Immunoglobulin D enhances immune surveillance by activating antimicrobial, proinflammatory and B cell-stimulating programs in basophils.
ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype that mature B cells express together with IgM through alternative RNA splicing. Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper respiratory mucosa. This process required activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and generated local and circulating IgD-producing plasmablasts reactive to respiratory bacteria. Circulating IgD bound to basophils through a calcium-mobilizing receptor that induced antimicrobial, opsonizing, inflammatory and B cell-stimulating factors, including cathelicidin, interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-4 and B cell-activating factor (BAFF), after IgD crosslinking. By showing dysregulation of IgD class-switched B cells and 'IgD-armed' basophils in autoinflammatory syndromes with periodic fever, our data indicate that IgD orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation.
Project description:B cells thwart antigenic aggressions by releasing immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and IgE, which deploy well-understood effector functions. In contrast, the role of secreted IgD remains mysterious. We found that some B cells generated IgD-secreting plasma cells following early exposure to external soluble antigens such as food proteins. Secreted IgD targeted basophils by interacting with the CD44-binding protein galectin-9. When engaged by antigen, basophil-bound IgD increased basophil secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, which facilitated the generation of T follicular helper type 2 cells expressing IL-4. These germinal center T cells enhanced IgG1 and IgE but not IgG2a and IgG2b responses to the antigen initially recognized by basophil-bound IgD. In addition, IgD ligation by antigen attenuated allergic basophil degranulation induced by IgE co-ligation. Thus, IgD may link B cells with basophils to optimize humoral T helper type 2-mediated immunity against common environmental soluble antigens.
Project description:Recent discoveries of IgD in ancient vertebrates suggest that IgD has been preserved in evolution from fish to human for important immunological functions. A non-canonical form of class switching from IgM to IgD occurs in the human upper respiratory mucosa to generate IgD-secreting B cells that bind respiratory bacteria and their products. In addition to enhancing mucosal immunity, IgD class-switched B cells enter the circulation to 'arm' basophils and other innate immune cells with secreted IgD. Although the nature of the IgD receptor remains elusive, cross-linking of IgD on basophils stimulates release of immunoactivating, proinflammatory and antimicrobial mediators. This pathway is dysregulated in autoinflammatory disorders such as hyper-IgD syndrome, indicating that IgD orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation.
Project description:Recent reports in mice demonstrate that basophils function as antigen presenting cells (APC). They express MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, capture and present soluble antigens or IgE-antigen complexes and polarize Th2 responses. Therefore, we explored whether human circulating basophils possess the features of professional APC. We found that unlike dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, steady-state circulating human basophils did not express HLA-DR and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Basophils remained negative for these molecules following stimulation with soluble Asp f 1, one of the allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus; Bet v 1, the major birch allergen; TLR2-ligand or even upon IgE cross-linking. Unlike DC, Asp f 1-pulsed basophils did not promote Th2 responses as analyzed by the secretion of IL-4 in the basophil-CD4(+) T cell co-culture. Together, these results demonstrate the inability of circulating human basophils to function as professional APC.
Project description:Immunoglobulin D (IgD) has remained a mysterious antibody class for almost half a century. IgD was initially thought to be a recently evolved Ig isotype expressed only by some mammalian species, but recent discoveries in fishes and amphibians demonstrate that IgD was present in the ancestor of all jawed vertebrates and has important immunological functions. The structure of IgD has been very dynamic throughout evolution. Mammals can express IgD through alternative splicing and class switch recombination. Active cell-dependent and T-cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching takes place in a unique subset of human B cells from the upper aerodigestive mucosa, which provides a layer of mucosal protection by interacting with many pathogens and their virulence factors. Circulating IgD can bind to myeloid cells such as basophils and induce antimicrobial, inflammatory, and B-cell-stimulating factors upon cross-linking, which contributes to not only immune surveillance but also inflammation and tissue damage when this pathway is overactivated under pathological conditions. Recent research shows that IgD is an important immunomodulator that orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation.
Project description:Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a ?-galactoside binding protein that controls cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In lymphoid organs, gal-3 inhibits B cell differentiation by mechanisms poorly understood. The B cell development is dependent on tissue organization and stromal cell signaling, including IL-7 and Notch pathways. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms that gal-3 interferes during B lymphocyte differentiation in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen. The BM of gal-3-deficient mice (Lgals3-/- mice) was evidenced by elevated numbers of B220+CD19+c-Kit+IL-7R+ progenitor B cells. In parallel, CD45- bone marrow stromal cells expressed high levels of mRNA IL-7, Notch ligands (Jagged-1 and Delta-like 4), and transcription factors (Hes-1, Hey-1, Hey-2 and Hey-L). The spleen of Lgals3-/- mice was hallmarked by marginal zone disorganization, high number of IgM+IgD+ B cells and CD138+ plasma cells, overexpression of Notch ligands (Jagged-1, Delta-like 1 and Delta-like 4) by stromal cells and Hey-1. Morever, IgM+IgD+ B cells and B220+CD138+ CXCR4+ plasmablasts were significantly increased in the BM and blood of Lgals3-/- mice. For the first time, we demonstrated that gal-3 inhibits Notch signaling activation in lymphoid organs regulating earlier and terminal events of B cell differentiation.
Project description:Humoural immunity is crucial for the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the precise perturbation of B cell immunity is poorly understood. This study is aimed at evaluating the numbers of different subsets of circulating memory B cells, plasmablasts, and the levels of serum immunoglobulin in UC patients. Total of 23 patients with active UC and 14 healthy controls (HC) were examined for the numbers of different subsets of circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts before and after treatment with mesalazine for 8-12 weeks by flow cytometry. Disease activity was evaluated by the Mayo clinic score. The levels of serum immunoglobulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in individual subjects. In comparison with that in HC, significantly reduced numbers of IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells, increased numbers of CD20(-) CD19(+) plasmablast subsets, and higher serum IgG levels were detected in UC patients. The concentrations of serum IgG, the numbers of CD138(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+), and IgG(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+) plasmablasts were negatively associated with the numbers of IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells. Furthermore, the values of Mayo clinic score, CRP, or ESR in UC patients were negatively correlated with the numbers of IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells, while positively correlated with the serum IgG levels and the numbers of plasmablast subsets. Following treatment with mesalazine, the numbers of circulating IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells were significantly increased, while the numbers of CD138(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+) and IgG(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+) plasmablasts were reduced in UC patients. These decreased IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells and increased plasmablasts may be involved in the pathogenic process of UC.
Project description:IL-4 production by leukocytes is a key regulatory event that occurs early in the type 2 immune response, which induces allergic reactions and mediates expulsion of parasites. CD4(+) T cells and basophils are thought to be the key cell types that produce IL-4 during a type 2 response. In this study, we assessed the relative contribution of both CD4(+) T cell- and basophil-IL-4 production during primary and secondary responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis using a murine IL-4-enhanced GFP reporter system. During infection, IL-4-producing basophils were detected systemically, and tissue recruitment occurred independent of IL-4/STAT6 signaling. We observed that basophil recruitment to a tissue environment was required for their full activation. Basophil induction in response to secondary infection exhibited accelerated kinetics in comparison with primary infection. However, total basophil numbers were not enhanced, as predicted by previous models of protective immunity. Overall, the induction and migration of IL-4-producing basophils into peripheral tissues was found to be a prominent characteristic of the primary but not memory responses to N. brasiliensis infection, in which CD4(+) T cells were identified as the major source of IL-4. Whereas basophils were the major initial producers of IL-4, we determined that normal Th2 differentiation occurs independently of basophils, and depletion of basophils led to an enhancement of inflammatory cell recruitment to the site of infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Amphiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor family, is expressed by activated mouse T(H)2 cells. Amphiregulin produced by mouse hematopoietic cells contributes to the elimination of a nematode infection by a type 2 effector response.<h4>Objective</h4>To identify the human peripheral blood cell population expressing amphiregulin.<h4>Methods</h4>Amphiregulin-expressing cells were identified by flow cytometry of cell surface markers and histologic staining. Histamine and amphiregulin in supernatants were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression.<h4>Results</h4>Stimulation of human PBMCs by anti-CD3 + anti-CD28 antibodies induced expression of amphiregulin mRNA and protein by a non-T-cell population. The amphiregulin-producing cells were basophils, as judged by morphology and expression of CD203c and CD123 (IL-3 receptor ? chain). Activated mouse basophils also produced amphiregulin. Amphiregulin expression by basophils in response to anti-TCR stimulation required IL-3 produced by T cells, and IL-3 alone induced high levels of amphiregulin expression by purified basophils. Amphiregulin was expressed at much higher levels when human basophils were stimulated by IL-3 than by IgE cross-linking, whereas the opposite was true for IL-4 expression and histamine release. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor was also expressed by IL-3-stimulated human basophils. PBMCs from human subjects with asthma contained significantly higher numbers of basophils able to produce amphiregulin compared with controls with or without allergy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IL-3 can induce basophils to express high levels of amphiregulin, which may contribute to tissue remodeling during type 2 immune responses such as asthma.
Project description:Type 2 inflammation underlies allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, which is characterized by the accumulation of basophils and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in inflamed skin lesions. Although murine studies have demonstrated that cutaneous basophil and ILC2 responses are dependent on thymic stromal lymphopoietin, whether these cell populations interact to regulate the development of cutaneous type 2 inflammation is poorly defined. In this study, we identify that basophils and ILC2s significantly accumulate in inflamed human and murine skin and form clusters not observed in control skin. We demonstrate that murine basophil responses precede ILC2 responses and that basophils are the dominant IL-4-enhanced GFP-expressing cell type in inflamed skin. Furthermore, basophils and IL-4 were necessary for the optimal accumulation of ILC2s and induction of atopic dermatitis-like disease. We show that ILC2s express IL-4R? and proliferate in an IL-4-dependent manner. Additionally, basophil-derived IL-4 was required for cutaneous ILC2 responses in vivo and directly regulated ILC2 proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, these data reveal a previously unrecognized role for basophil-derived IL-4 in promoting ILC2 responses during cutaneous inflammation.
Project description:Developmental processes of hematopoietic cells are orchestrated by transcriptional networks. GATA-1, the founding member of the GATA family of transcription factors, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the differentiation of erythroid cells, magakaryocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. However, the role of GATA-1 in basophils remains elusive. Here we show that basophils abundantly express Gata1 mRNAs, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of Gata1 resulted in impaired production of IL-4 by basophils in response to the stimulation with IgE plus antigens. ?dblGATA mice that carry the mutated Gata1 promoter and are widely used for functional analysis of eosinophils owing to their selective loss of eosinophils showed a decreased number of basophils with reduced expression of Gata1 mRNAs. The number of basophil progenitors in bone marrow was reduced in these mice, and the generation of basophils from their bone marrow cells in culture with IL-3 or thymic stromal lymphopoietin was impaired. ?dblGATA basophils responded poorly ex vivo to stimulation with IgE plus antigens compared with wild-type basophils as assessed by degranulation and production of IL-4 and IL-6. Moreover, ?dblGATA mice showed impaired responses in basophil-mediated protective immunity against intestinal helminth infection. Thus, ?dblGATA mice showed numerical and functional aberrancy in basophils in addition to the known deficiency of eosinophils. Our findings demonstrate that GATA-1 plays a key role in the generation and function of basophils and underscore the need for careful distinction of the cell lineage responsible for each phenotype observed in ?dblGATA mice.