Stabilization of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors at perisynaptic sites by GluR1-S845 phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: AMPA receptor (AMPAR) channel properties and function are regulated by its subunit composition and phosphorylation. Certain types of neural activity can recruit Ca(2+)-permeable (CP) AMPARs, such as GluR1 homomers, to synapses likely via lateral diffusion from extrasynaptic sites. Here we show that GluR1-S845 phosphorylation can alter the subunit composition of perisynaptic AMPARs by providing stability to GluR1 homomers. Using mice specifically lacking phosphorylation of the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), we demonstrate that this site is necessary for maintaining CP-AMPARs. Specifically, in the GluR1-S845A mutants, CP-AMPARs were absent from perisynaptic locations mainly due to lysosomal degradation. This regulation was mimicked by acute desphosphorylation of the GluR1-S845 site in wild-type mice by NMDA application. Furthermore, long-term depression (LTD) was associated with a reduction in perisynaptic CP-AMPAR levels. Our findings suggest that GluR1-S845 is necessary for maintaining CP-AMPARs on the surface, especially at perisynaptic sites, and suggest that the regulation of these receptors is involved in synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Sensory experience, and the lack thereof, can alter the function of excitatory synapses in the primary sensory cortices. Recent evidence suggests that changes in sensory experience can regulate the synaptic level of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a process have not been determined. We found that binocular visual deprivation, which is a well-established in vivo model to produce multiplicative synaptic scaling in visual cortex of juvenile rodents, is accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPAR GluR1 (or GluA1) subunit at the serine 845 (S845) site and the appearance of CP-AMPARs at synapses. To address the role of GluR1-S845 in visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity, we used mice lacking key phosphorylation sites on the GluR1 subunit. We found that mice specifically lacking the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), which is a substrate of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), show abnormal basal excitatory synaptic transmission and lack visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We also found evidence that increasing GluR1-S845 phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to produce normal multiplicative synaptic scaling. Our study provides concrete evidence that a GluR1 dependent mechanism, especially S845 phosphorylation, is a necessary pre-requisite step for in vivo homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Activity-dependent changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS have been shown to depend on the regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). In particular, several lines of evidence suggest that reversible phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1, also referred to as GluA1 or GluR-A) plays a role in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). We previously reported that regulation of serines (S) 831 and 845 on the GluR1 subunit may play a critical role in bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1. Specifically, gene knockin mice lacking both S831 and S845 phosphorylation sites ("double phosphomutants"), where both serine residues were replaced by alanines (A), showed a faster decaying LTP and a deficit in LTD. To determine which of the two phosphorylation sites was responsible for the phenotype, we have now generated two lines of gene knockin mice: one that specifically lacks S831 (S831A mutants) and another that lacks only S845 (S845A mutants). We found that S831A mutants display normal LTP and LTD, whereas S845A mutants show a specific deficit in LTD. Taken together with our previous results from the "double phosphomutants," our data suggest that either S831 or S845 alone may support LTP, whereas the S845 site is critical for LTD expression.
Project description:Trafficking of AMPA subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs) from intracellular compartments to synapses is thought to be a major mechanism underlying the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular substrate for learning and memory. However, it remains unclear whether the AMPAR trafficking that takes place during LTP is due to a targeted insertion of AMPARs directly into the synapse or delivery to extrasynaptic sites followed by translocation into the synapse. Here, we provide direct physiological evidence that LTP induced by a theta-burst pairing and tetanic stimulation protocols causes the rapid delivery of AMPARs to a perisynaptic site. Perisynaptic AMPARs do not normally detect synaptically released glutamate but can do so when the glial glutamate transporter EAAT1 is inhibited. AMPARs can be detected at this perisynaptic site before, but not after, the full expression of LTP. The appearance of perisynaptic AMPARs requires postsynaptic exocytosis, PKA signaling, and the C-terminal region of GluR1 subunit of AMPARs but not actin polymerization. Actin polymerization after LTP induction is required to retain AMPARs at the perisynaptic site after their appearance. Low-frequency stimulation given shortly after LTP induction leads to activity-dependent removal of perisynaptic AMPARs and suppresses the subsequent expression of LTP. These results demonstrate that AMPARs are rapidly trafficked to perisynaptic sites shortly after LTP induction and suggest that the delivery and maintenance of perisynaptic AMPARs may serve as a checkpoint in the expression of LTP.
Project description:The opioid antagonists naloxone/naltrexone are involved in improving learning and memory, but their cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effect of naloxone/naltrexone on hippocampal ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking, a molecular substrate of learning and memory, as a probable mechanism for the antagonists activity.To measure naloxone/naltrexone-regulated AMPAR trafficking, pHluorin-GluA1 imaging and biochemical analyses were performed on primary hippocampal neurons. To establish the in vivo role of GluA1-Serine 845 (S845) phosphorylation on the behavioral effect induced by inhibition of the endogenous ?-opioid receptor (MOR) by naltrexone, MOR knockout, and GluA1-S845A mutant (in which Ser(845) was mutated to Ala) mice were tested in a water maze after chronic naltrexone administration. Behavioral responses and GluA1 levels in the hippocampal postsynaptic density in wild-type and GluA1-S845A mutant mice were compared using western blot analysis.In vitro prolonged naloxone/naltrexone exposure significantly increased synaptic and extrasynaptic GluA1 membrane expression as well as GluA1-S845 phosphorylation. In the MOR knockout and GluA1-S845A mutant mice, naltrexone did not improve learning, which suggests that naltrexone acts via inhibition of endogenous MOR action and alteration of GluA1 phosphorylation. Naltrexone-treated wild-type mice had significantly increased phosphorylated GluA1-S845 and GluA1 levels in their hippocampal postsynaptic density on the third day of acquisition, which is the time when naltrexone significantly improved learning.The beneficial effect of naltrexone on spatial learning and memory under normal conditions appears to be the result of increasing GluA1-S845 phosphorylation-dependent AMPAR trafficking. These results can be further explored in a mouse model of memory loss.
Project description:Bidirectional synaptic plasticity occurs locally at individual synapses during long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), or globally during homeostatic scaling. LTP, LTD, and homeostatic scaling alter synaptic strength through changes in postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), suggesting the existence of overlapping molecular mechanisms. Phosphorylation controls AMPAR trafficking during LTP/LTD. We addressed the role of AMPAR phosphorylation during homeostatic scaling. We observed bidirectional changes of the levels of phosphorylated GluA1 S845 during scaling, resulting from a loss of protein kinase A (PKA) from synapses during scaling down and enhanced activity of PKA in synapses during scaling up. Increased phosphorylation of S845 drove scaling up, while a knockin mutation of S845, or knockdown of the scaffold AKAP5, blocked scaling up. Finally, we show that AMPARs scale differentially based on their phosphorylation status at S845. These results show that rearrangement in PKA signaling controls AMPAR phosphorylation and surface targeting during homeostatic plasticity.
Project description:The insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into the plasma membrane is an important step in the synaptic delivery of AMPARs during the expression of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AMPAR insertion remain elusive. By directly visualizing individual insertion events of the AMPAR subunit GluR1 in rodents, we found that the protein 4.1N was required for activity-dependent GluR1 insertion. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of the serine 816 (S816) and S818 residues of GluR1 enhanced 4.1N binding to GluR1 and facilitated GluR1 insertion. In addition, palmitoylation of GluR1 C811 residue modulated PKC phosphorylation and GluR1 insertion. Finally, disrupting 4.1N-dependent GluR1 insertion decreased surface expression of GluR1 and the expression of long-term potentiation. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism that governs activity-dependent GluR1 trafficking, reveals an interaction between AMPAR palmitoylation and phosphorylation, and underscores the functional importance of 4.1N in AMPAR trafficking and synaptic plasticity.
Project description:The closely related ? and ? isoforms of the serine/threonine protein kinase casein kinase 1 (Csnk1) have been implicated in the generation of psychostimulant-induced behaviors. In this study, we show that Csnk1?/? produces its effects on behavior by acting on the Darpp-32-PP1 signaling pathway to regulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Inhibiting Csnk1?/? in the NAcc with the selective inhibitor PF-670462 blocks amphetamine induced locomotion and its ability to increase phosphorylation of Darpp-32 at S137 and T34, decrease PP1 activity and increase phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit at S845. Consistent with these findings, preventing GluR1 phosphorylation with the alanine mutant GluR1(S845A) reduces glutamate-evoked currents in cultured medium spiny neurons and blocks the locomotor activity produced by NAcc amphetamine. Thus, Csnk1 enables the locomotor and likely the incentive motivational effects of amphetamine by regulating Darrp-32-PP1-GlurR1(S845) signaling in the NAcc. As such, Csnk1 may be a critical target for intervention in the treatment of drug use disorders.
Project description:The highest incidence of seizures during lifetime is found in the neonatal period and neonatal seizures lead to a propensity for epilepsy and long-term cognitive deficits. Here, we identify potential mechanisms that elucidate a critical role for AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in epileptogenesis during this critical period in the developing brain. In a rodent model of neonatal seizures, we have shown previously that administration of antagonists of the AMPARs during the 48 h after seizures prevents long-term increases in seizure susceptibility and seizure-induced neuronal injury. Hypoxia-induced seizures in postnatal day 10 rats induce rapid and reversible alterations in AMPAR signaling resembling changes implicated previously in models of synaptic potentiation in vitro. Hippocampal slices removed after hypoxic seizures exhibited potentiation of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents, including an increase in the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs as well as increased synaptic potency. This increased excitability was temporally associated with a rapid increase in phosphorylation at GluR1 S845/S831 and GluR2 S880 sites and increased activity of the protein kinases CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II), PKA, and PKC, which mediate the phosphorylation of these AMPAR subunits. Postseizure administration of AMPAR antagonists NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfonyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline), topiramate, or GYKI-53773 [(1)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-acetyl-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-3,4-dihydro-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine] attenuated the AMPAR potentiation, phosphorylation, and kinase activation and prevented the concurrent increase in in vivo seizure susceptibility. Thus, the potentiation of AMPAR-containing synapses is a reversible, early step in epileptogenesis that offers a novel therapeutic target in the highly seizure-prone developing brain.
Project description:Understanding how the subcellular fate of newly synthesized AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is controlled is important for elucidating the mechanisms of neuronal function. We examined the effect of increased synthesis of AMPAR subunits on their subcellular distribution in rat hippocampal neurons. Virally expressed AMPAR subunits (GluR1 or GluR2) accumulated in cell bodies and replaced endogenous dendritic AMPAR with little effect on total dendritic amounts and caused no change in synaptic transmission. Coexpressing stargazin (STG) or mimicking GluR1 phosphorylation enhanced dendritic GluR1 levels by protecting GluR1 from lysosomal degradation. However, STG interaction or GluR1 phosphorylation did not increase surface or synaptic GluR1 levels. Unlike GluR1, STG did not protect GluR2 from lysosomal degradation or increase dendritic GluR2 levels. In general, AMPAR surface levels, and not intracellular amounts, correlated strongly with synaptic levels. Our results suggest that AMPAR surface expression, but not its intracellular production or accumulation, is critical for regulating synaptic transmission.
Project description:How persistent synaptic and spine modification is achieved is essential to our understanding of developmental refinement of neural circuitry and formation of memory. Within a short period after their induction, both types of modifications can either be stabilized or reversed, but how this reversibility is controlled is largely unknown. We have shown previously that AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are delivered to perisynaptic regions after the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) but are absent from perisynaptic regions after the full expression of LTP. Here, we report that perisynaptic AMPARs are GluR2-lacking and they translocate to synapses in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner. Once entering synapses, these AMPARs quickly switch to GluR2-containing in an activity-dependent manner. Absence of postinduction activity or blocking interactions between GluR2 and NSF, or GluR2 and GRIP/PICK1 results in LTP mediated by GluR2-lacking AMPARs. However, these synaptic GluR2-lacking AMPARs are not sufficient to allow reversibility of LTP. On the other hand, postsynaptic inhibition of PKC activity holds AMPARs at perisynaptic regions. As long as perisynaptic AMPARs are present, both LTP and spine expansion remain labile: they can be reverted to the baseline state together with removal of perisynaptic AMPARs, or they can enter a stabilized state of persistent increase together with synaptic incorporation of perisynaptic AMPARs. Thus, perisynaptic GluR2-lacking AMPARs play a critical role in controlling the reversibility of both synaptic and spine modifications.