotal cholecystectomy is recommended by adept surgical teams. Some authors support the use of percutaneous cholecystostomy as an alternative emergency treatment for acute Cholecystitis for patients with severe comorbidities.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To assess whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy is superior to percutaneous catheter drainage in high risk patients with acute calculous cholecystitis.<h4>Design</h4>Multicentre, randomised controlled, superiority trial.<h4>Setting</h4>11 hospitals in the Netherlands, February 2011 to January 2016.<h4>Participants</h4>142 high risk patients with acute calculous cholecystitis were randomly allocated to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n=66) or to percutaneous catheter drainage (n=68). High risk was defined as an acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score of 7 or more.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The primary endpoints were death within one year and the occurrence of major complications, defined as infectious and cardiopulmonary complications within one month, need for reintervention (surgical, radiological, or endoscopic that had to be related to acute cholecystitis) within one year, or recurrent biliary disease within one year.<h4>Results</h4>The trial was concluded early after a planned interim analysis. The rate of death did not differ between the laparoscopic cholecystectomy and percutaneous catheter drainage group (3% <i>v</i> 9%, P=0.27), but major complications occurred in eight of 66 patients (12%) assigned to cholecystectomy and in 44 of 68 patients (65%) assigned to percutaneous drainage (risk ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.37; P<0.001). In the drainage group 45 patients (66%) required a reintervention compared with eight patients (12%) in the cholecystectomy group (P<0.001). Recurrent biliary disease occurred more often in the percutaneous drainage group (53% <i>v</i> 5%, P<0.001), and the median length of hospital stay was longer (9 days <i>v</i> 5 days, P<0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with percutaneous catheter drainage reduced the rate of major complications in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Dutch Trial Register NTR2666.