Cycle training increased GLUT4 and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin in fast twitch muscle fibers.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed 6 wk of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling.In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, changes in expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were compared using quantitative immunoblots with specific protein standards. Regulatory pathway components were evaluated by immunoblots of muscle homogenates and immunohistochemistry of microscopic sections.GLUT1 was unchanged, GLUT4 increased 66%, GLUT12 increased 104%, and GLUT5 decreased 72%. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c) and regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha and phospho-5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) were unchanged, but the muscle hypertrophy pathway component, phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), increased 83% after the exercise program. In baseline biopsies, GLUT4 by immunohistochemical techniques was 37% greater in Type I (slow twitch, red) muscle fibers, but the exercise training increased GLUT4 expression in Type II (fast twitch, white) fibers by 50%, achieving parity with the Type I fibers. Baseline phospho-mTOR expression was 50% higher in Type II fibers and increased more in Type II fibers (62%) with training but also increased in Type I fibers (34%).Progressive intensity stationary cycle training of previously sedentary subjects increased muscle insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GLUT4 and GLUT12) and decreased the fructose transporter (GLUT5). The increase in GLUT4 occurred primarily in Type II muscle fibers, and this coincided with activation of the mTOR muscle hypertrophy pathway. There was little impact on Type I fiber GLUT4 expression and no evidence of change in mitochondrial biogenesis.
Project description:GLUT4 is the predominant glucose transporter isoform expressed in fat and muscle. In GLUT4 null mice, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into muscle was diminished but not eliminated, suggesting that another insulin-sensitive system was present.This study was intended to determine whether insulin caused GLUT12 translocation in muscle.Six normal volunteers had muscle biopsies before and after euglycemic insulin infusions.Infusions and biopsies were performed in an outpatient clinic.Subjects were nonobese, young adults with no family history of diabetes.GLUT12, GLUT4, and GLUT1 proteins were quantified in muscle biopsy fractions. Cultured myoblasts were used to determine whether GLUT12 translocation was phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3-K)-dependent.Insulin was infused at 40 mU/m(2) x min for 3 h.In human muscle, insulin caused a shift of a portion of GLUT12 from intracellular low-density microsomes to the plasma membrane (PM) fraction (17% in PM at baseline, 38% in PM after insulin). Insulin increased GLUT4 in PM from 13 to 42%. GLUT1 was predominantly in the PM fractions at baseline and did not change significantly after insulin. L6 myoblasts in culture also expressed and translocated GLUT12 in response to insulin, but inhibiting PI3-K prevented the translocation of GLUT12 and GLUT4.Insulin causes GLUT12 to translocate from an intracellular location to the plasma membrane in normal human skeletal muscle. Translocation of GLUT12 in cultured myoblasts was dependent on activation of PI3-K. GLUT12 may have evolutionarily preceded GLUT4 and now provides redundancy to the dominant GLUT4 system in muscle.
Project description:GLUT4 is necessary for acute insulin- and contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but its role in chronic muscle loading (overload)-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether GLUT4 is required for overload-induced glucose uptake. Overload was induced in mouse plantaris muscle by unilateral synergist ablation. After 5 days, muscle weights and ex vivo [<sup>3</sup>H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake were assessed. Overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and hypertrophic growth were not impaired in muscle-specific GLUT4 knockout mice, demonstrating that GLUT4 is not necessary for these processes. To assess which transporters mediate overload-induced glucose uptake, chemical inhibitors were used. The facilitative GLUT inhibitor cytochalasin B, but not the sodium-dependent glucose cotransport inhibitor phloridzin, prevented overload-induced uptake demonstrating that GLUTs mediate this effect. To assess which GLUT, hexose competition experiments were performed. Overload-induced [<sup>3</sup>H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake was not inhibited by d-fructose, demonstrating that the fructose-transporting GLUT2, GLUT5, GLUT8, and GLUT12 do not mediate this effect. To assess additional GLUTs, immunoblots were performed. Overload increased GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and GLUT10 protein levels twofold to fivefold. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GLUT4 is not necessary for overload-induced muscle glucose uptake or hypertrophic growth and suggest that GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and/or GLUT10 mediate overload-induced glucose uptake.
Project description:In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals.
Project description:Glucose transport into cells is the first limiting step for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In mammals, it is mediated by a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) (encoded by SLC2A* genes), with a constitutive role (GLUT1), or insulin-sensitive transporters (GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT12). Compared to mammals, the chicken shows high levels of glycemia and relative insensitivity to exogenous insulin. To date, only GLUT1, GLUT8, and GLUT12 have been described in chicken skeletal muscles but not fully characterized, whereas GLUT4 was reported as lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the expression of the SLC2A1, SLC2A8, and SLC2A12 genes, encoding GLUT1, GLUT8, and GLUT12 proteins respectively, during ontogenesis and how the respective expression of these three genes is affected by the muscle type and the nutritional or insulin status of the bird (fed, fasted, or insulin immunoneutralized). SLC2A1 was mostly expressed in the glycolytic pectoralis major (PM) muscle during embryogenesis and 5 d posthatching while SLC2A8 was mainly expressed at hatching. SLC2A12 expression increased regularly from 12 d in ovo up to 5 d posthatching. In the mixed-type sartorius muscle, the expression of SLC2A1 and SLC2A8 remained unchanged, whereas that of SLC2A12 was gradually increased during early muscle development. The expression of SLC2A1 and SLC2A8 was greater in oxidative and oxidoglycolytic muscles than in glycolytic muscles. The expression of SLC2A12 differed considerably between muscles but not necessarily in relation to muscle contractile or metabolic type. The expression of SLC2A1, SLC2A8, and SLC2A12 was reduced by fasting and insulin immunoneutralization in the PM muscle, while in the leg muscles only SLC2A12 was impaired by insulin immunoneutralization. Our findings clearly indicate differential regulation of the expression of three major GLUTs in skeletal muscles, with some type-related features. They provide new insights to improve the understanding of the fine regulation of glucose utilization in chicken muscles.
Project description:We have characterized the glucose-transport system in soleus muscle from female GLUT4-null mice to determine whether GLUT1, 3 or 5 account for insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity. Insulin increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake 2.8- and 2.1-fold in soleus muscle from wild-type and GLUT4-null mice, respectively. Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of GLUT1- and GLUT4-mediated glucose transport, inhibited insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake by >95% in wild-type and GLUT4-null soleus muscle. Addition of 35 mM fructose to the incubation media was without effect on insulin-stimulated 3-O-methylglucose transport activity in soleus muscle from either genotype, whereas 35 mM glucose inhibited insulin-stimulated (20 nM) 3-O-methylglucose transport by 65% in wild-type and 99% in GLUT4-null mice. We utilized the 2-N-4-1-(1-azi-2,2,2-triflu oroethyl)benzoyl-1, 3-bis(D-mannose-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-BMPA) exofacial photolabel to determine if increased cell-surface GLUT1 or GLUT4 content accounted for insulin-stimulated glucose transport in GLUT4-null muscle. In wild-type soleus muscle, cell-surface GLUT4 content was increased by 2.8-fold under insulin-stimulated conditions and this increase corresponded to the increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake. No detectable cell-surface GLUT4 was observed in soleus muscle from female GLUT4-null mice under either basal or insulin-stimulated conditions. Basal cell-surface GLUT1 content was similar between wild-type and GLUT4-null mice, with no further increase noted in either genotype with insulin exposure. Neither GLUT3 nor GLUT5 appeared to account for insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity in wild-type or GLUT4-null muscle. In conclusion, insulin-stimulated glucose-transport activity in female GLUT4-null soleus muscle is mediated by a facilitative transport process that is glucose- and cytochalasin B-inhibitable, but which is not labelled strongly by ATB-BMPA.
Project description:Stuart, CA, Lee, ML, South, MA, Howell, MEA, Cartwright, BM, Ramsey, MW, and Stone, MH. Pre-training muscle characteristics of subjects who are obese determine how well exercise training will improve their insulin responsiveness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 798-808, 2017-Only half of prediabetic subjects who are obese who underwent exercise training without weight loss increased their insulin responsiveness. We hypothesized that those who improved their insulin responsiveness might have pretraining characteristics favoring a positive response to exercise training. Thirty nondiabetic subjects who were obese volunteered for 8 weeks of either strength training or endurance training. During training, subjects increased their caloric intake to prevent weight loss. Insulin responsiveness by euglycemic clamps and muscle fiber composition, and expression of muscle key biochemical pathways were quantified. Positive responders initially had 52% higher intermediate muscle fibers (fiber type IIa) with 27% lower slow-twitch fibers (type I) and 23% lower expression of muscle insulin receptors. Whether after weight training or stationary bike training, positive responders' fiber type shifted away from type I and type IIa fibers to an increased proportion of type IIx fibers (fast twitch). Muscle insulin receptor expression and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression increased in all trained subjects, but these moderate changes did not consistently translate to improvement in whole-body insulin responsiveness. Exercise training of previously sedentary subjects who are obese can result in muscle remodeling and increased expression of key elements of the insulin pathway, but in the absence of weight loss, insulin sensitivity improvement was modest and limited to about half of the participants. Our data suggest rather than responders being more fit, they may have been less fit, only catching up to the other half of subjects who are obese whose insulin responsiveness did not increase beyond their pretraining baseline.
Project description:Mobilization of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular storage vesicles provides a mechanism for insulin-responsive glucose import into skeletal muscle. In humans, clathrin isoform CHC22 participates in formation of the GLUT4 storage compartment in skeletal muscle and fat. CHC22 function is limited to retrograde endosomal sorting and is restricted in its tissue expression and species distribution compared to the conserved CHC17 isoform that mediates endocytosis and several other membrane traffic pathways. Previously, we noted that CHC22 was expressed at elevated levels in regenerating rat muscle. Here we investigate whether the GLUT4 pathway in which CHC22 participates could play a role in muscle regeneration in humans and we test this possibility using CHC22-transgenic mice, which do not normally express CHC22. We observed that GLUT4 expression is elevated in parallel with that of CHC22 in regenerating skeletal muscle fibers from patients with inflammatory and other myopathies. Regenerating human myofibers displayed concurrent increases in expression of VAMP2, another regulator of GLUT4 transport. Regenerating fibers from wild-type mouse skeletal muscle injected with cardiotoxin also showed increased levels of GLUT4 and VAMP2. We previously demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing CHC22 in their muscle over-sequester GLUT4 and VAMP2 and have defective GLUT4 trafficking leading to diabetic symptoms. In this study, we find that muscle regeneration rates in CHC22 mice were delayed compared to wild-type mice, and myoblasts isolated from these mice did not proliferate in response to glucose. Additionally, CHC22-expressing mouse muscle displayed a fiber type switch from oxidative to glycolytic, similar to that observed in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations implicate the pathway for GLUT4 transport in regeneration of both human and mouse skeletal muscle, and demonstrate a role for this pathway in maintenance of muscle fiber type. Extrapolating these findings, CHC22 and GLUT4 can be considered markers of muscle regeneration in humans.
Project description:Women with polycystic ovary syndrome often manifest insulin resistance. Using a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome-like phenotype, we explored the contribution of androgen and insulin in programming and maintaining disruptions in insulin signaling in metabolic tissues. Phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, GSK3beta, mTOR, and p70S6K was examined in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of control and prenatal testosterone (T)-, prenatal T plus androgen antagonist (flutamide)-, and prenatal T plus insulin sensitizer (rosiglitazone)-treated fetuses as well as 2-yr-old females. Insulin-stimulated phospho (p)-AKT was evaluated in control and prenatal T-, prenatal T plus postnatal flutamide-, and prenatal T plus postnatal rosiglitazone-treated females at 3 yr of age. GLUT4 expression was evaluated in the muscle at all time points. Prenatal T treatment increased mTOR, p-p70S6K, and p-GSK3beta levels in the fetal liver with both androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer preventing the mTOR increase. Both interventions had partial effect in preventing the increase in p-GSK3beta. In the fetal muscle, prenatal T excess decreased p-GSK3beta and GLUT4. The decrease in muscle p-GSK3beta was partially prevented by insulin sensitizer cotreatment. Both interventions partially prevented the decrease in GLUT4. Prenatal T treatment had no effect on basal expression of any of the markers in 2-yr-old females. At 3 yr of age, prenatal T treatment prevented the insulin-stimulated increase in p-AKT in liver and muscle, but not in adipose tissue, and neither postnatal intervention restored p-AKT response to insulin stimulation. Our findings provide evidence that prenatal T excess changes insulin sensitivity in a tissue- and development-specific manner and that both androgens and insulin may be involved in the programming of these metabolic disruptions.
Project description:The heart derives energy from a wide variety of substrates including fatty acids, carbohydrates, ketones, and amino acids. The healthy heart generates up to 30% of its ATP from glucose. Under conditions of cardiac injury or stress, the heart relies even more heavily on glucose as a source of fuel. Glucose is transported into the heart by members of the family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). While research examining the transport of glucose into the heart has primarily focused on the roles of the classical glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, little is known about the functions of more newly identified GLUT isoforms in the myocardium.In this study the presence and relative RNA message abundance of each of the known GLUT isoforms was determined in left ventricular tissue from two commonly used inbred laboratory mouse strains (C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ) by quantitative real time PCR. Relative message abundance was also determined in GLUT4 null mice and in murine models of dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT8 were found to be the most abundant GLUT transcripts in the normal heart, while GLUT3, GLUT10, and GLUT12 are present at relatively lower levels. Assessment of relative GLUT expression in left ventricular myocardium from mice with dilated cardiomyopathy revealed increased expression of GLUT1 with reduced levels of GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT12. Compensatory increase in the expression of GLUT12 was observed in genetically altered mice lacking GLUT4.Glucose transporter expression varies significantly among murine models of cardiac dysfunction and involves several of the class III GLUT isoforms. Understanding how these more newly identified GLUT isoforms contribute to regulating myocardial glucose transport will enhance our comprehension of the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the heart.
Project description:The mechanisms underlying inflammation induced insulin resistance are poorly understood. Here, we report that the expression of PIMT, a transcriptional co-activator binding protein, was up-regulated in the soleus muscle of high sucrose diet (HSD) induced insulin resistant rats and TNF-? exposed cultured myoblasts. Moreover, TNF-? induced phosphorylation of PIMT at the ERK1/2 target site Ser(298). Wild type (WT) PIMT or phospho-mimic Ser298Asp mutant but not phospho-deficient Ser298Ala PIMT mutant abrogated insulin stimulated glucose uptake by L6 myotubes and neonatal rat skeletal myoblasts. Whereas, PIMT knock down relieved TNF-? inhibited insulin signaling. Mechanistic analysis revealed that PIMT differentially regulated the expression of GLUT4, MEF2A, PGC-1? and HDAC5 in cultured cells and skeletal muscle of Wistar rats. Further characterization showed that PIMT was recruited to GLUT4, MEF2A and HDAC5 promoters and overexpression of PIMT abolished the activity of WT but not MEF2A binding defective mutant GLUT4 promoter. Collectively, we conclude that PIMT mediates TNF-? induced insulin resistance at the skeletal muscle via the transcriptional modulation of GLUT4, MEF2A, PGC-1? and HDAC5 genes.