Distribution of in vitro fermentation ability of lacto-N-biose I, a major building block of human milk oligosaccharides, in bifidobacterial strains.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the potential utilization of lacto-N-biose I (LNB) by individual strains of bifidobacteria. LNB is a building block for the human milk oligosaccharides, which have been suggested to be a factor for selective growth of bifidobacteria. A total of 208 strains comprising 10 species and 4 subspecies were analyzed for the presence of the galacto-N-biose/lacto-N-biose I phosphorylase (GLNBP) gene (lnpA) and examined for growth when LNB was used as the sole carbohydrate source. While all strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis, B. breve, and B. bifidum were able to grow on LNB, none of the strains of B. adolescentis, B. catenulatum, B. dentium, B. angulatum, B. animalis subsp. lactis, and B. thermophilum showed any growth. In addition, some strains of B. pseudocatenulatum, B. animalis subsp. animalis, and B. pseudolongum exhibited the ability to utilize LNB. With the exception for B. pseudocatenulatum, the presence of lnpA coincided with LNB utilization in almost all strains. These results indicate that bifidobacterial species, which are the predominant species found in infant intestines, are potential utilizers of LNB. These findings support the hypothesis that GLNBP plays a key role in the colonization of bifidobacteria in the infant intestine.
Project description:A beta-1,3-galactosyl-N-acetylhexosamine phosphorylase (GalGlyNAcP) homolog gene was cloned from Vibrio vulnificus CMCP6. In synthetic reactions, the recombinant enzyme acted only with GlcNAc and GalNAc as acceptors in the presence of alpha-d-galactose-1-phosphate as a donor to form lacto-N-biose I (LNB) (Galbeta1 --> 3GlcNAc) and galacto-N-biose (GNB) (Galbeta1 --> 3GalNAc), respectively. GlcNAc was a much better acceptor than GalNAc. The enzyme also phosphorolysed LNB faster than it phosphorolysed GNB, and the k(cat)/K(m) for LNB was approximately 60 times higher than the k(cat)/K(m) for GNB. This result indicated that the enzyme was remarkably different from GalGlyNAcP from Bifidobacterium longum, which has similar activities with LNB and GNB, and GalGlyNAcP from Clostridium perfringens, which is a GNB-specific enzyme. The enzyme is the first LNB-specific enzyme that has been found and was designated lacto-N-biose I phosphorylase. The discovery of an LNB-specific GalGlyNAcP resulted in recategorization of bifidobacterial GalGlyNAcPs as galacto-N-biose/lacto-N-biose I phosphorylases.
Project description:Galacto-N-biose/lacto-N-biose I phosphorylase (GLNBP) from Bifidobacterium longum, a key enzyme for intestinal growth, phosphorolyses galacto-N-biose and lacto-N-biose I with anomeric inversion. GLNBP homologues are often found in human pathogenic and commensal bacteria, and their substrate specificities potentially define the nutritional acquisition ability of these microbes in their habitat. We report the crystal structures of GLNBP in five different ligand-binding forms. This is the first three-dimensional structure of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 112. The GlcNAc- and GalNAc-bound forms provide structural insights into distinct substrate preferences of GLNBP and its homologues from pathogens. The catalytic domain consists of a partially broken TIM barrel fold that is structurally similar to a thermophilic beta-galactosidase, strongly supporting the current classification of GLNBP homologues as one of the GH families. Anion binding induces a large conformational change by rotating a half-unit of the barrel. This is an unusual example of molecular adaptation of a TIM barrel scaffold to substrates.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides contain a large variety of oligosaccharides, of which lacto-N-biose I (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc; LNB) predominates as a major core structure. A unique metabolic pathway specific for LNB has recently been identified in the human commensal bifidobacteria. Several strains of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess lacto-N-biosidase, a membrane-anchored extracellular enzyme, that liberates LNB from the nonreducing end of human milk oligosaccharides and plays a key role in the metabolic pathway of these compounds. Lacto-N-biosidase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 20, and its reaction proceeds via a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Several crystal structures of GH20 ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which release monosaccharide GlcNAc from its substrate, have been determined, but to date, a structure of lacto-N-biosidase is unknown. Here, we have determined the first three-dimensional structures of lacto-N-biosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254 in complex with LNB and LNB-thiazoline (Gal-?1,3-GlcNAc-thiazoline) at 1.8-Å resolution. Lacto-N-biosidase consists of three domains, and the C-terminal domain has a unique ?-trefoil-like fold. Compared with other ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases, lacto-N-biosidase has a wide substrate-binding pocket with a -2 subsite specific for ?-1,3-linked Gal, and the residues responsible for Gal recognition were identified. The bound ligands are recognized by extensive hydrogen bonds at all of their hydroxyls consistent with the enzyme's strict substrate specificity for the LNB moiety. The GlcNAc sugar ring of LNB is in a distorted conformation near (4)E, whereas that of LNB-thiazoline is in a (4)C1 conformation. A possible conformational pathway for the lacto-N-biosidase reaction is discussed.
Project description:Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a prevalent beneficial bacterium that colonizes the human neonatal gut and is uniquely adapted to efficiently use human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) as a carbon and energy source. Multiple studies have focused on characterizing the elements of HMO utilization machinery in B. infantis; however, the regulatory mechanisms governing the expression of these catabolic pathways remain poorly understood. A bioinformatic regulon reconstruction approach used in this study implicated NagR, a transcription factor from the ROK family, as a negative global regulator of genomic loci encoding lacto-N-biose/galacto-N-biose (LNB/GNB), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) utilization pathways in B. infantis. This conjecture was corroborated by transcriptome profiling upon nagR genetic inactivation and experimental assessment of binding of recombinant NagR to predicted DNA operators. The latter approach also implicated N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a universal intermediate of LNT and LNnT catabolism, and its phosphorylated derivatives as plausible NagR effectors. Reconstruction of NagR regulons in various Bifidobacterium lineages revealed multiple regulon expansion events, suggesting evolution from a local regulator of GlcNAc catabolism in ancestral bifidobacteria to a global regulator controlling foraging of mixtures of GlcNAc-containing host-derived glycans in mammalian gut-colonizing B. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Overall design: Three biological replicates were analyzed for each of 4 conditions (two nagR genotypes; two carbon sources)
Project description:Infant gut-associated bifidobacteria possess species-specific enzymatic sets to assimilate human milk oligosaccharides, and lacto-N-biosidase (LNBase) is a key enzyme that degrades lacto-N-tetraose (Gal?1-3GlcNAc?1-3Gal?1-4Glc), the main component of human milk oligosaccharides, to lacto-N-biose I (Gal?1-3GlcNAc) and lactose. We have previously identified LNBase activity in Bifidobacterium bifidum and some strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (B. longum). Subsequently, we isolated a glycoside hydrolase family 20 (GH20) LNBase from B. bifidum; however, the genome of the LNBase(+) strain of B. longum contains no GH20 LNBase homolog. Here, we reveal that locus tags BLLJ_1505 and BLLJ_1506 constitute LNBase from B. longum JCM1217. The gene products, designated LnbX and LnbY, respectively, showed no sequence similarity to previously characterized proteins. The purified enzyme, which consisted of LnbX only, hydrolyzed via a retaining mechanism the GlcNAc?1-3Gal linkage in lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-fucopentaose I (Fuc?1-2Gal?1-3GlcNAc?1-3Gal?1-4Glc), and sialyllacto-N-tetraose a (Neu5Ac?2-3Gal?1-3GlcNAc?1-3Gal?1-4Gal); the latter two are not hydrolyzed by GH20 LNBase. Among the chromogenic substrates examined, the enzyme acted on p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-?-lacto-N-bioside I (Gal?1-3GlcNAc?-pNP) and GalNAc?1-3GlcNAc?-pNP. GalNAc?1-3GlcNAc? linkage has been found in O-mannosyl glycans of ?-dystroglycan. Therefore, the enzyme may serve as a new tool for examining glycan structures. In vitro refolding experiments revealed that LnbY and metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) are required for proper folding of LnbX. The LnbX and LnbY homologs have been found only in B. bifidum, B. longum, and a few gut microbes, suggesting that the proteins have evolved in specialized niches.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a mixture of structurally diverse carbohydrates that contribute to shape a healthy gut microbiota composition. The great diversity of the HMOs structures does not allow the attribution of specific prebiotic characteristics to single milk oligosaccharides. We analyze here the utilization of four disaccharides, lacto-N-biose (LNB), galacto-N-biose (GNB), fucosyl-?1,3-GlcNAc (3FN) and fucosyl-?1,6-GlcNAc (6FN), that form part of HMOs and glycoprotein structures, by the infant fecal microbiota. LNB significantly increased the total levels of bifidobacteria and the species Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum. The Lactobacillus genus levels were increased by 3FN fermentation and B. breve by GNB and 3FN. There was a significant reduction of Blautia coccoides group with LNB and 3FN. In addition, 6FN significantly reduced the levels of Enterobacteriaceae family members. Significantly higher concentrations of lactate, formate and acetate were produced in cultures containing either LNB or GNB in comparison with control cultures. Additionally, after fermentation of the oligosaccharides by the fecal microbiota, several Bifidobacterium strains were isolated and identified. The results presented here indicated that each, LNB, GNB and 3FN disaccharide, might have a specific beneficial effect in the infant gut microbiota and they are potential prebiotics for application in infant foods.
Project description:We have determined the functions of the enzymes encoded by the lnpB, lnpC, and lnpD genes, located downstream of the lacto-N-biose phosphorylase gene (lnpA), in Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217. The lnpB gene encodes a novel kinase, N-acetylhexosamine 1-kinase, which produces N-acetylhexosamine 1-phosphate; the lnpC gene encodes UDP-glucose hexose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, which is also active on N-acetylhexosamine 1-phosphate; and the lnpD gene encodes a UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, which is active on both UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine. These results suggest that the gene operon lnpABCD encodes a previously undescribed lacto-N-biose I/galacto-N-biose metabolic pathway that is involved in the intestinal colonization of bifidobacteria and that utilizes lacto-N-biose I from human milk oligosaccharides or galacto-N-biose from mucin sugars.
Project description:The GNB/LNB (galacto-N-biose/lacto-N-biose) pathway plays a crucial role in bifidobacteria during growth on human milk or mucin from epithelial cells. It is thought to be the major route for galactose utilization in Bifidobacterium longum as it is an energy-saving variant of the Leloir pathway. Both pathways are present in B. bifidum, and galactose 1-phosphate (gal1P) is considered to play a key role. Due to its toxic nature, gal1P is further converted into its activated UDP-sugar through the action of poorly characterized uridylyltransferases. In this study, three uridylyltransferases (galT1, galT2, and ugpA) from Bifidobacterium bifidum were cloned in an Escherichia coli mutant and screened for activity on the key intermediate gal1P. GalT1 and GalT2 showed UDP-glucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activity (EC 184.108.40.206), whereas UgpA showed promiscuous UTP-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activity (EC 220.127.116.11). The activity of UgpA toward glucose 1-phosphate was about 33-fold higher than that toward gal1P. GalT1, as part of the bifidobacterial Leloir pathway, was about 357-fold more active than GalT2, the functional analog in the GNB/LNB pathway. These results suggest that GalT1 plays a more significant role than previously thought and predominates when B. bifidum grows on lactose and human milk oligosaccharides. GalT2 activity is required only during growth on substrates with a GNB core such as mucin glycans.
Project description:Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs), part of ABC transporters and associated with the import of oligosaccharides. In this study we have used the Mammalian Glycan Array to determine the specific affinities of these proteins. This was correlated with binding protein expression induced by different prebiotics including HMO. Half of the F1SBPs in B. infantis were determined to bind mammalian oligosaccharides. Their affinities included different blood group structures and mucin oligosaccharides. Related to HMO, other proteins were specific for oligomers of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and polylactosamines with different degrees of fucosylation. Growth on HMO induced the expression of specific binding proteins that import HMO isomers, but also bind blood group and mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting coregulated transport mechanisms. The prebiotic inulin induced other family 1 binding proteins with affinity for intestinal glycans. Most of the host glycan F1SBPs in B. infantis do not have homologs in other bifidobacteria. Finally, some of these proteins were found to be adherent to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study represents further evidence for the particular adaptations of B. infantis to the infant gut environment, and helps to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process.
Project description:A lacto-N-biose phosphorylase (LNBP) was purified from the cell extract of Bifidobacterium bifidum. Its N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were homologous with those of the hypothetical protein of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 encoded by the BL1641 gene. The homologous gene of the type strain B. longum JCM1217, lnpA, was expressed in Escherichia coli to confirm that it encoded LNBP. No significant identity was found with any proteins with known function, indicating that LNBP should be classified in a new family. The lnpA gene is located in a novel putative operon for galactose metabolism that does not contain a galactokinase gene. The operon seems to be involved in intestinal colonization by bifidobacteria mediated by metabolism of mucin sugars. In addition, it may also resolve the question of the nature of the bifidus factor in human milk as the lacto-N-biose structure found in milk oligosaccharides.