Molecular epidemiology and risk factors for nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in infants attending day care centers in Brazil.
ABSTRACT: Investigations regarding Staphylococcus aureus carriage among Brazilian children are scarce. We evaluated the determinants of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in infants attending day care centers (DCCs) and the molecular features of the MRSA strains. A total of 1,192 children aged 2 months to 5 years attending 62 DCCs were screened for S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage. MRSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing and the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors associated with S. aureus and MRSA colonization. S. aureus and MRSA carriage were detected in 371 (31.1%) and 14 (1.2%) children, respectively. Variables found to be independently associated with an increased risk for S. aureus carriage included being older than 24 months (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.6) and previous DCC attendance (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.2). Having a mother with a high level of education was a protective factor for nasal colonization (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.8). Moreover, we observed that more children carrying MRSA had younger siblings than children not colonized by MRSA. Among the 14 MRSA strains, three SCCmec types (IIIA, IV, and V) were detected, together with a multidrug-resistant dominant MRSA lineage sharing 82.7% genetic similarity with the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-IIIA; ST indicates the sequence type determined by multilocus sequence typing). Although SCCmec type V was recovered from one healthy child who had been exposed to known risk factors for hospital-associated MRSA, its genetic background was compatible with community-related MRSA. Our data suggest that DCC attendees could be contributing to MRSA cross-transmission between health care and community settings.
Project description:From July 2005 to October 2006, a total of 3,046 children, of ages between 2 months and 5 years, presented for a well-child health care visit to one of three medical centers, which are located in the northern, central, and southern parts of Taiwan, and were surveyed for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The overall prevalences of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among the children were 23% and 7.3%, respectively (18% and 4.8% in the central region, 25% and 6.7% in the southern region, and 27% and 9.5% in the northern region). Of the 212 MRSA isolates (96%) available for analysis, a total of 10 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns with two major patterns (C [61%] and D [28%]) were identified. One hundred forty-nine isolates (70%) contained type IV staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) DNA, and 55 isolates (26%) contained SCCmec V(T). The presence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes was detected in 60 isolates (28%). Most MRSA isolates belonged to one of two major clones, characterized as sequence type 59 (ST59)/PFGE C/SCCmec IV/absence of PVL genes (59%) and ST59/PFGE D/SCCmec V(T)/presence of PVL genes (25%). We concluded that between 2005 and 2006, 7.3% of healthy Taiwanese children were colonized by MRSA in nares. MRSA harbored in healthy children indicates an accelerated spread in the community.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>People with diabetes mellitus, especially insulin-dependent diabetic patients, are a risk group for staphylococcal infections. Asymptomatic infection with Staphylococcus aureus is common and favors dissemination of the microorganism, rendering these individuals a source of infection. This study aimed to characterize the resistance profile, clonal profile and sequence type, as well as to analyze the prevalence and risk factors for nasal and oropharyngeal carriage of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from insulin-dependent diabetic individuals in the city of Botucatu, SP, Brazil.<h4>Methods</h4>Staphylococcus aureus was collected from the nasopharynx and oropharynx of 312 community-dwelling insulin-dependent diabetic individuals over a period of 3 years (October 2015 to December 2018). The isolates were characterized by susceptibility profiling, detection of the mecA gene, SCCmec typing, and molecular typing by PFGE and MLST. The risk factors associated with S. aureus and MRSA carriage were determined by logistic regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The overall prevalence of colonization with S. aureus and MRSA was 30.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Fifteen of the 112 S. aureus isolates carried the mecA gene; SCCmec type IV was identified in 10 isolates, SCCmec type I in three, and SCCmec type II in two. Among the 15 resistant isolates (MRSA), four were susceptible to oxacillin/cefoxitin by the disc diffusion method and one MSSA isolate was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The analysis of risk factors revealed a protective effect of age and lung disease, while lower-extremity ulcers were a risk factor for S. aureus. For MRSA, only male gender was significantly associated as a risk factor in multivariate analysis. Clonal profile analysis demonstrated the formation of clusters among MRSA isolates from different patients, with the identification of ST5-IV, ST5-I, and ST8-IV. Isolates carrying ST398 were identified among MSSA and MRSA (ST398-IV).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings reinforce the importance of epidemiological studies of S. aureus carriage, especially in populations at high risk of infections such as diabetics. The data suggest widespread dissemination of MRSA in the population of insulin-dependent diabetic patients studied, as well as the emergence of important lineages among these individuals.
Project description:There is limited data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in dental clinics. 1300 specimens from patients, health personnel, and environmental surfaces of a dental clinic in Egypt were tested for MRSA. Antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, SCCmec typing, and PCR-based assays were used to detect mecA, mecC, vanA, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin toxin (PVL), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst) genes. Among 34 mecA-positive MRSA isolates, five (14.7%) were PVL-positive, seventeen (50%) were tst-positive, ten (29.4%) were vanA-positive, while none harboured mecC. MRSA hand carriage rates in patients, nurses, and dentists were 9.8%, 6.6%, and 5%. The respective nasal colonization rates were 11.1%, 6.7%, and 9.7%. 1.3% of the environmental isolates were MRSA-positive. Strong and moderate biofilm-forming isolates represented 23.5% and 29.4% of MRSA isolates. 24 MRSA isolates (70.6%) were multi-resistant and 18 (52.9%) harboured SCCmec IV. Among eight spa types, t223 (26.5%), t267 (23.5%), and t14339 (23.5%) were predominant. We noted an alarming genetic relatedness between 7 (20.6%) MRSA isolates and the epidemic EMRSA-15 clone, as well as a combined occurrence of tst and PVL in 3 (8.8%) isolates. Results suggest high MRSA pathogenicity in dental wards highlighting the need for more efficient surveillance/infection control strategies.
Project description:Background:Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were once confined to hospitals however, in the last 20 years MRSA infections have emerged in the community in people with no prior exposure to hospitals. Strains causing such infections were novel and referred to as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). The aim of this study was to determine the MRSA carriage rate in children in eastern Uganda, and to investigate coexistence between CA-MRSA and hospital-associated (HA-MRSA). Methods:Between February and October 2011, nasopharyngeal samples (one per child) from 742 healthy children under 5 years in rural eastern Uganda were processed for isolation of MRSA, which was identified based on inhibition zone diameter of ≤19 mm on 30 μg cefoxitin disk. SCCmec and spa typing were performed for MRSA isolates. Results:A total of 140 S. aureus isolates (18.9%, 140/742) were recovered from the children of which 5.7% (42/742) were MRSA. Almost all (95.2%, 40/42) MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). The most prevalent SCCmec elements were types IV (40.5%, 17/42) and I (38.1%, 16/42). The overall frequency of SCCmec types IV and V combined, hence CA-MRSA, was 50% (21/42). Likewise, the overall frequency of SCCmec types I, II and III combined, hence HA-MRSA, was 50% (21/42). Spa types t002, t037, t064, t4353 and t12939 were detected and the most frequent were t064 (19%, 8/42) and t037 (12%, 5/42). Conclusion:The MRSA carriage rate in children in eastern Uganda is high (5.7%) and comparable to estimates for Mulago Hospital in Kampala city. Importantly, HA-MRSA (mainly of spa type t037) and CA-MRSA (mainly of spa type t064) coexist in children in the community in eastern Uganda, and due to high proportion of MDR detected, outpatient treatment of MRSA infection in eastern Uganda might be difficult.
Project description:Objective:Mastitis is considered as an economically important disease of dairy buffaloes in Asia. This study examined the mastitis milk and nasal swab samples for the detection and genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in water buffaloes. Materials and Methods:Staphylococcus aureus was identified based on biochemical tests and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection of nuc gene, whereas MRSA on mecA gene. The disc diffusion test was used to determine the antibiotic resistance and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), spa, and multilocus sequence typing for the genotyping of isolates. Results:Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 39/93 milk (41.94%) and 27/384 nasal swab (7.03%) samples. However, only nine isolates (23.08%) harbored the mecA gene from milk samples and three isolates (11.11%) from the nasal carriage. All MRSA isolates exhibited resistance to cefoxitin and penicillin, whereas 50% were found resistant to clindamycin. All these isolates were found susceptible to sulfa-trimethoprim and chloramphenicol, whereas the majority of the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and rifampicin. The SCCmec types of the MRSA isolates were type IVc (50.00%), type II (8.33%), type I (8.33%), and non-typeable (33.33%). The spa types and sequence type (ST) identified were t019 (ST30), t701 (ST1649), t311 (ST5), t657 (ST1148), t015 (ST508), t1939 (ST12), t800 (ST9), t091 (ST2454), t138 (ST5991), and t1642 (ST5992). Conclusion:Milk and nasal swab samples from dairy water buffaloes were found positive for MRSA. The MRSA isolates were still susceptible to most antibiotics tested. Moreover, the genotypes of some MRSA isolates were found similar to some human MRSA strains, suggesting a possible human to animal transmission.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Staphylococcus aureus carriage is a known risk factor for staphylococcal disease. However, the carriage rates vary by country, demographic group and profession. This study aimed to determine the S. aureus carriage rate in children in Eastern Uganda, and identify S. aureus lineages that cause infection in Uganda.<h4>Methods</h4>Nasopharyngeal samples from 742 healthy children less than 5?years residing in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda were processed for isolation of S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility testing based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was determined by the BD Phoenix™ system. Genotyping was performed by spa and SCCmec typing.<h4>Results</h4>The processed samples yielded 144?S. aureus isolates (one per child) therefore, the S. aureus carriage rate in children was 19.4% (144/742). Thirty one percent (45/144) of the isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA) yielding a carriage rate of 6.1% (45/742). All isolates were susceptible to rifampicin, vancomycin and linezolid. Moreover, all MRSA were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and clindamycin. Compared to methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates (68.8%, 99/144), MRSA isolates were more resistant to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials -trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 73.3% (33/45) vs. 27.3% (27/99) [p?<?0.0001]; erythromycin 75.6% (34/45) vs. 24.2% (24/99) [p?<?0.0001]; chloramphenicol 60% (27/45) vs. 19.2% (19/99) [p?<?0.0001]; gentamicin 55.6% (25/45) vs. 25.3% (25/99) [p?=?0.0004]; and ciprofloxacin 35.6% (16/45) vs. 2% (2/99) [p?<?0.0001]. Furthermore, 42 MRSA (93.3%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and one exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin. Overall, 61 MSSA (61.6%) were MDR, including three mupirocin and clindamycin resistant isolates. Seven spa types were detected among MRSA, of which t037 and t064 were predominant and associated with SCCmec types I and IV, respectively. Fourteen spa types were detected in MSSA which consisted mainly of t645 and t4353.<h4>Conclusions</h4>S. aureus carriage rate in healthy children in Eastern Uganda is high and comparable to rates for hospitalized patients in Kampala. The detection of mupirocin resistance is worrying as it could rapidly increase if mupirocin is administered in a low-income setting. S. aureus strains of spa types t064, t037 (MRSA) and t645, t4353 (MSSA) are prevalent and could be responsible for majority of staphylococcal infections in Uganda.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring the type-IX staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) has been found in pigs and humans in Northern Thailand. However, knowledge of the prevalence and acquisition risk factors of this MRSA strain among swine production personnel (SPP) are needed. The nasal swab samples and data were collected from 202 voluntary SPP and 31 swine farms in Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces, Thailand in 2017. MRSA were screened and identified using mannitol salt agar, biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multiplex PCR, and the SCCmec typing. The prevalence of MRSA was 7.9% (16/202) and 19.3% (6/31) among SPP and swine farms. All isolates were multidrug-resistant, and 55 of 59 isolates (93%) contained the type-IX SCCmec element. Data analysis indicated that education, working time, contact frequency, working solely with swine production, and personal hygiene were significantly related to MRSA acquisition (p < 0.05). The multivariate analysis revealed that pig farming experience, working days, and showering were good predictors for MRSA carriage among SPP (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.84). The biosecurity protocols and tetracycline use were significantly associated with MRSA detection in pig farms (p < 0.05). Hence, the active surveillance of MRSA and further development of local/national intervention for MRSA control are essential.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:There is a paucity of data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemiology among Balkan countries. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of nasal and pharyngeal carriages and diversity of MRSA among patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in the major referral centre in Serbia, and to evaluate performance of three different media for MRSA screening. METHODS:Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 195 patients and 105 HCWs in Emergency Department (ED), Surgical Department (SD) and Medical Department (MD). After broth enrichment, samples were inoculated onto MRSA-ID, ORSA and oxacillin-MSA and incubated for 24/48 hours. Characterisation of isolated MRSA strains was determined by MLVA, spa, SCCmec and agr typing, PVL genes detection and antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS:MRSA carriage prevalence was 11.8% in patients and 7.6% in HCWs. Introduction of pharyngeal swabs in screening procedure increased MRSA carriage rate by over 30%. Variable found to be independently associated with an increased risk for MRSA carriage was ED (odd ratio (OR) = 4.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78-11.14). A higher risk of multidrug-resistant MRSA carriage was observed among patients (OR = 22; 95% CI 1.92-251.54). CC5-MRSA-SCCmecI was the dominant clone among patients and HCWs in ED and MD, while high genetic diversity of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) was shown in SD especially among HCWs. MRSA-ID was superior to the other tested media with a sensitivity/specificity of 95.2% and 99.6% after 48 hours of incubation. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate high MRSA carriage rate in the hospital and emergence of CA-MRSA through HCWs in these settings. MRSA-ID was the optimal available choice for MRSA screening.
Project description:Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is one of the most common food-borne diseases in the world. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing methods were used to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food surveillance during 2013-2015 in southwest China, and Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was used for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Isolates were also examined for their antibiotic resistance and carriage of virulence genes.Isolation rate of S. aureus was 2.60% during the three years' surveillance and 29.50% of them were MRSA. All the S. aureus had hla genes (100%), 14.34% of the strains had tst, and 16.73% had PVL. 163 PFGE-SmaI patterns, 41 ST types and 36 spa types were obtained for all the S. aureus. Among them, ST6-t701 (13.15%), ST7-t091 (12.75%), ST59-t437 (9.96%) and ST5-t002 (7.57%) were the prevalent genotypes. Most of MRSA in this study belonged to SCCmec IV and V, accounted for 74.32% and 20.27% respectively. ST6-SCCmec IV-t701 (36.50%) was the most prevalent clone among isolates from food, followed by ST59-SCCmec V-t437 (20.30%), ST5-SCCmec IV-t002 (12.20%) and ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 (12.20%). Some strains had the identical PFGE patterns, ST and spa types with isolates from patients.S. aureus isolated from food in southwest China displayed heterogeneity. Isolates had the same genotype profiles with isolates from patients, indicating high homology.
Project description:Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear.We investigated ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households.In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), absence of scn (putative marker of livestock association), and spa type.S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO (53%) compared with CR (31%) adults [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.83], but MRSA nasal carriage prevalence was uncommon (2-3%) in IHO and CR adults. MDRSA nasal carriage prevalence was similar among IHO workers and CR adults (12% vs. 8%; aPR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.29). Nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO compared with CR children for S. aureus (49% vs. 31%; aPR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.99), MRSA (14% vs. 6%; aPR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.14, 4.92), and MDRSA (23% vs. 8%; aPR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.75). We also found suggestive evidence of a higher prevalence of S. aureus, MRSA, and MDRSA among children living with an IHO worker who did versus did not report taking personal protective equipment (PPE) home from the IHO. Livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage predominated among IHO workers.Our findings support the importance of further research on the prevalence and potential sources of exposure to ABR S. aureus among children living with IHO workers.