Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness.The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. METHODS: The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642) in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142), the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466) and G-765C (rs20417) in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. RESULTS: Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12-2.06). Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00)). There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16) whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02). COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T8473C (p-values for interaction 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Two polymorphisms in MDR1 were associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between these polymorphisms and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. Our results suggest that MDR1 polymorphisms affect the relationship between meat and CRC risk.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Inflammation is a major risk factor for development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Prostaglandin synthase cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) encoded by the PTGS2 gene is the rate limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis and therefore plays a distinct role as regulator of inflammation.<h4>Methods</h4>PTGS2 mRNA levels were determined in intestinal tissues from 85 intestinal adenoma cases, 115 CRC cases, and 17 healthy controls. The functional PTGS2 polymorphisms A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), T8473C (rs5275) were assessed in 200 CRC cases, 991 adenoma cases and 399 controls from the Norwegian KAM cohort.<h4>Results</h4>PTGS2 mRNA levels were higher in mild/moderate adenoma tissue compared to morphologically normal tissue from the same individual (P<0.0001) and (P<0.035) and compared to mucosa from healthy individuals (P<0.0039) and (P<0.0027), respectively. In CRC patients, PTGS2 mRNA levels were 8-9 times higher both in morphologically normal tissue and in cancer tissue, compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). PTGS2 A-1195G variant allele carriers were at reduced risk of CRC (odds ratio (OR)?=?0.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.28-0.99, P?=?0.047). Homozygous carriers of the haplotype encompassing the A-1195G and G-765C wild type alleles and the T8473C variant allele (PTGS2 AGC) were at increased risk of CRC as compared to homozygous carriers of the PTGS2 AGT (A-1195G, G-765C, T8473C) haplotype (OR?=?5.37, 95% CI: 1.40-20.5, P?=?0.014). No association between the investigated polymorphisms and PTGS2 mRNA levels could be detected.<h4>Conclusion</h4>High intestinal PTGS2 mRNA level is an early event in colorectal cancer development as it occurs already in mild/moderate dysplasia. PTGS2 polymorphisms that have been associated with altered PTGS2 mRNA levels/COX-2 activity in some studies, although not the present study, were associated with colorectal cancer risk. Thus, both PTGS2 polymorphisms and PTGS2 mRNA levels may provide information regarding CRC risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic diseases of unknown etiology and pathogenesis in which genetic factors contribute to development of disease. MDR1/ABCB1 is an interesting candidate gene for IBD. The role of two single nucleotide polymorphisms, C3435T and G2677T remains unclear due to contradictory results of current studies. Thus, the aims of this research were to investigate the association of MDR1 polymorphisms, C3435T and G2677T, and IBD. METHODS: A total of 310 IBD patients, 199 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 109 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 120 healthy controls were included in the study. All subjects were genotyped for G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphism using RT-PCR. In IBD patients, review of medical records was performed and patients were phenotyped according to the Montreal classification. RESULTS: Significantly higher frequency of 2677T allele (p=0.05; OR 1.46, 95% CI (1.0-2.14)) and of the 3435TT genotype was observed among UC patients compared to controls (p=0.02; OR 2.12; 95% CI (1.11-4.03). Heterozygous carriers for C3435T were significantly less likely to have CD (p=0.02; OR 0.58, 95% CI (0.36-0.91)). Haplotype analysis revealed that carriers of 3435T/2677T haplotype had a significantly higher risk of having UC (p=0.02; OR 1.55; 95% CI (1.06-2.28)). CONCLUSION: MDR1 polymorphisms are associated with both CD and UC with a stronger association with UC.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Diet contributes to colorectal cancer development and may be potentially modified. We wanted to identify the biological mechanisms underlying colorectal carcinogenesis by assessment of diet-gene interactions. METHODS:The polymorphisms IL10 C-592A (rs1800872), C-rs3024505-T, IL1b C-3737T (rs4848306), G-1464C (rs1143623), T-31C (rs1143627) and PTGS2 (encoding COX-2) A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), and T8473C (rs5275) were assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interaction with diet (red meat, fish, fibre, cereals, fruit and vegetables) and lifestyle (non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug use and smoking status) was assessed in a nested case-cohort study of nine hundred and seventy CRC cases and 1789 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. RESULTS:IL1b C-3737T, G-1464C and PTGS2 T8473C variant genotypes were associated with risk of CRC compared to the homozygous wildtype genotype (IRR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97, p=0.02, and IRR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.44, p=0.02, IRR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.57-0.99, p=0.04, respectively). Interactions were found between diet and IL10 rs3024505 (P-value for interaction (P(int)); meat=0.04, fish=0.007, fibre=0.0008, vegetables=0.0005), C-592A (P(int); fibre=0.025), IL1b C-3737T (Pint; vegetables=0.030, NSAID use=0.040) and PTGS2 genotypes G-765C (P(int); meat=0.006, fibre=0.0003, fruit 0.004), and T8473C (P(int); meat 0.049, fruit=0.03) and A-1195G (P(int); meat 0.038, fibre 0.040, fruit=0.059, vegetables=0.025, and current smoking=0.046). CONCLUSIONS:Genetically determined low COX-2 and high IL-1? activity were associated with increased risk of CRC in this northern Caucasian cohort. Furthermore, interactions were found between IL10, IL1b, and PTGS2 and diet and lifestyle factors in relation to CRC. The present study demonstrates that gene-environment interactions may identify genes and environmental factors involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:The multidrug resistance gene 1(MDR1) C3435T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Asians, however the results were inconsistent. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to generate large-scale evidence on the association between C3435T polymorphism and CRC risk in Asian populations.The PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, and Chinese Biomedicine databases were searched up to January 15, 2017. The odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Sensitivity and cumulative meta-analysis were also performed.A total of 7 studies involving 4818 individuals were included in this pooled-analysis. The results suggested that persons carrying a T allele at the C3435T polymorphism had a significantly decreased risk of CRC in Asian population (T vs C: OR?=?0.897, 95%CI?=?0.826-0.975, P?=?.01), and the significant association was also observed in another 2 genetic models (TT vs CC: OR?=?0.721, 95%CI?=?0.605-0.861, P?<?.001; TT vs TC+CC: OR?=?0.679, 95%CI?=?0.579-0.795, P?<?.001). Moreover, the results of sensitivity and cumulative meta-analysis indicated the stable of our results. Finally, funnel plot and Egger's test showed no evidence of publication bias.In summary, this meta-analysis provided evidence that MDR1 C3435T polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of CRC in Asian population.
Project description:One-third of all individuals with epilepsy are resistant to antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. Antiepileptic treatment response has been suggested to be modulated by genetic polymorphisms of drug efflux transporters. Several polymorphic variants within the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, which encodes the major transmembrane efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, have been proposed to be associated with AED resistance in epilepsy patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C3435T and G2677T/A polymorphisms of MDR1 on AED resistance in Turkish children with epilepsy. MDR1 C3435T and G2677T/A were genotyped in 152 patients with epilepsy, classified as drug-resistant in 69 and drug-responsive in 83. Genotypes of the C3435T and G2677T/A polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genotype and allele frequencies of C3435T and G2677T/A polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene did not differ between drug-resistant and drug-responsive epilepsy patients. Our results suggest that MDR1 C3435T and G2677T/A polymorphisms are not associated with AED resistance in Turkish epileptic patients. To clarify the exact clinical implication of the MDR1 polymorphisms on the multidrug resistance in epilepsy, further investigations in various ethnic populations would be necessary.
Project description:Aim:Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Several genetic and environmental factors are known to be involved in breast cancer pathogenesis, but the exact etiology of this disease is complicated and not completely understood. We aimed to investigate whether the gene polymorphisms of ABCB1 and ABCG2 carrier proteins and COX-2 enzyme affect breast cancer risk. Method:ABCG2 C421A (rs2231142), ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642), COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) and COX-2 G306C (rs5277) were genotyped 104 breast cancer patients and 90 healthy controls using a real-time PCR for breast cancer susceptibility. Results:Patients carrying ABCG2 C421A, the CC genotype, had a higher risk of disease compared with patients carrying any A allele (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.49-6.25, p = 0.0019). The other variants showed no association with breast cancer (p > 0.05). Comparing the pathological parameters with the variants, only, the frequency of C allele of ABCB1 C3435T was significantly lower in the estrogen receptor-? (ER?) (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 0.75-6.76; p = 0.041) and progesterone receptor (PgR) (OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.34-10.03; p = 0.008) positive breast cancer patients. Conclusion:ABCB1 C3435T and ABCG2 C421A might represent a potential risk factor for breast cancer for Turkish women.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To study the effect of MDR1 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms on the outcomes of imatinib treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). METHODS:A total of 100 patients with CML treated with imatinib were enrolled in this study, including 50 patients with cytogenetic relapse (study group) and 50 without cytogenetic relapse (control group) during the follow-up for 45 months. For all the patients, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C1236T, C3435T, and G2677T/A loci in the MDR1 gene and A6986G locus in CYP3A5 gene were genotyped and the trough levels of imatinib was measured using LC-MS/MS. The relationship between SNPs of the loci and the risk of cytogenetic relapse were analyzed. RESULTS:The risk of cytogenetic recurrence was significantly higher in patients with CC genotypes of MDR1-C1236T and MDR1-C3435T than in those with CT + TT genotypes (P < 0.05). The median survival time of the patients with TT genotypes of MDR1-C3435T and MDR1-C1236T was significantly higher than that of patients with CC genotypes and CT genotypes (P < 0.05). The incidences of hematologic toxicity and neutropenia were significantly higher in patients with cytogenetic relapse than in those without cytogenetic relapse (P < 0.05). MDR1-C3435T genotype and imatinib concentration were independent predictors of cytogenetic relapse of CML. CONCLUSIONS:The risk of cytogenetic relapse of CML was significantly affected by SNPs of C1236T and C3435T loci of MDR1 gene and blood imatinib concentration. MDR1-C3435T genotype can be used as a potential biomarker for predicting cytogenetic relapse in CML patients.
Project description:Transcription factors and nuclear receptors constitute a link between exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and tobacco smoke and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in nuclear factor kappa-B, pregnane X receptor, and liver X receptor were associated with risk of CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use.The polymorphisms nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB, NFKB1) -94 insertion/deletion ATTG (rs28362491), pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) A-24381C (rs1523127), C8055T (rs2276707), A7635G (rs6785049), liver X receptor (LXR-?, NR1H3) C-rs1405655T, T-rs2695121C were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 756 random participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study of 57,053 persons.Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 1.45-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous carriers of the insertion allele (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.10-1.92). There was interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 3% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (95% CI: 0.98-1.09) whereas homozygous carriers of the insertion were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.03). PXR and LXR polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was no interaction between use of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) or smoking status and NFkB, PXR or LXR polymorphisms.A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role for NFkB in CRC aetiology.
Project description:Aspirin resistance has an incidence of 5%-65% in patients with ischemic stroke, who receive the standard dose of aspirin, but the platelet function is inadequately inhibited, thereby leading to thrombotic events. Numerous evidence shows that thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2 receptor, encoded by TBXA2R), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2, encoded by PLA2G7) and platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1, encoded by PEAR1) are crucial in regulating platelet activation, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by MDR1) influences the absorption of aspirin in the intestine. In this study we examined the correlation between MDR1, TBXA2R, PLA2G7, PEAR1 genetic polymorphisms and platelet activity in Chinese ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy.A total of 283 ischemic stroke patients receiving 100 mg aspirin for 7 d were genotyped for polymorphisms in MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), PLA2G7 (rs1051931, rs7756935), and PEAR1 (rs12566888, rs12041331). The platelet aggregation response was measured using an automatic platelet aggregation analyzer and a commercially available TXB2 ELISA kit.Thirty-three patients (11.66%) were insensitive to aspirin treatment. MDR1 3435TT genotype carriers, whose arachidonic acid (AA) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was lower than that of CC+CT genotype carriers, were less likely to suffer from aspirin resistance (odds ratio=0.421, 95% CI: 0.233-0.759). The TBXA2R rs1131882 CC genotype, which was found more frequently in the aspirin-insensitive group (81.8% vs 62.4%) than in the sensitive group, was identified as a risk factor for aspirin resistance (odds ratio=2.712, 95% CI: 1.080-6.810) with a higher level of AA-induced platelet aggregation. Due to the combined effects of PLA2G7 rs1051931 and rs7756935, carriers of the AA-CC haplotype had a higher level of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and were at considerably higher risk of aspirin resistance than noncarriers (odds ratio=8.233, 95% CI: 1.590-42.638).A considerable portion (11.66%) of Chinese ischemic stroke patients are insensitive to aspirin treatment, which may be correlated with the MDR1 C3435T, TBXA2R (rs1131882), and PLA2G7 (rs1051931-rs7756935) polymorphisms.
Project description:P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is present in various tissue cells, required for the pumping of lipophilic drugs (including glucocorticoids) out of cells. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the P-gp encoding gene (multidrug-resistant transporter-1 [MDR1]) are related to individual differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity and the development of glucocorticoid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (GANFH). In this case-control study, we genotyped three known single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T) within the MDR1 gene in 662 Chinese subjects. Statistically significant differences between GANFH patients and either healthy controls or glucocorticoid-resistant patients (non-GANFH) were found for the T allele or TT genotype of C3435T. The haplotype TTT, composed of these three SNPs, exhibited a significant association with the disease. No associations were identified between C1236T or G2677T/A and GANFH. Our results suggest that the C3435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene is associated with susceptibility to GANFH in a Chinese population.