Comparison of simvastatin and metformin in treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: prospective randomized trial.
ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by ovarian dysfunction and hyperandrogenism; it is also associated with increased cardiovascular risks such as adverse lipid profile and endothelial dysfunction. Metformin and, more recently, statins have been shown to improve endocrine and metabolic aspects of PCOS.The aim of the study was to compare effects of simvastatin and metformin on PCOS.In a prospective trial, women with PCOS (n = 136) were randomized to simvastatin (S), metformin (M), or simvastatin plus metformin (SM) groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and after 3 months.The study was conducted at an academic medical center.The change of serum total testosterone was measured.The study was completed by 113 subjects. Total testosterone decreased significantly and comparably in all groups: by 17.1, 13.6, and 15.1%, respectively, in the S, M, and SM groups. Significant decreases were also observed in all groups with respect to body mass index, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. DHEAS declined significantly only in the S group. None of the treatments were associated with significant changes in LH or FSH. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly declined only in S and SM groups.Simvastatin treatment was superior to metformin alone, whereas a combination of simvastatin and metformin was not significantly superior to simvastatin alone.
Project description:A randomized trial on women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared simvastatin, metformin, and a combination of these drugs.The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term effects of simvastatin and metformin on PCOS.Women with PCOS (n = 139) were randomized to simvastatin (S), metformin (M), or simvastatin plus metformin (SM) groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months.The study was conducted at a university medical center.We measured the change of serum total testosterone.Ninety-seven subjects completed the study. Total testosterone decreased significantly and comparably in all groups: by 25.6, 25.6, and 20.1% in the S, M, and SM groups, respectively. Both simvastatin and metformin improved menstrual cyclicity and decreased hirsutism, acne, ovarian volume, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate declined significantly only in the S group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly declined only in the S and SM groups. Ongoing reduction of ovarian volume, decreased hirsutism, acne and testosterone were observed between 0 and 3 months as well as between 3 and 6 months. Improvement of lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 occurred only during the first 3 months of treatment, with little change thereafter. Treatments were well tolerated, and no significant adverse effects were encountered.Long-term treatment with simvastatin was superior to metformin. Improvement of ovarian hyperandrogenism continued throughout the duration of the study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting about 10% of women in reproductive age and associated with a variety of hormonal abnormalities, including hyperandrogenemia and infertility, all of which could lead to PCOS. Statins were previously introduced as a therapeutic option for reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS, either alone or in combination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different statins alone or in combination with metformin in reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS. METHODS:Medline, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies that investigated the efficacy of statins, metformin, spironolactone, or combined oral contraceptives (COCs), individually or in combination, in reducing the testosterone level in patients with PCOS. The search was limited to randomized clinical trials and conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses - extension statement for network meta-analyses (PRISMA-NMA). The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias (RoB) assessment tool. A frequentist network meta-analysis using random-effects models was used to assess the efficacy in reducing testosterone level and were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% credible interval (95%Crl). All statistical analyses were performed using netmeta Version 1.0 on R statistical package. RESULT:Nine RCTs involving 613 patients were included. Atorvastatin showed greater reduction in testosterone level compared to COC (MD -2.78, 95%CrI -3.60, -1.97), spironolactone plus metformin (MD -2.83, 95%CrI -3.80, -1.87), simvastatin (MD -2.88, 95%CrI -3.85, -1.92), spironolactone (MD -2.90, 95%CI -3.77, -2.02), simvastatin plus metformin (MD -2.93, 95%CrI -3.79, -2.06), metformin (MD -2.97, 95%CrI -3.69, -2.25), lifestyle modification (MD -3.02, 95%CrI -3.87, -2.18), and placebo (MD -3.04, 95%CrI -3.56, -2.53). CONCLUSION:Atorvastatin was found to be more effective than the other management strategies in reducing the total testosterone level for patients with PCOS. Future studies should focus on the optimal dose.
Project description:Increased androgen production is a primary feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and appears to be an inherited trait. The gene for the steroidogenic enzyme type 5 17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B5) was implicated as a candidate for the hyperandrogenemia of PCOS by a previous study that demonstrated an association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of this gene with PCOS.The objective of the study was to replicate the previous report of association between the HSD17B5 gene and PCOS risk by genotyping the promoter SNP (as well as other SNPs in the region to provide improved coverage of the gene) in a large, well-characterized cohort suitable for replication study.Women with and without PCOS were genotyped for five SNPs in HSD17B5. SNPs and haplotypes were determined and tested for association with PCOS risk and phenotypic markers of PCOS.Subjects were recruited from the reproductive endocrinology clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham; controls were recruited from the surrounding community. Genotyping took place at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.Participants included 287 white women with PCOS and 187 white controls.HSD17B5 genotype, PCOS risk, and testosterone levels were measured.No SNP or haplotype was significantly associated with PCOS risk, testosterone, or any of the traits tested.These data suggest that polymorphisms in the HSD17B5 gene are not associated with PCOS risk or elevated testosterone as previously reported.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disease with unknown pathogenesis. However, the treatment of Diane-35 combined with metformin can improve the endocrine and ovulation of PCOS. In this study, we investigated the effects of Diane-35 combined with metformin (DM) treatment on ovulation and glucose metabolism in a PCOS rat model. METHODS:Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, control group, model group (PCOS group) and Diane-35 combined with metformin (PCOS + DM group). The mRNA expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR. The hormone levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunostaining detected the protein levels of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the ovarian tissues. TNUEL assay was performed to determine cell apoptosis in the PCOS rats. The metabolites in the ovarian tissues were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS:PCOS rats showed an increased in body weight, levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and insulin resistance, which was significantly attenuated by the DM treatment. The DM treatment improved disrupted estrous cycle and increased the granulosa cells of the ovary in the PCOS rats. The decreased proliferation and increased cell apoptosis of granulosa cells in the ovarian tissues of PCOS rats were significantly reversed by the DM treatment. The analysis of metabolics revealed that ATP and lactate levels were significantly decreased in PCOS rats, which was recovered by the DM treatment. Furthermore, the expression of LDH-A, PKM2 and SIRT1 was significantly down-regulated in ovarian tissues of the PCOS rats; while the DM treatment significantly increased the expression of LDH-A, PKM2 and SIRT1 in the ovarian tissues of the PCOS rats. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Diane-35 plus metformin treatment improved the pathological changes in the PCOS rats. Further studies suggest that Diane-35 plus metformin can improve the energy metabolism of the ovary via regulating the glycolysis pathway. The mechanistic studies indicated that the therapeutic effects of Diane-35 plus metformin treatment in the PCOS rats may be associated with the regulation of glycolysis-related mediators including PKM2, LDH-A and SIRT1.
Project description:Objective:This study aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect and mechanism of pioglitazone metformin complex preparation (PM) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comorbid psychological distress. Methods:Seventy-five patients with PCOS comorbid psychological distress were randomly allocated into the PM, metformin, and placebo groups. The primary efficacy measure was the change from baseline to week 12 on the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) scores. NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and at week 12. The participants were required to meet the criteria for PCOS (Rotterdam, NIH) and psychological distress (any factor scores of SCL - 90 - R > 2). Results:The participants had significantly high scores on the SCL-90-R scales of anxiety and depression. PM significantly decreased anxiety and depression symptom severity (from 2.31 ± 0.75 to 1.65 ± 0.38, p < 0.001, and from 2.08 ± 0.74 to 1.61 ± 0.46, p = 0.010, at week 12, respectively). PM significantly decreased the expression of NRPL3 and caspase-1. Patients in the PM group experienced a significant reduction in IL-1? (from 98.42 ± 14.38 to 71.76 ± 13.66, p = 0.02), IL-6 (from 87.51 ± 8.74 to 71.98 ± 15.87, p = 0.02), and TNF-? (from 395.33 ± 88.55 to 281.98 ± 85.69, p = 0.04). PM was superior to metformin in reducing total testosterone (2.24 ± 0.74 versus 3.06 ± 0.83, p = 0.024, at week 12). Conclusions:This study is the first to reveal that PM alleviates psychological distress via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and improves several markers, including total testosterone.
Project description:Objective:Metformin is an important component of PCOS treatment. At present, the effect of metformin in overweight women with PCOS has not been evaluated. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to assess the effects of metformin in overweight women with PCOS and to analyze the effects of metformin in overweight women with PCOS. Methods:We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases for studies published before March 2020. Randomized controlled trials were identified to study the effects of metformin in overweight women with PCOS. Data from studies including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, testosterone, and androstenedione were pooled. Qualified trials were selected, and methodological quality was strictly assessed. Two reviewers chose the studies independently of each other. Results:Twelve trials were included. The intervention group and the control group had significant differences in the changes in body mass index (BMI) (WMD?=?-1.25, 95% CI (-1.60, -0.91), p < 0.00001) and waist circumference (WC) (WMD?=?-1.41, 95% CI (-2.46, -0.37), p=0.008) after metformin. The comprehensive results show that, in all studies, overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with metformin had significantly improved endocrine and metabolic indicators, including testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, metformin did not regulate the secretion indexes of fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, sex hormone-binding globulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and androstenedione. Conclusions:Compared with control interventions, metformin appears to be an effective intervention for overweight women with PCOS.
Project description:CONTEXT:Large, longitudinal studies on androgen levels in pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are lacking. While metformin has a mild androgen-lowering effect in non-pregnant women with PCOS, its effects on maternal androgen levels in pregnancy are less well understood. OBJECTIVE:To describe androgen patterns in pregnant women with PCOS and in healthy control women, and to explore the potential effects of metformin on maternal androgen levels in PCOS. DESIGN AND SETTING:A post hoc analysis from a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study carried out at 11 secondary care centers and a longitudinal single-center study on healthy pregnant women in Norway. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 262 women with PCOS and 119 controls. INTERVENTION:The participants with PCOS were randomly assigned to metformin (2 g daily) or placebo, from first trimester to delivery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and free testosterone index (FTI) at 4 time points in pregnancy. RESULTS:Women with PCOS versus healthy controls had higher A4, T, and FTI, and lower SHBG at all measured time points in pregnancy. In the overall cohort of women with PCOS, metformin had no effect on A4, T, SHBG, and FTI. In subgroup analyses, metformin reduced A4 (P?=?0.019) in nonobese women. Metformin also reduced A4 (P?=?0.036), T (P?=?0.023), and SHBG (P?=?0.010) levels through pregnancy in mothers with a male fetus. CONCLUSION:Metformin had no effect on maternal androgens in PCOS pregnancies. In subgroup analyses, a modest androgen-lowering effect was observed in nonobese women with PCOS. In PCOS women carrying a male fetus, metformin exhibited an androgen-lowering effect.
Project description:Adrenal androgen excess is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and appears to be heritable. CYP3A7 metabolizes dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate (DHEAS). A promoter variant, CYP3A7*1C, which results in persistent expression in adults, was associated with reduced DHEAS levels in a previous study, which led us to consider CYP3A7*1C as a modulator of adrenal androgen excess in patients with PCOS.The objective was to replicate the association between CYP3A7*1C and reduced DHEAS levels in PCOS patients and assess its possible role in modulating testosterone levels.Women with and without PCOS were genotyped for CYP3A7*1C, and this variant was tested for association with DHEAS and total and free testosterone.Subjects were recruited from the reproductive endocrinology clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham; controls were recruited from the surrounding community. Genotyping took place at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (Los Angeles, CA).A total of 287 white women with PCOS and 187 controls were studied.CYP3A7*1C genotype, PCOS risk, and androgen levels were measured.PCOS subjects who carried the CYP3A7*1C variant had lower levels of serum DHEAS and total testosterone (P = 0.0006 and 0.046, respectively). The variant was not associated with PCOS risk.This study replicated prior work of the association of CYP3A7*1C and decreased DHEAS in a different population of young PCOS women, providing further genetic evidence that CYP3A7 plays a potential role in modulation of DHEAS levels. Adult expression of CYP3A7 may modify the PCOS phenotype by ameliorating adrenal androgen excess.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are associated with known alterations in mitochondria DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN). The aim of this study is to study the change in mtDNA-CN in patients with PCOS who were treated with metformin. METHODS:This is a prospective cohort of patients with PCOS, who received metformin for one year. From 2009 to 2015, 88 women diagnosed with PCOS, based on the Rotterdam criteria, were enrolled. Serial measurements of mtDNA-CN, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), anthropometric, metabolic, endocrine, and inflammatory markers were obtained before and after 3, 6, and 12?months of treatment. RESULTS:A significant decrease in mtDNA-CN was seen over the course of one year. Other markers, including 8-OHdG, testosterone, free androgen index, blood pressure and liver enzymes, also decreased in the same interval. On regression analysis, there was a significant association between the change in mtDNA-CN and serum total testosterone, and no association between mtDNA-CN and metabolic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with metformin is associated with a time-dependent decrease in mtDNA-CN in patients with PCOS who are treated over the course of one year. This may signify a reduction in mitochondria dysfunction. The change in mtDNA-CN corresponds to a similar change in serum total testosterone, and suggests a possible relationship between mtDNA-CN and testosterone. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT00172523 . Registered September 15, 2005.
Project description:STUDY QUESTION:Does metformin inhibit excessive androgen-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mouse granulosa cells (GCs) in vivo and in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER:Metformin inhibits testosterone-induced ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) activation by suppressing p38 MAPK phosphorylation in ovarian GCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism. Excessive testosterone induces ER stress and UPR activation in human cumulus cells, leading to cell apoptosis. Metformin has potential inhibitory effects on ER stress and UPR activation, as demonstrated in human pancreatic beta cells and obese mice. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:Cumulus cells and follicular fluid were collected from 25 women with PCOS and 25 controls at our IVF centre. A dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PCOS mouse model was constructed and treated with or without metformin. Primary mouse GCs and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured with testosterone, metformin, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, or p38 MAPK small interfering RNA. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:The levels of UPR sensor proteins and UPR-related genes were measured in cumulus cells from PCOS and control patients by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot. The ovaries, oocytes, GCs and COCs were collected from PCOS mice treated with metformin and controls. The expressions of ER stress markers and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were assessed by qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. A subsequent in vitro analysis with primary cultured GCs and COCs was used to confirm the influence of metformin on ER stress activation by qPCR and western blot. Finally, the effects of ER stress activation on GCs and COCs in relation to LH responsiveness were examined by qPCR and COC expansion. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:The expression of the ER stress markers GRP78, CHOP and XBP1s in the cumulus cells was higher in PCOS patients than in control patients, as were the levels of the UPR sensor proteins p-IRE1?, p-EIF2? and GRP78. Compared to those of control mice, the ovaries, GCs and COCs of DHT-treated PCOS mice showed increased levels of ER stress marker genes and proteins. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS mouse ovaries also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in COCs and GCs. Metformin inhibited ER stress activation was associated with decreased p-p38 MAPK levels. In vitro experiments, testosterone-induced ER stress was mitigated by metformin or p38 MAPK inhibition in primary cultured GCs and COCs. COCs expanded rapidly in the presence of testosterone during LH administration, and ovulation-related genes, namely, Areg, Ereg, Ptgs2, Sult1e1, Ptx3 and Tnfaip6, were strongly expressed in the COCs and GCs. These effects were reversed by treatment with metformin, an ER stress inhibitor or by knockdown of p38 MAPK. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:The number of PCOS patients in this study was small. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:This study provides further evidence for metformin as a PCOS treatment. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S):This study was funded by the National Key Research and Developmental Program of China (2018YFC1004800), the Key Research and Development Program of Zhejiang Province (2017C03022), the Zhejiang Province Medical Science and Technology Plan Project (2017KY085, 2018KY457), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31701260, 81401264, 81701514), and the Special Funds for Clinical Medical Research of the Chinese Medical Association (16020320648). The authors report no conflict of interest in this work and have nothing to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:N/A.