A homozygous p.Glu150Lys mutation in the opsin gene of two Pakistani families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify the gene mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in Pakistani families. METHODS: A cohort of consanguineous families with typical RP phenotype in patients was screened by homozygosity mapping using microsatellite markers that mapped close to 21 known arRP genes and five arRP loci. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the candidate gene. RESULTS: In two families, RP21 and RP53, homozygosity mapping suggested RHO, the gene encoding rhodopsin, as a candidate disease gene on chromosome 3q21. In six out of seven affected members from the two families, direct sequencing of RHO identified a homozygous c.448G>A mutation resulting in the p.Glu150Lys amino acid change. This variant was first reported in PMK197, an Indian arRP family. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in RP21, RP53, and PMK197 showed a common disease-associated haplotype in the three families. CONCLUSIONS: In two consanguineous Pakistani families with typical arRP phenotype in the patients, we identified a disease-causing mutation (p.Glu150Lys) in the RHO gene. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis suggests that the previously reported Indian family (PMK197) and the two Pakistani families studied here share the RHO p.Glu150Lys mutation due to a common ancestry.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To investigate the genetic basis of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in two consanguineous/ endogamous Pakistani families.<h4>Methods</h4>Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on genomic DNA samples of patients with arRP to identify disease causing mutations. Sanger sequencing was performed to confirm familial segregation of identified mutations, and potential pathogenicity was determined by predictions of the mutations' functions.<h4>Results</h4>A novel homozygous frameshift mutation [NM_000440.2:c.1054delG, p. (Gln352Argfs*4); Chr5:g.149286886del (GRCh37)] in the <i>PDE6A</i> gene in an endogamous family and a novel homozygous splice site mutation [NM_033100.3:c.1168-1G>A, Chr10:g.85968484G>A (GRCh37)] in the <i>CDHR1</i> gene in a consanguineous family were identified. The <i>PDE6A</i> variant p. (Gln352Argfs*4) was predicted to be deleterious or pathogenic, whilst the <i>CDHR1</i> variant c.1168-1G>A was predicted to result in potential alteration of splicing.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study expands the spectrum of genetic variants for arRP in Pakistani families.
Project description:Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are retinal degenerative diseases which cause severe retinal dystrophy affecting the photoreceptors. LCA is predominantly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and contributes to 5% of all retinal dystrophies; whereas RP is inherited by all the Mendelian pattern of inheritance and both are leading causes of visual impairment in children and young adults. Homozygosity mapping is an efficient strategy for mapping both known and novel disease loci in recessive conditions, especially in a consanguineous mating, exploiting the fact that the regions adjacent to the disease locus will also be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. Here we have studied eleven consanguineous LCA and one autosomal recessive RP (arRP) south Indian families to know the prevalence of mutations in known genes and also to know the involvement of novel loci, if any. Complete ophthalmic examination was done for all the affected individuals including electroretinogram, fundus photograph, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 250K HMA GeneChip on eleven LCA families followed by screening of candidate gene(s) in the homozygous block identified mutations in ten families; AIPL1 - 3 families, RPE65- 2 families, GUCY2D, CRB1, RDH12, IQCB1 and SPATA7 in one family each, respectively. Six of the ten (60%) mutations identified are novel. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 10K HMA GeneChip on the arRP family identified a novel nonsense mutation in MERTK. The mutations segregated within the family and was absent in 200 control chromosomes screened. In one of the eleven LCA families, the causative gene/mutation was not identified but many homozygous blocks were noted indicating that a possible novel locus/gene might be involved. The genotype and phenotype features, especially the fundus changes for AIPL1, RPE65, CRB1, RDH12 genes were as reported earlier.
Project description:PURPOSE: Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease resulting in progressive loss of photoreceptors that leads to blindness. To date, 36 genes are known to cause arRP, rendering the molecular diagnosis a challenge. The aim of this study was to use homozygosity mapping to identify the causative mutation in a series of inbred families with arRP. METHODS: arRP patients underwent standard ophthalmic examination, Goldman perimetry, fundus examination, retinal OCT, autofluorescence measurement, and full-field electroretinogram. Fifteen consanguineous families with arRP excluded for USH2A and EYS were genotyped on 250 K SNP arrays. Homozygous regions were listed, and known genes within these regions were PCR sequenced. Familial segregation and mutation analyzes were performed. RESULTS: We found ten mutations, seven of which were novel mutations in eight known genes, including RP1, IMPG2, NR2E3, PDE6A, PDE6B, RLBP1, CNGB1, and C2ORF71, in ten out of 15 families. The patients carrying RP1, C2ORF71, and IMPG2 mutations presented with severe RP, while those with PDE6A, PDE6B, and CNGB1 mutations were less severely affected. The five families without mutations in known genes could be a source of identification of novel genes. CONCLUSIONS: Homozygosity mapping combined with systematic screening of known genes results in a positive molecular diagnosis in 66.7% of families.
Project description:Mutations in the FAM161A gene have been reported in association with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in several ethnic populations. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of FAM161A-related retinopathy in a British cohort and to characterise the phenotype associated with mutations in this gene.The FAM161A coding region and intron-exon boundaries were screened by Sanger sequencing in 120 retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients (with likely autosomal recessive inheritance) in whom mutations in other known major RP genes have been ruled out by commercially available testing. Homozygosity mapping was performed in one consanguineous family, and high-throughput sequencing of candidate genes was performed to identify disease-associated changes. Clinical assessment of affected individuals included perimetry testing, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and optical coherence tomography.Two patients of British origin with a homozygous mutation in FAM161A (c.1309A>T, p.Arg437*) were identified by Sanger sequencing. Homozygosity mapping and subsequent high-throughput sequencing analysis identified a further family of Pakistani origin with the same genotype. Clinical examination of affected members of these families revealed that this mutation was associated with a diverse clinical phenotype, ranging from mild disease with preservation of central acuity to severe visual impairment.Homozygosity for the c.1309A>T, p.Arg437* variant in FAM161A is a relatively common cause of arRP. The mutation occurs in diverse ethnic populations, associated with typical retinitis pigmentosa with disease onset usually in the second or third decade of life.
Project description:Inherited retinal dystrophies are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous. This extensive heterogeneity poses a challenge when performing molecular diagnosis of patients, especially in developing countries. In this study, we applied homozygosity mapping as a tool to reduce the complexity given by genetic heterogeneity and identify disease-causing variants in consanguineous Pakistani pedigrees. DNA samples from eight families with autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies were subjected to genome wide homozygosity mapping (seven by SNP arrays and one by STR markers) and genes comprised within the detected homozygous regions were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. All families displayed consistent autozygous genomic regions. Sequence analysis of candidate genes identified four previously-reported mutations in CNGB3, CNGA3, RHO, and PDE6A, as well as three novel mutations: c.2656C?>?T (p.L886F) in RPGRIP1, c.991G?>?C (p.G331R) in CNGA3, and c.413-1G?>?A (IVS6-1G?>?A) in CNGB1. This latter mutation impacted pre-mRNA splicing of CNGB1 by creating a -1 frameshift leading to a premature termination codon. In addition to better delineating the genetic landscape of inherited retinal dystrophies in Pakistan, our data confirm that combining homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequencing is a powerful approach for mutation identification in populations where consanguineous unions are common.
Project description:Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disease that causes blindness. Our purpose was to identify the causal gene, describe the phenotype and delineate the mutation spectrum in a consanguineous Quebec arRP family. We performed Arrayed Primer Extension (APEX) technology to exclude ?500 arRP mutations in ?20 genes. Homozygosity mapping [single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping] identified 10 novel significant homozygous regions. We performed next generation sequencing and whole exome capture. Sanger sequencing provided cosegregation. We screened another 150 retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and 200 patients with Senior-Løken Syndrome (SLS). We identified a novel missense mutation in WDR19, c.2129T>C which lead to a p.Leu710Ser. We found the same mutation in a second Quebec arRP family. Interestingly, two of seven affected members of the original family developed 'sub-clinical' renal cysts. We hypothesized that more severe WDR19 mutations may lead to severe ciliopathies and found seven WDR19 mutations in five SLS families. We identified a new gene for both arRP and SLS. WDR19 is a ciliary protein associated with the intraflagellar transport machinery. We are currently investigating the full extent of the mutation spectrum. Our findings are crucial in expanding the understanding of childhood blindness and identifying new genes.
Project description:PURPOSE: To describe two novel mutations in the eyes shut homolog (EYS) gene in two families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) from Pakistan and Indonesia. METHODS: Genome-wide linkage and homozygosity mapping were performed using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis in affected members of the two arRP families. Sequence analysis was performed to identify genetic changes in protein coding exons of EYS. RESULTS: In the Indonesian and Pakistani families, homozygous regions encompassing the EYS gene at 6q12 were identified, with maximum LOD scores of 1.8 and 3.6, respectively. Novel missense variants in the EYS gene (p.D2767Y and p.D3028Y) were found in the Pakistani and Indonesian families, respectively, that co-segregate with the disease phenotype. Interestingly, the missense variants are located at the same homologous position within the fourth and fifth laminin A G-like domains of EYS. CONCLUSIONS: To date, mostly protein-truncating mutations have been described in EYS, while only few patients have been described with pathogenic compound heterozygous missense mutations. The mutations p.D2767Y and p.D3028Y described in this study affect highly conserved residues at homologous positions in laminin A G-like domains and support the notion that missense mutations in EYS can cause arRP.
Project description:PURPOSE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP; MIM 268000) is a hereditary disease characterized by poor night vision and progressive loss of photoreceptors, eventually leading to blindness. This degenerative process primarily affects peripheral vision due to the loss of rods. Autosomal recessive RP (arRP) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. It has been associated with mutations in different genes, including CRB1 (crumbs homolog 1). The aim of this study was to determine the causative gene in a Tunisian patient with arRP born to non-consanguineous parents. METHODS: Four accessible family members were included. They underwent full ophthalmic examination with best-corrected Snellen visual acuity, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Haplotype analysis was used to evaluate homozygosity in the family to 20 arRP loci. All exons and intron-exon junctions of candidate genes not excluded by haplotype analysis were PCR amplified and directly sequenced. RESULTS: The proband was a 43-year-old female patient. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/63 (right eye) and 20/80 (left eye). Visual loss began during the third decade. Funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography revealed typical advanced RP changes with bone spicule-like pigment deposits in the posterior pole and the midperiphery along with retinal atrophy, narrowing of the vessels, and waxy optic discs. Haplotype analysis revealed homozygosity with microsatellite markers D1S412 and D1S413 on chromosome 1q31.3. These markers flanked CRB1. Our results excluded linkage of all the other arRP loci/genes tested. Sequencing of the 12 coding exons and splice sites of CRB1 disclosed a homozygous missense mutation in exon 7 at nucleotide c. 2291G>A, resulting in an arginine to histidine substitution (p.R764H). CONCLUSIONS: R764H is a novel mutation associated with CRB1-related arRP. Previously, an R764C mutation was reported. Extending the mutation spectrum of CRB1 with additional families is important for genotype-phenotype correlations and characterization of the scope of mutation.
Project description:To identify the disease-causing genes in families with autosomal recessive RP (ARRP).Families were screened for homozygosity at candidate gene loci followed by screening of the selected gene for pathogenic mutations if homozygosity was present at a given locus. A total of 34 families were included, of which 24 were consanguineous. Twenty-three genes were selected for screening. The presence of homozygosity was assessed by genotyping flanking microsatellite markers at each locus in affected individuals. Mutations were detected by sequencing of coding regions of genes. Sequence changes were tested for presence in 100 or more unrelated normal control subjects and for cosegregation in family members.Homozygosity was detected at one or more loci in affected individuals of 10 of 34 families. Homozygous disease cosegregating sequence changes (two frame-shift, two missense, and one nonsense; four novel) were found in the TULP1, RLBP1, ABCA4, RPE65, and RP1 genes in 5 of 10 families. These changes were absent in 100 normal control subjects. In addition, several polymorphisms and novel variants were found. All the putative pathogenic changes were associated with severe forms of RP with onset in childhood. Associated macular degeneration was found in three families with mutations in TULP1, ABCA4, and RP1 genes.Novel mutations were found in different ARRP genes. Mutations were detected in approximately 15% (5/34) of ARRP families tested, suggesting involvement of other genes in the remaining families.
Project description:To identify the genetic origins of autosomal recessive congenital cataracts (arCC) in the Pakistani population.Based on the hypothesis that most arCC patients in consanguineous families in the Punjab areas of Pakistan should be homozygous for causative mutations, affected individuals were screened for homozygosity of nearby highly informative microsatellite markers and then screened for pathogenic mutations by DNA sequencing. A total of 83 unmapped consanguineous families were screened for mutations in 33 known candidate genes.Patients in 32 arCC families were homozygous for markers near at least 1 of the 33 known CC genes. Sequencing the included genes revealed homozygous cosegregating sequence changes in 10 families, 2 of which had the same variation. These included five missense, one nonsense, two frame shift, and one splice site mutations, eight of which were novel, in EPHA2, FOXE3, FYCO1, TDRD7, MIP, GALK1, and CRYBA4.The above results confirm the usefulness of homozygosity mapping for identifying genetic defects underlying autosomal recessive disorders in consanguineous families. In our ongoing study of arCC in Pakistan, including 83 arCC families that underwent homozygosity mapping, 3 mapped using genome-wide linkage analysis in unpublished data, and 30 previously reported families, mutations were detected in approximately 37.1% (43/116) of all families studied, suggesting that additional genes might be responsible in the remaining families. The most commonly mutated gene was FYCO1 (14%), followed by CRYBB3 (5.2%), GALK1 (3.5%), and EPHA2 (2.6%). This provides the first comprehensive description of the genetic architecture of arCC in the Pakistani population.