Efficacy and tolerability of bimatoprost versus travoprost in patients previously on latanoprost: a 3-month, randomised, masked-evaluator, multicentre study.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of replacing latanoprost with another prostaglandin analogue (PGA) in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension requiring additional intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering while on latanoprost.Prospective, randomised, investigator-masked, multicentre clinical trial. Patients on latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy requiring additional IOP lowering discontinued latanoprost and were randomised to bimatoprost 0.03% (n = 131) or travoprost 0.004% (n = 135). IOP was measured at latanoprost-treated baseline and after 1 month and 3 months of replacement therapy.Baseline mean diurnal IOP on latanoprost was similar between groups. The mean diurnal IOP was significantly lower with bimatoprost than with travoprost at 1 month (p = 0.009) and 3 months (p = 0.024). Overall, 22.0% of bimatoprost patients versus 12.1% of travoprost patients achieved a > or =15% reduction in diurnal IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline at both months 1 and 3 (p = 0.033). At month 3, the additional mean diurnal IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was 2.1 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.5) mm Hg (11.0%) with bimatoprost and 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.8) mm Hg (7.4%) with travoprost (p = 0.024). At 3 months, 11.5% of bimatoprost and 16.5% of travoprost patients demonstrated a > or =1-grade increase in physician-graded conjunctival hyperaemia (p = 0.288). Hyperaemia was reported as a treatment-related adverse event in 3.1% of bimatoprost and 1.5% of travoprost patients (p = 0.445).Patients on latanoprost requiring lower IOP achieved a greater additional short-term diurnal IOP reduction when latanoprost was replaced by bimatoprost compared with travoprost. Low rates of hyperaemia were observed in patients treated with bimatoprost or travoprost after switching from latanoprost.
Project description:For primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), laser treatment or surgery is used when the target intraocular pressure (IOP) cannot be achieved by pharmacological agents, such as prostaglandin (PG) analogs; these drugs also have varied effects. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 74 POAG patients (74 eyes) whose IOP was inadequately controlled by PG analogs (bimatoprost [13 eyes], latanoprost [34 eyes], tafluprost [11 eyes], and travoprost [16 eyes]) and underwent primary trabeculectomy. The proportion of patients with no recurrent IOP elevation within 24 months post-trabeculectomy was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the bimatoprost group (31.3%) than in the latanoprost (83.2%), tafluprost (45.5%), or travoprost groups (65.6%). Deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus (DUES) was observed before trabeculectomy in 18 of 74 eyes (24.3%) treated with bimatoprost (9 eyes; 50.0%), latanoprost (3 eyes; 16.7%), tafluprost (1 eye; 5.5%) and travoprost (5 eyes; 27.8%). The proportion of patients with no recurrent IOP elevation up to 24 months post-trabeculectomy was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower in the DUES(+) group (34.7%) than in the DUES(-) group (74.3%). Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, with no recurrent IOP elevation used as dependent variable, and bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost, β-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, brimonidine, gender, age, preoperative IOP, mean deviation, duration of PG analog use before surgery, and the number of ophthalmic solutions used as independent variables, identified only bimatoprost as a significant independent factor (P = 0.0368). Thus, the outcome of trabeculectomy varied depending on the PG analog used preoperatively, and bimatoprost use was associated with a high risk of recurrent IOP elevation up to 2 years post-trabeculectomy. This may indicate that the incidence of DUES differed with the PG analog used. Patients with glaucoma who are treated with bimatoprost should be monitored for DUES, and when these patients undergo trabeculectomy, the postoperative course of IOP should be followed carefully.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. METHODS:Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ?20 mmHg after ?30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented. RESULTS:Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm. CONCLUSION:Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP lowering and maintain monotherapy by replacing latanoprost with bimatoprost. Reductions in IOP from latanoprost baseline were larger with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03%, and bimatoprost 0.01% had a more favorable tolerability profile.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is used to preserve several topical, intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering glaucoma medications but can cause tolerability concerns that may lead to decreased adherence to treatment and ultimately diminish the effectiveness of IOP control. The study aimed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of BAK-free travoprost preserved with polyquaternium-1 in glaucoma patients switched from BAK-preserved latanoprost or bimatoprost. METHODS:This 12-week, open-label study was conducted in Europe between December 2011 and February 2013. We enrolled adult patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were receiving BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or bimatoprost 0.01% and, in the opinion of the investigator, would benefit from transition to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 because of tolerability concerns. Assessments included IOP, proportion of patients with IOP ?18 mmHg, ocular surface status, hyperemia, patient treatment preference, and adherence. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. RESULTS:Of the 202 patients screened, 187 patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (mean age, 66.6 years; range, 19-90 years). The mean IOP significantly reduced from baseline (17.0 mmHg) to week 6 (mean change, -1.17 mmHg; P<0.001) and week 12 (-1.16 mmHg; P<0.001). At week 12, more patients achieved IOP ?18 mmHg (81.2% versus 73.3% at baseline), and ocular surface disease severity improved from baseline to week 12. Most patients preferred BAK-free travoprost (74.9%) versus their previous medication and were very confident in their adherence (84.1%). Reduced visual acuity and eye pruritus were the most common adverse events (2.5% each). CONCLUSION:BAK-free travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 was efficacious and well tolerated and may be an advantageous prostaglandin analog option for patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are intolerant to BAK-preserved latanoprost or bimatoprost.
Project description:PurposeTo determine whether intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering with fixed-combination brinzolamide/brimonidine (BBFC) adjunctive to a prostaglandin analog (PGA) was superior to that of vehicle+PGA in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were inadequately controlled with PGA monotherapyMethodsThis 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group trial was conducted at 30 clinical sites in the United States between October 2013 and May 2014. Eligible patients were adults with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and with mean IOP ?21 and <32?mm?Hg, whereas receiving an open-label PGA (latanoprost, bimatoprost, or travoprost). Patients instilled a PGA once-daily in a run-in phase before randomization to masked BBFC or vehicle adjunctive treatment. Masked treatments were instilled 3 times daily for 6 weeks, and patients continued once-daily use of their PGA. The primary efficacy end point was the between-group difference in mean diurnal IOP (average of 0800, 1000, 1500, and 1700 hours time points) at week 6.ResultsAt week 6, mean diurnal IOP with BBFC+PGA was lower than with vehicle+PGA (17.1±0.4?mm?Hg vs 20.5±0.4?mm?Hg; between-group difference, -3.4±0.5?mm?Hg; P<0.0001; 95% confidence interval, -4.5 to -2.4?mm?Hg). BBFC+PGA reduced mean diurnal IOP by 5.7?mm?Hg (25%) from the baseline IOP achieved with PGA monotherapy.ConclusionsTherapy with BBFC produced an additive IOP-lowering effect compared with a PGA alone or in conjunction with vehicle. BBFC may provide an effective treatment option for patients receiving PGA monotherapy who require additional IOP reduction.
Project description:TOPIC:Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide and the most common cause of irreversible sight loss. The objective is to assess the comparative effectiveness of first-line medical treatments in patients with POAG or ocular hypertension through a systematic review and network meta-analysis, and to provide relative rankings of these treatments. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Treatment for POAG currently relies completely on lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP). Although topical drops, lasers, and surgeries can be considered in the initial treatment of glaucoma, most patients elect to start treatment with eye drops. METHODS:We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a single active topical medication with no treatment/placebo or another single topical medication. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Food and Drug Administration's website. Two individuals independently assessed trial eligibility, abstracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed Bayesian network meta-analyses. RESULTS:We included 114 RCTs with data from 20 275 participants. The overall risk of bias of the included trials is mixed. The mean reductions (95% credible intervals) in IOP in millimeters of mercury at 3 months ordered from the most to least effective drugs were as follows: bimatoprost 5.61 (4.94; 6.29), latanoprost 4.85 (4.24; 5.46), travoprost 4.83 (4.12; 5.54), levobunolol 4.51 (3.85; 5.24), tafluprost 4.37 (2.94; 5.83), timolol 3.70 (3.16; 4.24), brimonidine 3.59 (2.89; 4.29), carteolol 3.44 (2.42; 4.46), levobetaxolol 2.56 (1.52; 3.62), apraclonidine 2.52 (0.94; 4.11), dorzolamide 2.49 (1.85; 3.13), brinzolamide 2.42 (1.62; 3.23), betaxolol 2.24 (1.59; 2.88), and unoprostone 1.91 (1.15; 2.67). CONCLUSIONS:All active first-line drugs are effective compared with placebo in reducing IOP at 3 months. Bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost are among the most efficacious drugs, although the within-class differences were small and may not be clinically meaningful. All factors, including adverse effects, patient preferences, and cost, should be considered in selecting a drug for a given patient.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The efficacy of lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and safety of switching to travoprost/timolol fixed combination ophthalmic solution (Duotrav(®), Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma or ocular hypertension undergoing prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy was investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients treated with travoprost, latanoprost, tafluprost, or bimatoprost for ?3 months and requiring additional medication were switched to Duotrav without washout. Baseline IOP was calculated from measurements at two visits during PGA monotherapy. IOP reductions at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after switching to Duotrav and adverse events were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Of 162 patients enrolled, 157 patients (96.9%) with ?4 weeks of follow-up after switching to Duotrav were analyzed. The mean IOP decreased significantly (baseline = 16.3 ± 3.1 mmHg; 4 weeks = 14.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, 8 weeks = 14.7 ± 3.3 mmHg, 12 weeks = 14.6 ± 3.2 mmHg; all P < 0.0001). When study eyes were divided into three groups according to baseline IOP (?19 mmHg: 33 eyes, 21.0%; ?15 to <19 mmHg: 78 eyes, 49.7%; <15 mmHg: 46 eyes, 29.3%), all groups showed significant IOP reductions (P = 0.0324 ~ P < 0.0001) after switching to Duotrav. Twenty-seven of 166 patients (16.3%) in the safety analysis experienced adverse events and 26/166 patients (15.7%) experienced adverse events, for which a relationship to Duotrav could not be ruled out. Adverse events in five patients led to treatment discontinuation (eye pruritus; eye irritation; increased blood pressure and rash; increased blurred vision; deepening of the eyelid sulcus and blepharoptosis). Twelve weeks after treatment switching, eyelash changes, blepharal pigmentation and deepening of the eyelid sulcus occurred in 42 (26.8%), 29 (18.5%), and 13 (8.3%) cases, respectively, among 157 patients with follow-up. There was no significant worsening from baseline for superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) or conjunctival hyperemia after switching (SPK score: baseline = 0.58 ± 1.31; 12 weeks = 0.92 ± 1.76, P = 0.1819; conjunctival hyperemia score: baseline = 0.41 ± 0.64; 12 weeks = 0.49 ± 0.63, P = 0.3774).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings confirm that switching to Duotrav(®) in PGA monotherapy patients shows IOP-lowering effect with minimal safety concerns.<h4>Funding</h4>Japan Association of Health Service and Alcon Japan. Ltd.<h4>Trial registration</h4>UMIN Clinical Trials Registry identifier, UMIN000007028.
Project description:In randomized, controlled trials of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT), bimatoprost 0.01 % improved tolerability while retaining the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03 %. Given geographic/racial differences in glaucoma presentation, the APPEAL study assessed the occurrence and severity of hyperemia produced by bimatoprost 0.01 %, and its efficacy, in the Taiwanese clinical setting.In this multicenter, open-label, observational study, treatment-naïve and previously treated patients with OHT or OAG received once-daily bimatoprost 0.01 % for 12 weeks. Hyperemia (primary endpoint) was graded at baseline, week 6, and week 12 using a photonumeric scale (0, +0.5, +1, +2, +3), grouped (??+1, none to mild; ??+2, moderate to severe), and reported as unchanged from baseline, improved, or worsened. IOP assessments followed the same schedule. Supplemental efficacy analyses were conducted based on previous therapies.The intent-to-treat population (N?=?312) included treatment-naïve (13.5 %) and previously treated (86.5 %) patients; mean age was 53.3 years. At baseline, 46.3 % of previously treated patients were receiving prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy. At week 12, 91.2 %, 5.9 %, and 2.9 % of treatment-naïve patients exhibited unchanged, worsened, and improved hyperemia from baseline, respectively; 77.9 %, 12.9 %, and 9.2 % of previously treated patients showed no change, worsening, and improvement, respectively. There were no statistically significant shifts in hyperemia severity in either group, or in subgroups based on previous use of any PGA, any non-PGA, latanoprost, or travoprost monotherapies. In treatment-naïve patients, mean IOP reduction from baseline (18.0?±?3.8 mm Hg) was 3.6 mm Hg at week 12 (P?<?0.0001); 83.3 % had baseline IOP ??21 mm Hg. In previously treated patients, mean additional IOP reduction from baseline (17.8?±?3.9 mm Hg) was 2.6 mm Hg (P?<?0.0001); similar results were observed in patient subgroups based on previous therapies.In the Taiwanese clinical setting, bimatoprost 0.01 % provided significant IOP lowering in treatment-naïve patients (regardless of baseline IOP) and previously treated patients (even those with relatively low IOP on other therapies), while causing no significant changes in hyperemia from baseline.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01814761 . Registered 18 March 2013.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the efficacy and safety of fixed-combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% preserved with polyquaternium-1 in patients with insufficient response to bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preserved with benzalkonium chloride. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this open-label nonrandomized study conducted at 13 European sites, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with insufficient intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction during bimatoprost/timolol therapy were transitioned to travoprost/timolol (DuoTrav(®)) administered every evening for 12 weeks. Change in IOP from baseline to week 12 was assessed in patients who transitioned from fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol (n=57, primary endpoint). Secondary assessments included change in IOP at week 4, percentage of patients with IOP ?18 mmHg at weeks 4 and 12, change in Ocular Surface Disease Index and ocular hyperemia scores at week 12, and patient preference. Adverse events were also reported. RESULTS:IOP change (mean ± SD) from baseline to week 12 was -3.8±1.9 mmHg (P<0.001); results were similar at week 4. Most patients had IOP ?18 mmHg at weeks 4 and 12 (78.6% and 85.5%, respectively). Mean Ocular Surface Disease Index score was significantly reduced (P<0.001); no significant change in ocular hyperemia score was observed (P=0.197). Treatment-related adverse events included dysgeusia, nausea, paresthesia, myalgia, headache, and eye irritation (n=1 each). Most patients (74.5%) preferred travoprost/timolol over bimatoprost/timolol. CONCLUSION:Transition to travoprost/timolol significantly reduced IOP and was well tolerated in patients who had elevated IOP despite bimatoprost/timolol therapy. Polyquaternium-1-preserved travoprost/timolol was preferred over prior treatment with benzalkonium chloride-preserved bimatoprost/timolol.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate conjunctival hyperemia associated with bimatoprost 0.01% treatment in patients who replace latanoprost 0.005% with bimatoprost 0.01%. METHODS:Randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, multicenter study of patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma whose intraocular pressure (IOP) was adequately controlled on latanoprost monotherapy. At baseline, patients discontinued latanoprost and were randomized to treatment with once-daily bimatoprost 0.01% (n = 151) or vehicle (n = 71). The primary endpoint was the peak change in macroscopic hyperemia (conjunctival hyperemia evaluated by gross visual inspection) from baseline to month 1. RESULTS:Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle in the mean [standard deviation] peak change from baseline macroscopic hyperemia at month 1 (0.18 [0.46] in the bimatoprost 0.01% group vs 0.02 [0.32] in the vehicle group, P = 0.009). The between-group difference was 0.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04, 0.26), which was within the predefined margin for noninferiority of 0.5 on a hyperemia grading scale of 0 to +3. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the percentage of patients with a ?1-grade increase in macroscopic hyperemia from baseline. Mean IOP was decreased from baseline (-0.7 to -1.3 mm Hg) in the bimatoprost 0.01% group (P ? 0.002) and was increased from baseline (+3.3 to +3.6 mm Hg) in the vehicle group (P < 0.001) at month 1. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle with respect to conjunctival hyperemia in this study population. Replacement of latanoprost with bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma can result in additional IOP reduction without clinically important hyperemia.
Project description:AIM: To evaluate the existing evidence on relative efficacy and tolerability of topical mono-compound intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering drugs in treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT). METHODS: In this systematic review of systematic reviews/meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials a thorough and sensitive search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Databases was performed. Individual study methodological quality and quality of evidence were assessed using the AMSTAR checklist and the GRADE system, respectively. The relationships between individual drugs were evaluated based on the best available evidence. RESULTS: Of the 133 initial non-duplicate records, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Five achieved an overall "moderate" (none achieved "high") quality of evidence and evaluated prostaglandin analogues (PGAs) - latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost; timolol; "other beta-blockers;" carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) as a group or dorzolamide separately; and brimonidine. "Moderate quality" refers to efficacy and incidence of conjunctival hyperemia. Quality of evidence regarding other tolerability aspects was low. PGAs should be considered equivalent regarding efficacy, but latanoprost was relevantly better tolerated than the other two. Non-PGA compounds did not relevantly differ between each other in either efficacy or safety. Timolol and brimonidine were relevantly less effective than all PGAs. The same was true for CAI vs bimatoprost. Regarding tolerability, timolol was superior to all PGAs and brimonidine and CAI were superior to bimatoprost. CONCLUSION: No high quality evidence on relative efficacy and tolerability of the most commonly used mono-compound IOP-lowering drugs for POAG/OHT exists. Moderate quality evidence indicates latanoprost as a treatment with the most favorable trade-off between benefits and harms.