Genetic variation in the one-carbon transfer pathway and ovarian cancer risk.
ABSTRACT: Dysfunction in enzymes involved in one-carbon (1-C) metabolism can lead to increased chromosomal strand breaking and abnormal methylation patterns, which are both associated with cancer risk. Availability of 1-C units may modify risk. We investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 21 genes in the 1-C transfer pathway among 829 Caucasian cases with primary epithelial ovarian cancer and 941 frequency-matched unaffected controls enrolled at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) and Duke University (Durham, NC) and examined risk modification by multivitamin supplement use. Multivariable-adjusted SNP-specific logistic regression and haplotype analyses were done for 180 SNPs and false positive report probabilities (FPRP) were calculated. Each copy of the minor allele in SHMT1 intron 5 A>G (rs9909104) was associated with epithelial ovarian cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.0-1.4; P trend = 0.02; FPRP = 0.16] and a 5-SNP SHMT1 haplotype was associated with decreased risk (P = 0.01; FPRP = 0.09). Three SNPs in DNMT3A were associated with risk among multivitamin supplement users: 3' untranslated region (UTR) C>G (rs13420827: OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P interaction = 0.006; FPRP = 0.54), intron 6 G>A (rs11887120: OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-1.0; P interaction = 0.007; FPRP = 0.57), and intron 22 A>T (rs11695471: OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5; P interaction = 0.01; FPRP = 0.66). These data extend previous findings from other cancers of a role for SHMT1 in ovarian cancer, and provide evidence that SNPs in methylation and DNA synthesis reactions are associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Interventions with modifiable factors such as multivitamin intake may reduce risk.
Project description:ATIC, SHMT2, and SLC46A1 have essential roles in one-carbon (1-C) transfer. The authors examined whether associations between ovarian carcinoma and 15 variants in these genes are modified by regular multivitamin use, a source of 1-C donors, among Caucasian participants from two US case-control studies. Using a phased study design, variant-by-multivitamin interactions were tested, and associations between variants and ovarian carcinoma were reported stratified by multivitamin supplement use. Per-allele risk associations were modified by multivitamin use at six variants among 655 cases and 920 controls (Phase 1). In a larger sample of 968 cases and 1,265 controls (Phases 1 and 2), interactions were significant (P???0.03) for two variants, particularly among regular multivitamin users: ATIC rs7586969 [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.6-0.9] and ATIC rs16853834 (OR?=?1.5, 95% CI?=?1.1-2.0). The two ATIC single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) did not share the same haplotype; however, the haplotypes they comprised mirrored their SNP risk associations among regular multivitamin supplement users. A multi-variant analysis was also performed by comparing the observed likelihood ratio test statistic from adjusted models with and without the two ATIC variant-by-multivitamin interaction terms with a null distribution of test statistics generated by permuting case status 10,000 times. The corresponding observed P value of 0.001 was more extreme than the permutation-derived P value of 0.009, suggesting rejection of the null hypothesis of no association. In summary, there is little statistical evidence that the 15 variants are independently associated with risk of ovarian carcinoma. However, the statistical interaction of ATIC variants with regular multivitamin intake, when evaluated at both the SNP and gene level, may support these findings as relevant to ovarian health and disease processes.
Project description:Millions of postmenopausal women use multivitamins, often believing that supplements prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we decided to examine associations between multivitamin use and risk of cancer, CVD, and mortality in postmenopausal women.The study included 161 808 participants from the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials (N = 68 132 in 3 overlapping trials of hormone therapy, dietary modification, and calcium and vitamin D supplements) or an observational study (N = 93 676). Detailed data were collected on multivitamin use at baseline and follow-up time points. Study enrollment occurred between 1993 and 1998; the women were followed up for a median of 8.0 years in the clinical trials and 7.9 years in the observational study. Disease end points were collected through 2005. We documented cancers of the breast (invasive), colon/rectum, endometrium, kidney, bladder, stomach, ovary, and lung; CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism); and total mortality.A total of 41.5% of the participants used multivitamins. After a median of 8.0 years of follow-up in the clinical trial cohort and 7.9 years in the observational study cohort, 9619 cases of breast, colorectal, endometrial, renal, bladder, stomach, lung, or ovarian cancer; 8751 CVD events; and 9865 deaths were reported. Multivariate-adjusted analyses revealed no association of multivitamin use with risk of cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98, and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.05 for breast cancer; HR, 0.99, and 95% CI, 0.88-1.11 for colorectal cancer; HR, 1.05, and 95% CI, 0.90-1.21 for endometrial cancer; HR, 1.0, and 95% CI, 0.88-1.13 for lung cancer; and HR, 1.07, and 95% CI, 0.88-1.29 for ovarian cancer); CVD (HR, 0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-1.03 for myocardial infarction; HR, 0.99, and 95% CI, 0.91-1.07 for stroke; and HR, 1.05, and 95% CI, 0.85-1.29 for venous thromboembolism); or mortality (HR, 1.02, and 95% CI, 0.97-1.07).After a median follow-up of 8.0 and 7.9 years in the clinical trial and observational study cohorts, respectively, the Women's Health Initiative study provided convincing evidence that multivitamin use has little or no influence on the risk of common cancers, CVD, or total mortality in postmenopausal women.
Project description:High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer accounts for 90% of all ovarian cancer-related deaths. However, factors that drive HGS ovarian cancer tumor growth have not been fully elucidated. In particular, comprehensive analysis of the metabolic requirements of ovarian cancer tumor growth has not been performed. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA expression data for HGS ovarian cancer patient samples, we observed that six enzymes of the folic acid metabolic pathway were overexpressed in HGS ovarian cancer samples compared with normal ovary samples. Systematic knockdown of all six genes using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and follow-up functional studies demonstrated that serine hydroxymethyl transferase 1 (SHMT1) was necessary for ovarian cancer tumor growth and cell migration in culture and tumor formation in mice. SHMT1 promoter analysis identified transcription factor Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) binding sites, and WT1 knockdown resulted in reduced SHMT1 transcription in ovarian cancer cells. Unbiased large-scale metabolomic analysis and transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiling identified reduced levels of several metabolites of the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolic pathways, including sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), and downregulation of pro-oncogenic cytokines interleukin-6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8) as unexpected outcomes of SHMT1 loss. Overexpression of either IL-6 or IL-8 partially rescued SHMT1 loss-induced tumor growth inhibition and migration. Supplementation of culture medium with Neu5Ac stimulated expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and rescued the tumor growth and migratory phenotypes of ovarian cancer cells expressing SHMT1 shRNAs. In agreement with the ovarian tumor-promoting role of Neu5Ac, treatment with Neu5Ac-targeting glycomimetic P-3Fax-Neu5Ac blocked ovarian cancer growth and migration. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SHMT1 controls the expression of pro-oncogenic inflammatory cytokines by regulating sialic acid Neu5Ac to promote ovarian cancer tumor growth and migration. Thus, targeting of SHMT1 and Neu5Ac represents a precision therapy opportunity for effective HGS ovarian cancer treatment.
Project description:To evaluate the contribution of candidate gene association studies to the understanding of genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies (January 1996-July 2009). Studies had to meet the following criteria: be case-control design, be studied by two or more studies, not be focused on HLA antigen genetic markers and be published in English. We identified 47 studies of polymorphic variation in 16 genes and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. To clarify the impact of individual polymorphisms on risk, pooled analyses were performed. Of the 25 polymorphic variants studied, significant associations (P<0.05) were seen in pooled analyses for eight variants: GSTM1 (OR =1.16; 95%CI: 1.04-1.30), MTRR A66G (OR=0.73, 95%CI:0.59-0.91), SHMT1 C1420T (OR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.65-0.98), RFC1 G80A (OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.11-1.69), CYP1A1*2A (OR=1.36, 95%CI:1.11-1.66), CYP2E1*5B (OR=1.99, 95%CI:1.32-3.00) NQO1 C609T (OR=1.24, 95%CI:1.02-1.50) and XRCC1 G28152A (OR=1.78, 95%CI:1.32-2.42). These findings should, however, be interpreted with caution as the estimated false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) for each association were not noteworthy (i.e. FPRP>0.2). While candidate gene analyses are complementary to genome-wide association studies, future analyses should be based on sample sizes commensurate with the detection of small effects and attention needs to be paid to study design.
Project description:The enzymes serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (gene name SHMT1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (gene name MTHFR) regulate key reactions in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variants with the potential to influence disease risk exist in both genes. A prior report from the Normative Aging Study indicated no association of the SHMT1 rs1979277 SNP with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a strong gene-gene interaction was detected with MTHFR rs1801133. We investigated the effect of the SHMT1 rs1979277 SNP and the SHMT1 rs1979277-MTHFR rs1801133 interaction in 2 epidemiologic cohort studies. In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), the MTHFR rs1801133 variant genotypes were associated with an increased CVD risk and there was an interaction between SHMT1 and MTHFR such that the association of the MTHFR rs1801133 CT genotype (vs. CC; the TT genotype could not be evaluated) was stronger in the presence of the SHMT1 rs1979277 TT genotype (OR = 4.34, 95% CI = 1.2, 16.2; P = 0.049). In the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, the MTHFR rs1801133 genotype was not associated with CVD risk, nor was there an interaction with SHMT1 rs1979277. The association of genetic variation in the SHMT1 gene, alone and in interaction with MTHFR, in relation to CVD risk is relatively understudied at the population level and results in the NHS confirmed a past report of gene-gene interaction, which is consistent with mechanisms suggested by basic science studies.
Project description:Suboptimal DNA repair capacity is a risk factor for cancer that may be modulated by dietary nutrient intake, and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) participates in folate metabolism and synthesis of purines and pyrimidines needed for DNA repair. Therefore, we tested our hypothesis that genetic variants of the cytosolic SHMT (SHMT1) gene are associated with lung cancer risk. In a hospital-based case-control study of 1032 non-Hispanic white lung cancer patients and 1145 matched cancer-free controls, we genotyped five common SHMT1 polymorphisms either in the promoter, exons, or 3'-untranslated regions. Although the genotype and allele frequency distribution of each SNP did not differ between cases and controls statistically significantly in the single-locus analysis, the rs638416 polymorphism in the promoter alone and the combined putative risk variant genotypes containing rs643333C, rs638416G, rs1979277T, rs3738G, and rs1979276C were associated with altered risk. Those carrying the combined 3+ risk variant genotypes had an increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.05-2.57, compared with those having 0-1 risk genotypes; and OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.01-1.45, compared with those having 0-2 risk genotypes). The risk was more pronounced among older individuals (>61 years) or those having a low total folate intake or a high methionine intake. No evidence of interactions between the putative SHMT risk variant genotypes and the selected variables was found. These results suggest that SHMT1 variants may play a role in the etiology of lung cancer, and our findings need to be verified in larger prospective studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Association between rectal or colon cancer risk and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) C1420T or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms was assessed. The serum total homocysteine (HCY), marker of folate metabolism was also investigated. METHODS: The SHMT1 and MTHFR genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively in 476 patients with rectal, 479 patients with colon cancer and in 461 and 478, respective controls matched for age and sex. Homocysteine levels were determined by HPLC kit. The association between polymorphisms and cancer risk was evaluated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and body mass index. The population stratification bias was also estimated. RESULTS: There was no association of genotypes or diplotypes with colon cancer. The rectal cancer risk was significantly lower for SHMT1 TT (OR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.89) and higher for MTHFR CT genotypes (OR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.06-1.84). A gene-dosage effect was observed for SHMT1 with progressively decreasing risk with increasing number of T allele (p = 0.014). The stratified analysis according to age and sex revealed that the association is mainly present in the younger (< 60 years) or male subgroup. As expected from genotype analysis, the SHMT1 T allele/MTHFR CC diplotype was associated with reduced rectal cancer risk (OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.42-0.77 vs all other diplotypes together). The above results are unlikely to suffer from population stratification bias. In controls HCY was influenced by SHMT1 polymorphism, while in patients it was affected only by Dukes' stage. In patients with Dukes' stage C or D HCY can be considered as a tumor marker only in case of SHMT1 1420CC genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: A protective effect of SHMT1 1420T allele or SHMT1 1420 T allele/MTHFR 677 CC diplotype against rectal but not colon cancer risk was demonstrated. The presence of SHMT1 1420 T allele significantly increases the HCY levels in controls but not in patients. Homocysteine could be considered as a tumor marker in SHMT1 1420 wild-type (CC) CRC patients in Dukes' stage C and D. Further studies need to clarify why SHMT1 and MTHFR polymorphisms are associated only with rectal and not colon cancer risk.
Project description:Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.
Project description:We evaluated 35 variants among four folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism pathway genes, MTHFD1, SHMT1, MTHFR, and DHFR as risk factors for conotruncal heart defects. Cases with a diagnosis of single gene disorders or chromosomal aneusomies were excluded. Controls were randomly selected from area hospitals in proportion to their contribution to the total population of live-born infants. Odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed for each genotype (homozygous variant or heterozygote, vs. homozygous wildtype) and for increase of each less common allele (log-additive model). Interactions between each variant and three folate intake variables (maternal multivitamin use, maternal dietary folate intake, and combined maternal folate intake) were also evaluated under the log-additive model. In general, we did not identify notable associations. The A allele of MTHFD1 rs11627387 was associated with a 1.7-fold increase in conotruncal defects risk in both Hispanic mothers (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5) and Hispanic infants (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3). The T allele of MTHFR rs1801133 was associated with a 2.8-fold increase of risk among Hispanic women whose dietary folate intake was ? 25th centile. The C allele of MTHFR rs1801131 was associated with a two-fold increase of risk (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0-3.9) only among those whose dietary folate intake was >25th centile. Our study suggested that MTHFD1 rs11627387 may be associated with risk of conotruncal defects through both maternal and offspring genotype effect among the Hispanics. Maternal functional variants in MTHFR gene may interact with dietary folate intake and modify the conotruncal defects risk in the offspring.
Project description:Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) is a key enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway that plays an important role in biosynthesis by providing one carbon unit. SHMT1 C1420T may lead to the abnormal biosynthesis involved in DNA synthesis and methylation, and it may eventually increase cancer susceptibility. Many epidemiologic studies have explored the association between C1420T polymorphism and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but the results have been contradictory. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship.The meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of SHMT1 C1420T polymorphism on NHL risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to measure the strength of the association.Eight studies encompassing 3232 cases and 4077 controls were included. A statistically significant association was found between SHMT1 C1420T polymorphism and NHL risk under the allelic comparison (T vs. C: OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17); a borderline association was found between SHMT1 C1420T polymorphism and NHL risk under the homozygote model (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39) and the dominant model (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00-1.21).SHMT1 C1420T polymorphism may be associated with NHL risk, which needs to be validated in large, prospective studies.