CRP polymorphisms and progression of chronic kidney disease in African Americans.
ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. CRP gene polymorphisms are associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. It is unknown if CRP polymorphisms are associated with CKD progression or modify the effectiveness of anti-hypertensive therapy in delaying CKD progression.We genotyped 642 participants with CKD from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK), selecting five tag polymorphisms: rs2808630, rs1205, rs3093066, rs1417938, and rs3093058. We compared the minor allele frequencies (MAF) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AASK to MAFs of African Americans from NHANES III. Among AASK participants, we evaluated the association of SNPs with CRP levels and prospectively with a composite: halving the GFR, ESRD, or death.The MAF was higher for the rs2808630_G allele (P = 0.03) and lower for the rs1205_A allele (P = 0.03) in the AASK compared with NHANES III. Among AASK participants, the rs3093058_T allele predicted higher CRP concentrations (P < 0.0001) but not CKD progression. The rs2808630_GG genotype was associated with higher risk of the composite endpoint compared with the AA genotype (P = 0.002). Participants with the rs2808630_GG genotype on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) versus beta blockers had increased risk of progression (P = 0.03).CRP SNPs that were associated with higher levels of CRP did not predict CKD progression. The rs2808630_GG genotype was associated with higher risk of CKD progression, and in patients with this genotype, ACEIs did not slow progression.
Project description:Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) high-risk alleles and the glutathione-S-transferase-?1 (GSTM1) null allele have been shown separately to associate with CKD progression in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial participants. Here, we determined combined effects of GSTM1 null and APOL1 high-risk alleles on clinical outcomes in 682 AASK participants who were classified into four groups by GSTM1 null or active genotype and APOL1 high- or low-risk genotype. We assessed survival differences among these groups by log-rank test and Cox regression adjusted for important clinical variables for time to GFR event (change in GFR of 50% or 25-ml/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> decline), incident ESRD, death, or composite outcomes. The groups differed significantly in event-free survival for incident ESRD and composite outcomes (P?0.001 by log-rank test). Compared with the reference GSTM1 active/APOL1 low-risk group, other groups had these hazard ratios for the composite outcome of incident ESRD and change in GFR: GSTM1 active/APOL1 high-risk hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 5.90 (P=0.15); GSTM1 null/APOL1 low-risk hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 3.88 (P=0.03); and GSTM1 null/APOL1 high-risk hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.51 to 5.96 (P=0.002). In conclusion, GSTM1 null and APOL1 high-risk alleles deleteriously affect CKD progression among blacks with hypertension, and subjects with both GSTM1 null and APOL1 high-risk genotypes had highest risk of adverse renal outcomes. Larger cohorts are needed to fully explore interactions of GSTM1 and APOL1 genotypes in other subgroups.
Project description:CRP gene polymorphisms are associated with serum C-reactive protein concentrations and may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. We recently reported an association between the gene variant rs2808630 and CKD progression in African Americans with hypertensive kidney disease. This association has not been studied in other ethnic groups.We used data from 5955 participants from Phase 2 of The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1991-1994) to study the association between CRP polymorphisms and CKD prevalence in a population-based sample. The primary outcome was CKD defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min or the presence of albuminuria. Secondary outcomes were the presence of albuminuria (any degree) and continuous eGFR. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the CRP gene, rs2808630, rs1205, rs3093066, rs1417938, rs3093058, and rs1800947, were evaluated.CRP rs2808630 AG compared to the referent AA genotype was associated with CKD in non-Hispanic blacks (n = 1649, 293 of whom had CKD) with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.09 (95% CI 1.65-5.8; p = 0.001). For the secondary outcomes, rs2808630 AG compared to the referent AA genotype was associated with albuminuria with an adjusted OR of 3.07 (95% CI 1.59-5.94; p = 0.002), however not with eGFR. There was no association between the SNPs and CKD, albuminuria or eGFR in non-Hispanic whites or Mexicans Americans.In this cross-sectional study, the 3' flanking CRP gene variant rs2808630 was associated with CKD, mainly through its association with albuminuria in the non-Hispanic blacks. Despite not finding an association with eGFR, our results support our previous study demonstrating an association between CRP gene variant rs2808630 and CKD progression in a longitudinal cohort of African American with hypertensive kidney disease.
Project description:Background Metabolite levels reflect physiologic homeostasis and may serve as biomarkers of disease progression. Identifying metabolites associated with APOL1 risk alleles-genetic variants associated with CKD risk commonly present in persons of African descent-may reveal novel markers of CKD progression relevant to other populations.Methods We evaluated associations between the number of APOL1 risk alleles and 760 serum metabolites identified via untargeted profiling in participants of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) (n=588; Bonferroni significance threshold P<6.5×10-5) and replicated findings in 678 black participants with CKD in BioMe, an electronic medical record-linked biobank. We tested the metabolite association with CKD progression in AASK, BioMe, and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study.Results One metabolite, 6-bromotryptophan, was significant in AASK (P=4.7×10-5) and replicated in BioMe (P=5.7×10-3) participants, with lower levels associated with more APOL1 risk alleles. Lower levels of 6-bromotryptophan were associated with CKD progression in AASK and BioMe participants and in white participants in the MDRD Study, independent of demographics and clinical characteristics, including baseline GFR (adjusted hazard ratio per two-fold higher 6-bromotryptophan level, AASK, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.64 to 0.91; BioMe, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.85; MDRD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.79). The interaction between the APOL1 risk alleles and 6-bromotryptophan was not significant. The identity of 6-bromotryptophan was confirmed in experiments comparing its molecular signature with that of authentic standards of other bromotryptophan isomers.Conclusions Serum 6-bromotryptophan is a consistent and novel risk factor for CKD progression.
Project description:Dual renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade using angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is reported to improve proteinuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, its renoprotective effect and safety remain uncertain in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). From January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2009, we enrolled 14,117 pre-dialytic stage 5 CKD patients with serum creatinine >6mg/dL and hematocrit <28% under the treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and RAS blockade. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) against the commencement of long-term dialysis and all-cause mortality for ACEI/ARB users. Over a median follow-up of 7 months, 9,867 patients (69.9%) required long-term dialysis and 2,805 (19.9%) died before progression to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. In comparison with the ARB-only users, dual blockade with ACEIs and ARBs was associated with a significantly higher risk of (1) death in all CKD patients (HR = 1.49, [95%CI, 1.30-1.71]; P = 0.02) and in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.58, [95%CI, 1.34-1.86]; P = 0.02); (2) composite endpoint of long-term dialysis or death in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.10, [95%CI, 1.01-1.20]; P = 0.04); (3) hyperkalemia-associated hospitalization in non-diabetic subgroup (HR, 2.74, [95%CI, 1.05-7.15]; P = 0.04). However, ACEIs users were associated with higher mortality than ARBs users in all CKD patients (HR = 1.17, [95%CI, 1.07-1.27]; P = 0.03) and in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.32, [95%CI, 1.18-1.48]; P = 0.03). Monotherapy of RAS blockade, especially ARB, is more effective and safer than dual RAS blockade in pre-dialytic stage 5 CKD patients.
Project description:Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene are implicated in the regulation of the constitutional C-reactive protein (CRP) expression and its response to proinflammatory stimuli. Previous reports suggest that these effects may have an impact on clinical decision-making tools based on CRP, such as the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). We aimed to investigate the possible association between seven CRP SNPs, their haplotypes and the serum levels of CRP, as well as DAS28 scores, in two cohorts of untreated active early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients followed during their initial treatment.Overall, 315 patients with RA from two randomized controlled trials (the CIMESTRA and OPERA trials) who were naïve to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and steroids with disease durations less than 6 months were included. Seven CRP SNPs were investigated: rs11265257, rs1130864, rs1205, rs1800947, rs2808632, rs3093077 and rs876538. The genotype and haplotype associations with CRP and DAS28 levels were evaluated using linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and treatment.The minor allele of rs1205 C > T was associated with decreased CRP levels at baseline (P = 0.03), with the TT genotype having a 50% reduction in CRP from 16.7 to 8.4 mg/L (P = 0.005) compared to homozygosity of the major allele, but no association was observed at year 1 (P = 0.38). The common H2 haplotype, characterized by the T allele of rs1205, was associated with a 26% reduction in CRP at baseline (P = 0.043), although no effect was observed at year 1 (P = 0.466). No other SNP or haplotype was associated with CRP at baseline or at year 1 (P ? 0.09). We observed no associations between SNPs or haplotypes and DAS28 scores at baseline or at year 1 (P ? 0.10).CRP genotype and haplotype were only marginally associated with serum CRP levels and had no association with the DAS28 score. This study shows that DAS28, the core parameter for inflammatory activity in RA, can be used for clinical decision-making without adjustment for CRP gene variants.The OPERA study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00660647). The CIMESTRA study is not listed in a clinical trials registry, because patients were included between October 1999 and October 2002.
Project description:Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype has been associated with systemic inflammation and athero-thrombosis however the association with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been previously examined. We assessed the association between ApoE genotype with AAA presence and growth, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP).Serum concentrations of CRP (in 1358 men) and 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for ApoE (in 1711 men) were examined in subjects from the Health In Men Study. 640 men with small AAAs were followed by ultrasound surveillance for a mean of 4.1 years.There was no association between ApoE genotype and AAA presence. Men heterozygote for the ApoE p.Arg176Cys polymorphism had slower AAA growth, odds ratio for AAA progression> or =median 0.41, 95% confidence intervals 0.21-0.80, p=0.01. Men heterozygote for the ApoE g.50093756A>G polymorphism had slightly more rapid AAA growth, odds ratio for AAA progression> or =median 1.48, 95% confidence intervals 1.02-2.14, p=0.04. None of the ApoE SNPs were associated with AAA growth however taking into account multiple testing. Two SNPs in ApoE were associated with serum CRP under a co-dominant model, ApoE p.Cys130Arg (SNP ID rs429358), p=0.00003 and ApoE g.50114786A>G (SNP ID rs4420638), p=0.00013. Adjusting for other risk factors plus serum creatinine the varepsilon4 allele was associated with lower serum CRP under a dominant model, coefficient 0.089, p=0.002.We found no consistent association between ApoE genotype and AAA. We confirmed an association between ApoE genotype and serum CRP.
Project description:We recently showed an association between strict BP control and lower mortality risk during two decades of follow-up of prior participants in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) trial. Here, we determined the risk of ESRD and mortality during extended follow-up of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial. We linked 1067 former AASK participants with CKD previously randomized to strict or usual BP control (mean arterial pressure ?92 mmHg or 102-107 mmHg, respectively) to the US Renal Data System and Social Security Death Index; 397 patients had ESRD and 475 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 14.4 years from 1995 to 2012. Compared with the usual BP arm, the strict BP arm had unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of ESRD of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.12) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.16; P=0.64), respectively, and unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of death of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.98; P=0.03), respectively. In meta-analyses of individual-level data from the MDRD and the AASK trials, unadjusted relative risk of ESRD was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.00) and unadjusted relative risk of death was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99) for strict versus usual BP arms. Our findings suggest that, during long-term follow-up, strict BP control does not delay the onset of ESRD but may reduce the relative risk of death in CKD.
Project description:The traditional paradigm of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a steady nearly linear decline over time. We describe individual GFR progression trajectories over 12 years of follow-up in participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK).Longitudinal observational study.846 AASK patients with at least 3 years of follow-up and 8 GFR estimates.Longitudinal GFR estimates from creatinine-based equations.Patient demographic and clinical features.Probability of a nonlinear trajectory and probability of a period of nonprogression calculated for each patient from a Bayesian model of individual estimated GFR (eGFR) trajectories.352 (41.6%) patients showed a > 0.9 probability of having either a nonlinear trajectory or a prolonged nonprogression period; in 559 (66.1%), the probability was > 0.5. Baseline eGFR > 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urine protein-creatinine ratio < 0.22 g/g were associated with a higher likelihood of a nonprogression period. 74 patients (8.7%) had both a substantial period of stable or increasing eGFR and a substantial period of rapid eGFR decrease.Clinical trial population; absence of direct GFR measurements.In contrast to the traditional paradigm of steady GFR progression over time, many patients with CKD have a nonlinear GFR trajectory or a prolonged period of nonprogression. These findings highlight the possibility that stable kidney disease progression can accelerate and, conversely, provide hope that CKD need not be relentlessly progressive. These results should encourage researchers to identify time-dependent factors associated with periods of nonprogression and other desirable trajectories.
Project description:Inflammation has been hypothesized to play an important etiological role in the initiation or progression of prostate cancer. Circulating levels of the systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. We investigated the role of genetic variation in CRP and prostate cancer, under the hypothesis that variants may alter risk of disease.We undertook a case-control study nested within the prospective Physicians' Health Study among 1,286 men with incident prostate cancer and 1,264 controls. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common genetic variation across CRP (r(2) ?>?0.8). We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the association between each SNP and risk of prostate cancer. Linear regression models explored associations between each genotype and plasma CRP levels.None of the CRP SNPs were associated with prostate cancer overall. Individuals with one copy of the minor allele (C) in rs1800947 had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), and significantly lower mean CRP levels (P-value <0.001), however, we found no significant association with lethal disease. Mean CRP levels were significantly elevated in men with one or two copies of the minor allele in rs3093075 and rs1417939, but these were unrelated to prostate cancer risk.Our findings suggest that SNPs in the CRP gene are not associated with risk of overall or lethal prostate cancer. Polymorphisms in CRP rs1800947 may be associated with higher grade disease, but our results require replication in other cohorts.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a significant phenotypic variability in progression of the disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to play a major role in renal pathophysiology. The aim of the present case-control study was to evaluate the association of two promoter polymorphisms (-2578C>A and-1154G>A) of VEGF gene and ADPKD. Genotyping was carried out in 123 ADPKD patients and 100 healthy controls, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP). The genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of these two polymorphisms in ADPKD patients were compared with those in controls, as well as in patients with early and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages, using Chi-square (?2) test. The distribution frequency of CC, CA and AA genotypes of -2578C>A polymorphism differed significantly between patients and controls (0.31, 0.63 and 0.06 vs 0.37, 0.44 and 0.19, respectively (P=0.003)), but no significantly different genotype distribution was observed for the-1154G>A polymorphism. The A allele of -2578C>A and G allele of -1154G>A, were significantly more present in the controls as compared to the patients, and may provide protection for CKD under recessive (OR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.45-9.62; P=0.0042), and dominant (OR, 0.55; 95%CI, 0.31-0.98; P=0.041) models. The [A;G] haplotype was more frequently present in controls (18%) than in cases (8%), (OR 0.398; 95% CI 0.22-0.71; P=0.002). These results suggest that the two promoter polymorphisms of VEGF may modify the disease risk in ADPKD patients from North India.