Identification of the GATA factor TRPS1 as a repressor of the osteocalcin promoter.
ABSTRACT: A proteomic analysis of proteins bound to the osteocalcin OSE2 sequence of the mouse osteocalcin promoter identified TRPS1 as a regulator of osteocalcin transcription. Mutations in the TRPS1 gene are responsible for human tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. TRPS1 has been shown to bind regulatory promoter sequences containing GATA consensus binding sites and to repress transcription of genes involved in chondrocyte differentiation. Here we show that TRPS1 can directly bind the osteocalcin promoter in the presence or absence of Runx2. TRPS1 binds through a GATA binding sequence in the proximal promoter of the osteocalcin gene. The GATA binding site is conserved in mice, humans, and rats, although its location and orientation are not. Mutation of the mouse or human GATA binding sequence abrogates binding of TRPS1 to the osteocalcin promoter. We show that TRPS1 is expressed in osteosarcoma cells and upon induction of osteoblast differentiation in primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells and that TRPS1 regulates the expression of osteocalcin in both cell types. The expression of TRPS1 modulates mineralized bone matrix formation in differentiating osteoblast cells. These data suggest a role for TRPS1 in osteoblast differentiation, in addition to its previously described role in chondrogenesis.
Project description:Known vertebrate GATA proteins contain two zinc fingers and are required in development, whereas invertebrates express a class of essential proteins containing one GATA-type zinc finger. We isolated the gene encoding TRPS1, a vertebrate protein with a single GATA-type zinc finger. TRPS1 is highly conserved between Xenopus and mammals, and the human gene is implicated in dominantly inherited tricho-rhino-phalangeal (TRP) syndromes. TRPS1 is a nuclear protein that binds GATA sequences but fails to transactivate a GATA-dependent reporter. Instead, TRPS1 potently and specifically represses transcriptional activation mediated by other GATA factors. Repression does not occur from competition for DNA binding and depends on a C-terminal region related to repressive domains found in Ikaros proteins. During mouse development, TRPS1 expression is prominent in sites showing pathology in TRP syndromes, which are thought to result from TRPS1 haploinsufficiency. We show instead that truncating mutations identified in patients encode dominant inhibitors of wild-type TRPS1 function, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the disease. TRPS1 is the first example of a GATA protein with intrinsic transcriptional repression activity and possibly a negative regulator of GATA-dependent processes in vertebrate development.
Project description:GATA transcription factors mediate cell differentiation in diverse tissues, and their dysfunction is associated with certain congenital human disorders. The six classical vertebrate GATA proteins, GATA-1 to GATA-6, are highly homologous, bear two tandem zinc fingers of the C(4) (GATA) type, and activate transcription. TRPS1, the only other vertebrate protein with the GATA motif, is a large, multitype zinc finger protein that harbors a single DNA-binding GATA domain and represses transcription. Monoallelic TRPS1 mutations cause two dominantly inherited human developmental disorders of the hair, face, and digits, tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) types I (MIM 190350) and III (MIM 190351); missense GATA domain mutations account for the more severe type III form. Here we report that heterozygous mice with deletions of the TRPS1 GATA domain (TRPS1(+/Deltagt)) display facial anomalies that overlap with findings for TRPS, whereas TRPS1(Deltagt/Deltagt) mice additionally reveal a complete absence of vibrissae. Unexpectedly, TRPS1(Deltagt/Deltagt) mice die of neonatal respiratory failure resulting from abnormalities of the thoracic spine and ribs. Heterozygotes also develop thoracic kyphoscoliosis with age and reveal structural deficits in cortical and trabecular bones. These findings directly implicate the GATA type zinc finger of TRPS1 in regulation of bone and hair development and suggest that skeletal abnormalities emphasized in descriptions of TRPS are only the extreme manifestations of a generalized bone dysplasia.
Project description:TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome) is a unique GATA-type transcription factor that acts as a transcriptional repressor. TRPS1 deficiency and dysregulated TRPS1 expression result in skeletal and dental abnormalities implicating TRPS1 in endochondral bone formation and tooth development. Moreover, patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome frequently present with low bone mass indicating TRPS1 involvement in bone homeostasis. In addition, our previous data demonstrated accelerated mineralization of the perichondrium in Trps1 mutant mice and impaired dentin mineralization in Col1a1-Trps1 transgenic mice, implicating Trps1 in the mineralization process. To understand the role of Trps1 in the differentiation and function of cells producing mineralized matrix, we used a preodontoblastic cell line as a model of dentin mineralization. We generated both Trps1-deficient and Trps1-overexpressing stable cell lines and analyzed the progression of mineralization by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining. As predicted, based on our previous in vivo data, delayed and decreased mineralization of Trps1-overexpressing odontoblastic cells was observed when compared with control cells. This was associated with down-regulation of genes regulating phosphate homeostasis. Interestingly, Trps1-deficient cells lost the ability to mineralize and demonstrated decreased expression of several genes critical for initiating the mineralization process, including Alpl and Phospho1. Based on these data, we have concluded that Trps1 serves two critical and context-dependent functions in odontoblast-regulated mineralization as follows: 1) Trps1 is required for odontoblast maturation by supporting expression of genes crucial for initiating the mineralization process, and 2) Trps1 represses the function of mature cells and, consequently, restricts the extent of extracellular matrix mineralization.
Project description:Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is one of the most critical events at the beginning of mammalian preimplantation embryo development (PED). The mechanisms underlying mouse ZGA remain unclear although it has been widely studied. In the present study, we identified that tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome 1 (TRPS1), an atypical GATA family member, is an important factor for ZGA in mouse PED. We found that the Trps1 mRNA level peaked at the one-cell stage while TRPS1 protein did so at the two/four-cell stage. Knockdown of Trps1 by the microinjection of Trps1 siRNA reduced the developmental rate of mouse preimplantation embryos by approximately 30%, and increased the expression of ZGA marker genes MuERV-L and Zscan4d via suppressing the expression of major histone markers H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. Furthermore, Trps1 knockdown decreased the expression of Sox2 but increased Oct4 expression. We conclude that TRPS1 may be indispensable for zygotic genome activation during mouse PED.
Project description:TRPS1, the gene mutated in human "Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome," encodes a multi zinc-finger nuclear regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we have identified a new function of Trps1 in controlling mitotic progression in chondrocytes. Loss of Trps1 in mice leads to an increased proportion of cells arrested in mitosis and, subsequently, to chromosome segregation defects. Searching for the molecular basis of the defect, we found that Trps1 acts as regulator of histone deacetylation. Trps1 interacts with two histone deacetylases, Hdac1 and Hdac4, thereby increasing their activity. Loss of Trps1 results in histone H3 hyperacetylation, which is maintained during mitosis. Consequently, chromatin condensation and binding of HP1 is impaired, and Trps1-deficient chondrocytes accumulate in prometaphase. Overexpression of Hdac4 rescues the mitotic defect of Trps1-deficient chondrocytes, identifying Trps1 as an important regulator of chromatin deacetylation during mitosis in chondrocytes. Our data provide the first evidence that the control of mitosis can be linked to the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by epigenetic consequences of altered Hdac activity.
Project description:Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (TRPSI) is a rare disorder that causes distinctive ectodermal, facial, and skeletal features affecting the hair (tricho-), nose (rhino-), and fingers and toes (phalangeal) and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. TRPSI is caused by loss of function variants in TRPS1, involved in the regulation of chondrocyte and perichondrium development. Pathogenic variants in TRPS1 include missense mutations and deletions with variable breakpoints, with only a single instance of an intragenic duplication reported to date. Here we report an affected individual presenting with a classic TRPSI phenotype who is heterozygous for a de novo intragenic ?36.3-kbp duplication affecting exons 2-4 of TRPS1 Molecular analysis revealed the duplication to be in direct tandem orientation affecting the splicing of TRPS1 The aberrant transcripts are predicted to produce a truncated TRPS1 missing the nuclear localization signal and the GATA and IKAROS-like zinc-finger domains resulting in functional TRPS1 haploinsufficiency. Our study identifies a novel intragenic tandem duplication of TRPS1 and highlights the importance of molecular characterization of intragenic duplications.
Project description:Brachydactyly type E, which can be an isolated finding or part of a syndrome in combination with other clinical anomalies, involves metacarpals and metatarsals with or without short phalanges. Herein we report two unrelated Turkish females who presented with brachydactyly type E and vitamin D deficiency in the absence of marked alterations in serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone. After excluding disease-causing variants in two candidate genes, PTHLH and PDE4D, we identified different pathogenic variants in TRPS1, the gene mutated in patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS). In one of the patients, who displayed severe brachydactyly and short stature, we identified a novel heterozygous missense pathogenic variant in exon 6 (c.2783A>G, p.Tyr928Cys), located within the GATA DNA-binding domain. The second patient, who had relatively milder brachydactyly and was of normal height, carried a heterozygous nonsense pathogenic variant in exon 4 (c. 1870C>T, p.Arg624Ter), which has been previously described. Both pathogenic variants segregated in affected family members. The patients additionally showed sparse hair and a bulbous nose, consistent with the clinical features of TRPS. Our findings, in addition to identifying the genetic cause of brachydactyly in two unrelated kindreds, emphasize the role of pathogenic TRPS1 variants in the development of brachydactyly type E and highlight the GATA DNA-binding region of TRPS1 protein with respect to phenotype-genotype correlation.
Project description:Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal malformations including short stature, thin scalp hair, sparse lateral eyebrows, pear-shaped nose and cone shaped epiphyses. This condition is caused by haploinsufficiency of the TRPS1 gene. Previous genotype-phenotype studies have correlated exon 6 missense mutations with TRPS type III, a severe form of type I with pronounced, facial characteristics, short stature and brachydactyly and differing from type II by the absence of exostoses and mental retardation.We report the first case of a Moroccan family, a father and his three children, in which the diagnosis of type III TRPS was suspected based on severe clinical and radiological features. Molecular analysis of the TRPS1 gene revealed a novel missense mutation in exon 6, (p.Ala932Ser), located in the GATA-type DNA-binding zinc finger domain.Our observations in this kindred support the previous genotype-phenotype results suggesting that patients with more pronounced facial characteristics and more severe shortening of hands and feet are more likely to have mutation in exon 6 of TRPS1.
Project description:GATA transcription factors are zinc finger DNA binding proteins that activate transcription during development and cell differentiation. To date, 7 members of GATA family have been reported. However, the expression patterns and the exact roles of distinct GATA family members contributing to tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer (BC) remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the expression of GATA transcripts in a variety of tumor types compared with the normal controls using the ONCOMINE and GOBO databases, along with their corresponding expression profiles in an array of cancer cell lines through CCLE analysis. Based on Kaplan-Meier plotter, we further investigated the prognostic values of GATA members specifically high expressed in BC patients. It was found that, when compared with normal tissues, GATA3 and TRPS1 were distinctly high expressed in BC patients among all GATA members. GATA3 expression was significantly associated with ESR1, while TRPS1 was correlated with ERBB2. In survival analysis, GATA3 and TRPS1 mRNA high expressions were correlated to better survival in BC patients, and TRPS1 high expression was significantly associated with longer RFS in patients who have received chemotherapy. These results suggest that GATA3 and TRPS1 are distinct biomarkers and essential prognostic factors for breast cancer.
Project description:The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (Cath-D) is overproduced in breast cancer cells (BCC) and supports tumor growth and metastasis formation. Here, we describe the mechanism whereby Cath-D is accumulated in the nucleus of ER?-positive (ER+) BCC. We identified TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal-syndrome 1), a repressor of GATA-mediated transcription, and BAT3 (Scythe/BAG6), a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling chaperone protein, as new Cath-D-interacting nuclear proteins. Cath-D binds to BAT3 in ER+ BCC and they partially co-localize at the surface of lysosomes and in the nucleus. BAT3 silencing inhibits Cath-D accumulation in the nucleus, indicating that Cath-D nuclear targeting is controlled by BAT3. Fully mature Cath-D also binds to full-length TRPS1 and they co-localize in the nucleus of ER+ BCC where they are associated with chromatin. Using the LexA-VP16 fusion co-activator reporter assay, we then show that Cath-D acts as a transcriptional repressor, independently of its catalytic activity. Moreover, microarray analysis of BCC in which Cath-D and/or TRPS1 expression were silenced indicated that Cath-D enhances TRPS1-mediated repression of several TRPS1-regulated genes implicated in carcinogenesis, including PTHrP, a canonical TRPS1 gene target. In addition, co-silencing of TRPS1 and Cath-D in BCC affects the transcription of cell cycle, proliferation and transformation genes, and impairs cell cycle progression and soft agar colony formation. These findings indicate that Cath-D acts as a nuclear transcriptional cofactor of TRPS1 to regulate ER+ BCC proliferation and transformation in a non-proteolytic manner.