Elimination of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway disrupts hepatic lipid homeostasis.
ABSTRACT: Phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in a major pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the ECT gene in mice resulted in normal appearing animals without overt signs of liver injury or inflammation. The molecular species of PtdEtn in the ECT-deficient livers were significantly altered compared with controls and matched the composition of the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) pool, illustrating the complete reliance on the PtdSer decarboxylase pathway for PtdEtn synthesis. PtdSer structure was controlled by the substrate specificity of PtdSer synthase that selectively converted phosphatidylcholine molecular species containing stearate paired with a polyunsaturated fatty acid to PtdSer. There was no evidence for fatty acid remodeling of PtdEtn. The elimination of diacylglycerol utilization by the CDP-ethanolamine pathway led to a 10-fold increase in triacylglycerols in the ECT-deficient hepatocytes that became engorged with lipid droplets. Triacylglycerol accumulation was associated with a significant elevation in the expression of the transcription factors and target genes that drive de novo lipogenesis. The absence of the ECT pathway for diacylglycerol utilization at the endoplasmic reticulum triggers increased fatty acid synthesis to support the formation of triacylglycerols leading to liver steatosis.
Project description:For an insight regarding the control of PtdEtn (phosphatidylethanolamine) synthesis via the CDPethanolamine pathway, rat liver cDNA encoding ECT (CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase) was transiently or stably transfected in Chinese-hamster ovary cells and a rat liver-derived cell line (McA-RH7777), resulting in a maximum of 26- and 4-fold increase in specific activity of ECT respectively. However, no effect of ECT overexpression on the rate of [3H]ethanolamine incorporation into PtdEtn was detected in both cell lines. This was explored further in cells overexpressing four times ECT activity (McA-ECT1). The rate of PtdEtn breakdown and PtdEtn mass were not changed in McA-ECT1 cells in comparison with control-transfected cells. Instead, an accumulation of CDPethanolamine (label and mass) was observed, suggesting that in McA-ECT1 cells the ethanolaminephosphotransferase-catalysed reaction became rate-limiting. However, overexpression of the human choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase in McA-ECT1 and control-transfected cells had no effect on PtdEtn synthesis. To investigate whether the availability of DAG (diacylglycerol) limited PtdEtn synthesis in these cells, intracellular DAG levels were increased using PMA or phospholipase C. Exposure of cells to PMA or phospholipase C stimulated PtdEtn synthesis and this effect was much more pronounced in McA-ECT1 than in control-transfected cells. In line with this, the DAG produced after PMA exposure was consumed more rapidly in McA-ECT1 cells and the CDPethanolamine level decreased accordingly. In conclusion, our results suggest that the supply of CDPethanolamine, via the expression level of ECT, is an important factor governing the rate of PtdEtn biosynthesis in mammalian cells, under the condition that the amount of DAG is not limiting.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is synthesized in mammalian cells by two base-exchange enzymes: PtdSer synthase (PSS)-1 primarily uses phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for exchange with serine, whereas PSS2 uses phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). We previously expressed murine PSS1 in McArdle hepatoma cells. The activity of PSS1 in vitro and the synthesis of PtdSer and PtdSer-derived PtdEtn were increased, whereas PtdEtn synthesis from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway was inhibited [Stone, Cui and Vance (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 7293-7302]. We have now cloned and stably expressed a murine PSS2 cDNA in McArdle cells and M.9.1.1 cells [which are ethanolamine-requiring mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells defective in PSS1]. Expression of the PSS2 in M.9.1.1 cells reversed the ethanolamine auxotrophy. However, the PtdEtn content was not normalized unless the culture medium was supplemented with ethanolamine. In both M.9.1.1 and hepatoma cells transfected with PSS2 cDNA the rate of synthesis of PtdSer and PtdSer-derived PtdEtn did not exceed that in parental CHO cells or control McArdle cells respectively, in contrast to cells expressing similar levels of murine PSS1. These observations suggest that PtdSer synthesis via murine PSS2, but not PSS1, is regulated by end-product inhibition. Moreover, expression of murine PSS2 in McArdle cells did not inhibit PtdEtn synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway, whereas expression of similar levels of PSS1 activity inhibited this pathway by approx. 50%. We conclude that murine PSS1 and PSS2, which are apparently derived from different genes, independently modulate phospholipid metabolism. In addition, mRNAs encoding the two synthases are differentially expressed in several murine tissues, supporting the idea that PSS1 and PSS2 might perform unique functions.
Project description:BTN1, the yeast homolog to human CLN3 (which is defective in Batten disease), has been implicated in the regulation of vacuolar pH, potentially by modulating vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) activity. However, we report that Btn1p and the V-ATPase complex do not physically interact, suggesting that any influence that Btn1p has on V-ATPase is indirect. Because membrane lipid environment plays a crucial role in the activity and function of membrane proteins, we investigated whether cells lacking BTN1 have altered membrane phospholipid content. Deletion of BTN1 (btn1-?) led to a decreased level of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) in both mitochondrial and vacuolar membranes. In yeast there are two phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) decarboxylases, Psd1p and Psd2p, and these proteins are responsible for the synthesis of PtdEtn in mitochondria and Golgi-endosome, respectively. Deletion of both BTN1 and PSD1 (btn1-? psd1-?) led to a further decrease in levels of PtdEtn in ER membranes associated to mitochondria (MAMs), with a parallel increase in PtdSer. Fluorescent-labeled PtdSer (NBD-PtdSer) transport assays demonstrated that transport of NBD-PtdSer from the ER to both mitochondria and endosomes and/or vacuole is affected in btn1-? cells. Moreover, btn1-? affects the synthesis of PtdEtn by the Kennedy pathway and impairs the ability of psd1-? cells to restore PtdEtn to normal levels in mitochondria and vacuoles by ethanolamine addition. In summary, lack of Btn1p alters phospholipid levels and might play a role in regulating their subcellular distribution.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which also includes other parasites of clinical and/or veterinary importance, such as Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Eimeria. Acute infection by Toxoplasma is hallmarked by rapid proliferation in its host cells and requires a significant synthesis of parasite membranes. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is the second major phospholipid class in T. gondii. Here, we reveal that PtdEtn is produced in the parasite mitochondrion and parasitophorous vacuole by decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and in the endoplasmic reticulum by fusion of CDP-ethanolamine and diacylglycerol. PtdEtn in the mitochondrion is synthesized by a phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (TgPSD1mt) of the type I class. TgPSD1mt harbors a targeting peptide at its N terminus that is required for the mitochondrial localization but not for the catalytic activity. Ablation of TgPSD1mt expression caused up to 45% growth impairment in the parasite mutant. The PtdEtn content of the mutant was unaffected, however, suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanisms. Indeed, metabolic labeling revealed an increased usage of ethanolamine for PtdEtn synthesis by the mutant. Likewise, depletion of nutrients exacerbated the growth defect (?56%), which was partially restored by ethanolamine. Besides, the survival and residual growth of the TgPSD1mt mutant in the nutrient-depleted medium also indicated additional routes of PtdEtn biogenesis, such as acquisition of host-derived lipid. Collectively, the work demonstrates a metabolic cooperativity between the parasite organelles, which ensures a sustained lipid synthesis, survival and growth of T. gondii in varying nutritional milieus.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is a major phospholipid in mammals. It is synthesized via two pathways, the CDP-ethanolamine pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum and the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) decarboxylase (PSD) pathway in the mitochondria. While the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is considered the major route for PtdEtn synthesis in most mammalian tissues, little is known about the importance of the PSD pathway in vivo, especially in tissues enriched with mitochondria such as skeletal muscle. Therefore, we aimed to examine the role of the mitochondrial PSD pathway in regulating PtdEtn homeostasis in skeletal muscle in vivo. METHODS:To determine the functional significance of this pathway in skeletal muscle in vivo, an adeno-associated viral vector approach was employed to knockdown PSD expression in skeletal muscle of adult mice. Muscle lipid and metabolite profiling was performed using mass spectrometry. RESULTS:PSD knockdown disrupted muscle phospholipid homeostasis leading to an ∼25% reduction in PtdEtn and an ∼45% increase in PtdSer content. This was accompanied by the development of a severe myopathy, evident by a 40% loss in muscle mass as well as extensive myofiber damage as shown by increased DNA synthesis and central nucleation. In addition, PSD knockdown caused marked accumulation of abnormally appearing mitochondria that exhibited severely disrupted inner membrane integrity and reduced OXPHOS protein content. CONCLUSIONS:The PSD pathway has a significant role in maintaining phospholipid homeostasis in adult skeletal muscle. Moreover, PSD is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and skeletal muscle mass.
Project description:The effects of calmodulin antagonists on the secretion of lysosomal enzyme and lipid metabolism in guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages were studied. Calmodulin antagonists, such as trifluoperazine, dibucaine and quinacrine, inhibited the secretion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase from cytochalasin B-treated macrophages when the macrophages were stimulated by the chemotactic peptide, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f Met-Leu-Phe) or the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. The effect of calmodulin antagonists on the incorporation of [(32)P]P(i) or [(3)H]glycerol into glycerolipids as well as on the redistribution of [(14)C]glycerol or [(3)H]arachidonic acid in [(14)C]glycerol- or [(3)H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled lipids were examined. Trifluoperazine, dibucaine or quinacrine stimulated [(32)P]P(i) incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PtdA) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) without significant effect on the labelling of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PtdCho) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (lyso-PtdEtn). The incorporation of [(32)P]P(i) into phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was, on the contrary, inhibited. When calmodulin antagonists were added to macrophages stimulated by fMet-Leu-Phe, [(32)P]P(i) incorporation into PtdIns and PtdA was synergistically increased compared with that induced only by calmodulin antagonists. Trifluoperazine inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]glycerol into PtdCho, triacylglycerol and PtdEtn. Also in this case, the incorporation of [(3)H]glycerol into PtdA and PtdIns was greatly enhanced. But [(3)H]glycerol incorporation into PtdSer, lyso-PtdEtn and lyso-PtdCho was not affected by the drug. On the other hand, diacylglycerol labelling with [(3)H]glycerol was maximally activated by 10mum-trifluoperazine and levelled off with the increasing concentration. When the effect of calmodulin antagonists on the redistribution of [(14)C]glycerol among lipids was examined in pulse-chase experiments, no significant effect on [(14)C]glycerol redistribution in PtdEtn, PtdCho, PtdIns, PtdSer, PtdA and tri- and di-acylglycerol could be detected. When macrophages prelabelled with [(3)H]arachidonic acid were treated with trifluoperazine, dibucaine or quinacrine, the [(3)H]arachidonic acid moiety in PtdEtn and PtdCho was decreased and that in PtdA was increased. The formation of [arachidonate-(3)H]diacylglycerol and non-esterified [(3)H]-arachidonic acid was also enhanced, but the increase in [(3)H]arachidonic acid was only observed at concentrations between 1 and 50mum. [Arachidonate-(3)H]PtdIns was not significantly affected. The activated formation of [arachidonate-(3)H]PtdA, diacylglycerol and non-esterified arachidonic acid by these drugs was synergistically enhanced in the presence of fMet-Leu-Phe.
Project description:The effects of phospholipid vesicles and their fatty acid compositions on the acceleration of Protein C activation by thrombin-thrombomodulin was studied in vitro. Four main phospholipid fractions were prepared from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and purified thrombomodulin from human placenta was reconstituted into vesicles consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) alone, PtdCho plus phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), PtdCho plus phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and PtdCho plus PtdIns (1:1, w/w in each case). Vesicles of PtdCho, PtdIns/PtdCho, PtdSer/PtdCho and PtdEtn/PtdCho increased thrombin-thrombomodulin-catalysed protein C activation by 1.2-, 1.9-, 4.3- and 8.4-fold respectively compared with that in the absence of phospholipid. This Protein C activation was not affected by distearoyl PtdEtn/distearoyl PtdCho, whereas it was markedly increased with increasing content of unsaturated fatty acid in PtdEtn. The thrombin-dependent Protein C activation by thrombomodulin reconstituted into dilinolenoyl PtdEtn/distearoyl PtdCho was 14.6 times that by thrombomodulin reconstituted into distearoyl PtdEtn/distearoyl PtdCho, as a result of a decrease in the dissociation constant (Kd) for thrombin and the Michaelis constant (Km) for Protein C of thrombomodulin. Binding of Protein C to PtdEtn/PtdCho fixed to a microwell plate required the presence of CaCl2 and increased with increasing degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in PtdEtn. As PtdEtn appeared on the outside of the plasma membrane in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells after thrombin stimulation, it was presumed that Protein C activation could be elevated by PtdEtn at the outer surface of the plasma membrane via an increased affinity between thrombomodulin, thrombin and Protein C, resulting from both increased formation of the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex via a conformational change in thrombomodulin and increased binding of Protein C to the membrane phospholipid in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.
Project description:The mechanism of import of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) into mitochondria was investigated using a reconstituted system of isolated organelles in vitro in which PtdSer was translocated from donor membranes to mitochondria and was decarboxylated therein. Neither phosphatidylcholine nor phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) was translocated under the same conditions. Transfer of PtdSer from its site of synthesis on the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria-associated membranes [J. E.Vance (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7248-7256] to its site of decarboxylation on mitochondrial inner membranes is predicted to be mediated by membrane contact. A mitochondrial membrane protein appears to be involved in the translocation event since proteolysis of proteins exposed on the mitochondrial surface potently inhibited PtdSer transfer, whereas proteolysis of surface proteins of mitochondria-associated membranes did not impair the transfer. The nature of the membranes that donate PtdSer to mitochondria in vitro is not crucial since PtdSer of mitochondria-associated membranes, endoplasmic reticulum and microsomes was decarboxylated to PtdEtn with approximately equal efficiency. The translocation of PtdSer to mitochondria was stimulated by magnesium and calcium ions and was inhibited by incubation of mitochondria with sulphydryl group-modifying reagents. Reconstitution of PtdSer translocation/decarboxylation using digitonin-solubilized mitochondria and PtdSer-donor membranes suggested that the putative PtdSer-translocation protein is primarily localized to contract sites between mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. These studies provide evidence for the involvement of a mitochondrial membrane protein in the import of newly-synthesized PtdSer into mitochondria.
Project description:Excess fatty acids and sterols are stored as triacylglycerols and sterol esters in specialized cellular organelles, called lipid droplets. Understanding what determines the cellular amount of neutral lipids and their packaging into lipid droplets is of fundamental and applied interest. Using two species of fission yeast, we show that cycling cells deficient in the function of the ER-resident CDP-DG synthase Cds1 exhibit markedly increased triacylglycerol content and assemble large lipid droplets closely associated with the ER membranes. We demonstrate that these unusual structures recruit the triacylglycerol synthesis machinery and grow by expansion rather than by fusion. Our results suggest that interfering with the CDP-DG route of phosphatidic acid utilization rewires cellular metabolism to adopt a triacylglycerol-rich lifestyle reliant on the Kennedy pathway.
Project description:Erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium knowlesi efficiently incorporated radioactive serine into phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Serine was also metabolized into ethanolamine (Etn) and phosphorylethanolamine (P-Etn) via direct serine decarboxylation; this is a major phenomenon since together these metabolites represent 60% of total radioactive water-soluble metabolites. They were identified by reverse-phase HPLC and two TLC-type analyses and confirmed by alkaline phosphatase treatment, which depleted the radioactive P-Etn peak completely with a concomitant increase in that of Etn. In the presence of 5 microM labelled serine, radioactivity appeared in Etn and P-Etn after a 25 min lag period, and isotopic equilibrium was reached at 40 and 95 min respectively. There was a similar lag period for PtdEtn formation, which accumulated steadily for at least 180 min. Incorporation of serine into phospholipids and water-soluble metabolites increased in the presence of up to 500 microM external serine. An apparent plateau was then reached for all metabolites except intracellular serine and Etn. Exogenous Etn (at 20 microM) induced a concomitant dramatic decrease in serine incorporation into P-Etn and all phospholipids, but not into Etn. Increasing exogenous serine to 100 microM decreased the incorporation of radioactive Etn into PtdEtn by only 30%, and the PtdCho level was not affected. 2-Hydroxyethylhydrazine significantly decreased serine incorporation into P-Etn and PtdEtn, whereas Etn was accumulated. No concomitant inhibition of PtdSer or PtdCho labelling from serine occurred, even when PtdEtn formation was decreased by 95%. This indicates that the PtdEtn pool derived from direct serine decarboxylation differed from that derived from PtdSer decarboxylation, and the latter appeared to be preferentially used for PtdCho biosynthesis. Hydroxylamine also inhibited phosphorylation of serine-derived Etn but not that of exogenous Etn. The rate of PtdSer synthesis from 10 microM L-serine was 3.1+/-0.5 and 2.95+/-1.3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells, whereas L-serine decarboxylation accounted for 7.1+/-1.5 and 9.9+/-3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells for P. falciparum and P. knowlesi respectively (means+/-S.E.M.). The serine decarboxylating reaction was not detected in other higher eukaryotic cells such as mouse fibroblasts and human lymphocytes. Finally, these results also indicate compartmentalization of phospholipid metabolism in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes.