Suppression of MMP activity in bovine cartilage explants cultures has little if any effect on the release of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Progressive loss of articular cartilage is a central hallmark in many joint disease, however, the relative importance of individual proteolytic pathways leading to cartilage erosion is at present unknown. We therefore investigated the time-dependant release ex vivo of MMP- and aggrecanase-derived fragments of aggrecan and type II collagen into the supernatant of bovine cartilage explants cultures using neo-epitope specific immunoassays, and to associate the release of these fragments with the activity of proteolytic enzymes using inhibitors. FINDINGS: Bovine cartilage explants were cultured in the presence or absence of the catabolic cytokines oncostatin M (OSM) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). In parallel, explants were co-cultured with protease inhibitors such as GM6001, TIMP1, TIMP2 and TIMP3. Fragments released into the supernatant were determined using a range of neo-epitope specific immunoassays; (1) sandwich (342)FFGVG-G2 ELISA, (2) competition NITEGE(373)ELISA (3) sandwich G1-NITEGE(373 )ELISA (4) competition (374)ARGSV ELISA, and (5) sandwich (374)ARGSV-G2 ELISA all detecting aggrecan fragments, and (6) sandwich CTX-II ELISA, detecting C-telopeptides of type II collagen. We found that (1) aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments are released in the early (day 2-7) and mid phase (day 9-14) into the supernatant from bovine explants cultures stimulated with catabolic cytokines, (2) the release of NITEGE(373 )neo-epitopes are delayed compared to the corresponding (374)ARGSV fragments, (3) the MMP inhibitor GM6001 did not reduce the release of aggrecanase-derived fragment, but induced a further delay in the release of these fragments, and finally (4) the MMP-derived aggrecan and type II collagen fragments were released in the late phase (day 16-21) only. CONCLUSION: Our data support the model, that aggrecanases and MMPs act independently in the processing of the aggrecan molecules, and furthermore that suppression of MMP-activity had little if any effect on the quantity of aggrecanase-derived fragments released from explants cultures.
Project description:Studies of aggrecan proteolysis in human joints have implicated both the aggrecanase [ADAMTS, a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease (reprolysin-type) with thrombospondin type 1 motif] and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) families. We have analysed the aggrecan core protein species present in vivo in both articular cartilage and synovial fluids from normal, acutely injured and osteoarthritic joints. Normal cartilage contains at least seven major G1 domain (the N-terminal globular domain of aggrecan)-bearing species, of which three (full-length core, G1-NITEGE(373) and G1-VDIPEN(341)) have been identified. The C-terminals of the others are unknown but digestion of fetal human aggrecan with MMP-3 and crude aggrecanase suggests that they are products of MMP-like activity in vivo. Normal synovial fluids contain at least 10 species, of which nine result from ADAMTS-dependent cleavage, and this cleavage occurs at all of the five known aggrecanase sites. Aggrecan fragments in the cartilage and synovial fluids of acutely injured joints are generally similar to normal, but all contain a markedly increased ratio of G1-NITEGE to G1-VDIPEN. Aggrecan from the cartilage of late-stage osteoarthritis patients is remarkably similar to normal, whereas the synovial fluid aggrecan is more fragmented than that from normal or injured knees. The analyses suggest that the role of the ADAMTS and these MMP-like activities in human cartilage are distinctly different. Excessive ADAMTS activity in vivo is destructive to cartilage matrix, since the bulk of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-bearing products are released from the tissue into the synovial fluid following cleavage of the Glu(373)-Ala(374) bond. In contrast, the MMP-like activity appears to be essentially non-destructive, since much of the GAG-bearing product is retained in the tissue following cleavages that are in the more C-terminal regions of the molecule.
Project description:Sprifermin, recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 (rhFGF18), induces cartilage regeneration in knees of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that a temporal multiphasic process of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and formation underlie this effect. We aimed to characterize the temporal ECM remodeling of human knee OA articular cartilage in response to sprifermin treatment. Articular cartilage explants from patients with knee OA (npatients?=?14) were cultured for 70 days, with permanent exposure to sprifermin (900, 450, 225?ng/mL), FGF18 (450?ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor-1 (100?ng/mL, positive control) or vehicle (nreplicates/treatment/patient?=?2). Metabolic activity (AlamarBlue) and biomarkers of type IIB collagen (PIIBNP) formation (Pro-C2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and aggrecanase-mediated aggrecan neo-epitope NITEGE (AGNx1 ELISA) were quantified once a week. At end of culture (day 70), gene expression (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and proteoglycan content (Safranin O/Fast green staining) were quantified. The cartilage had continuously increased metabolic activity, when treated with sprifermin/FGF18 compared to vehicle. During days 7-28 PIIBNP was decreased and NITEGE was increased, and during days 35-70 PIIBNP was increased. At end of culture, the cartilage had sustained proteoglycan content and relative expression of ACAN?<?COL2A1?<?SOX9?<?COL1A1, indicating that functional chondrocytes remained in the explants. Sprifermin induces a temporal biphasic cartilage remodeling in human knee OA articular cartilage explants, with early-phase increased aggrecanase activity and late-phase increased type II collagen formation.
Project description:To investigate the mechanism of aggrecanolysis in interleukin-1 (IL-1)-treated cartilage tissue by examining the time course of aggrecan cleavages and the tissue and medium content of membrane type 4-matrix metalloproteinases (MT4-MMP) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs (ADAMTS)4.Articular cartilage explants were harvested from newborn bovine femoropatellar groove. The effects of IL-1 treatment with or without aggrecanase blockade were investigated by Western analysis of aggrecan fragment generation, ADAMTS4 species (p68 and p53), and MT4-MMP, as well as by realtime PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for ADAMTS4 and 5. Aggrecanase was blocked with mannosamine (ManN), an inhibitor of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor synthesis, and esculetin (EST), an inhibitor of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 gene expression.IL-1 treatment caused a major increase in MT4-MMP abundance in the tissue and medium. ADAMTS4 (p68) was abundant in fresh cartilage and this was retained in the tissue in untreated cartilage. IL-1 treatment for 6 days caused a marked loss of p68 from the cartilage and the appearance of p53 in the medium. Addition of either 1.35 mM ManN or 31-500 microM EST blocked IL-1-mediated aggrecanolysis and this was accompanied by nearly complete inhibition of the MT4-MMP increase, the p68 loss and the formation of p53. IL-1 treatment increased mRNA abundance for ADAMTS4 ( approximately 3-fold) and ADAMTS5 ( approximately 10-fold) but this was not accompanied by a marked change in enzyme protein abundance.These studies support a central role for MT4-MMP in IL-1-induced cartilage aggrecanolysis and are consistent with the identification of p68 as the aggrecanase that cleaves within the CS2 domain, and of p53 as the aggrecanase that generates G1-NITEGE. Since the induction by IL-1 was not accompanied by marked changes in total ADAMTS4 protein, but rather in partial conversion of p68 to p53 and release of both from the tissue, we conclude that aggrecanolysis in this model system results from MT4-MMP-mediated processing of a resident pool of ADAMTS4 and release of the p68 and p53 from their normal association with the cell surface.
Project description:N-terminal analysis of aggrecan fragments lost from bovine nasal cartilage cultured in the presence of recombinant human interleukin 1alpha revealed a predominant ARGSVIL sequence with an additional ADLEX sequence. Production of the ARGSVIL-containing fragments has been attributed to the action of a putative proteinase, aggrecanase. The minor sequence (ADLEX) corresponds to a new reported cleavage product; comparison of this sequence with the available partial sequence of bovine aggrecan indicates that this is the product of a cleavage occurring towards the C-terminus of the protein. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors inhibited aggrecan loss from bovine nasal explants incubated in the presence of recombinant human interleukin 1alpha. A strong correlation between inhibition of aggrecan metabolism and inhibition of stromelysin 1 (MMP 3) (r=0.93) suggests a role for stromelysin or a stromelysin-like enzyme in cartilage aggrecan metabolism. However, the compounds were approx. 1/1000 as potent in inhibiting aggrecan loss from the cartilage explants as they were in inhibiting stromelysin. There was little or no correlation between inhibition of aggrecan metabolism and inhibition of gelatinase B (MMP 9) or inhibition of collagenase 1 (MMP 1). Studies with collagenase inhibitors with a range of potencies showed a correlation between inhibition of collagenase activity and inhibition of collagen degradation in the cartilage explant assay. This indicates that in interleukin 1alpha-driven bovine nasal cartilage destruction, stromelysin (or a closely related enzyme) is involved in aggrecan metabolism, whereas collagenase is principally responsible for collagen degradation.
Project description:A hallmark of osteoarthritis is increased proteolytic cleavage of aggrecan. Cross talk between cartilage and the synovium + joint capsule (SJC) can drive cartilage degradation by activating proteases in both tissues. We investigated aggrecan proteolysis patterns in cartilage explants using a physiologically relevant explant model of joint injury combining cartilage mechanical compression and coincubation with SJC.Bovine cartilage explants were untreated; coincubated with SJC; or subjected to mechanical injury and coincubated with SJC, mechanical injury alone, or mechanical injury and incubated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). To compare the patterns of aggrecan proteolysis between 6 h and 16 days, release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and specific proteolytic aggrecan fragments into medium or remaining in cartilage explants was measured by dimethylmethylene blue and Western blot analysis.Aggrecanase activity toward aggrecan was observed in all conditions, but it was directed toward the TEGE↓ARGS interglobular domain (IGD) site only when cartilage was coincubated with SJC or TNF-α. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity at the aggrecan IGD site (IPES↓FFGV) was not detected when cartilage was exposed to TNF-α (up to 6 days), but it was in all other conditions. Compared with when bovine cartilage was left untreated or subjected to mechanical injury alone, additional aggrecan fragment types were released into medium and proteolysis of aggrecan started at an earlier time when SJC was present.Indicative of different proteolytic pathways for aggrecan degradation, the SJC increases both aggrecanase and MMP activity toward aggrecan, whereas TNF-α inhibits MMP activity against the IGD of aggrecan.
Project description:A rat chondrosarcoma cell line and bovine cartilage explants have been used to study the control of aggrecan degradation by chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1 (IL-1) or retinoic acid (RA). Aggrecan fragment analysis with anti-neo-epitope antibodies suggests that aggrecanase (an as yet unidentified enzyme) is the only aggrecan-degrading proteinase active in these cultures. With rat cells, aggrecanase converts the aggrecan core protein into two major G1-domain-bearing products (60 kDa with a C-terminal Glu-373, and 220 kDa with a C-terminal Glu-1459). Both products were quantified on a standardized Western analysis system with a G1-specific antibody. Immunoblots were analysed by scanning densitometry and the sensitivity, linearity and reproducibility of the assay were established. With rat cells the aggrecanase response to IL-1 was optimal at about 2 mM glutamine, but was progressively inhibited at higher concentrations, with about 90% inhibition at 10 mM glutamine. Such inhibition by glutamine was not, however, observed with bovine explants. On the other hand, marked inhibition of aggrecanase-dependent cleavage was observed with both rat cells and bovine explants when d(+)-glucosamine was included at concentrations above 2 mM. Inhibition was apparently not due to cytotoxicity or interference with IL-1 signalling, since biosynthetic activity was not inhibited and inhibition of the aggrecanase response was also obtained when RA was used as the catabolic stimulator. Possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the aggrecanase response by glucosamine in chondrocytes treated with IL-1 or RA are discussed.
Project description:The importance of aggrecanase versus matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymic activities in the degradation of aggrecan in normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage in vitro was studied in order to further our understanding of the potential role of these two enzyme activities in aggrecan catabolism during the pathogenesis of cartilage degeneration. Porcine and bovine articular cartilage was maintained in explant culture for up to 20 days in the presence or absence of the catabolic stimuli retinoic acid, interleukin-1 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Release of proteoglycan from cartilage was measured as glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release using a colorimetric assay. Analysis of proteoglycan degradation products, both released into culture media and retained within the cartilage matrix, was performed by Western blotting using antibodies specific for the N- and C-terminal neoepitopes generated by aggrecanase- and MMP-related catabolism of the interglobular domain of the aggrecan core protein (IGD). In addition, studies determining the mRNA expression for MMP-3 and MMP-13 in these same cultures were undertaken. These analyses indicated that all three catabolic agents stimulated the release of >80% of the GAG from the articular cartilage over 4 days. The degree of GAG release corresponded to an increase in aggrecanase-generated aggrecan catabolites released into the media and retained within the cartilage. Importantly, there was no evidence for the release of MMP-generated aggrecan metabolites into the medium, nor the accumulation of MMP-generated catabolites within the tissue in these same cultures. Expression of the mRNAs for two MMPs known to be capable of degrading the aggrecan IGD, MMP-3 and MMP-13, was detected. However, increased expression of these MMPs was not correlated with aggrecan degradation. Analyses using porcine cartilage, cultured with or without catabolic stimulation for 12 h to 20 days, indicated that primary cleavage of the IGD by aggrecanase was responsible for release of aggrecan metabolites at both the early and late time points of culture. Cultures of late-stage OA human articular cartilage samples indicated that aggrecanase activity was upregulated in the absence of catabolic stimulation when compared with normal porcine or bovine cartilage. In addition, even in this late-stage degenerate cartilage, aggrecanase and not MMP activity was responsible for the release of the majority of aggrecan from the cartilage. This study demonstrates that the release of aggrecan from both normal and OA cartilage in response to catabolic stimulation in vitro involves a primary cleavage by aggrecanase and not MMPs.
Project description:We studied changes in chondrocyte gene expression, aggrecan degradation, and aggrecanase production and activity in normal and mechanically injured cartilage co-cultured with joint capsule tissue. Chondrocyte expression of 21 genes was measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h after treatment; clustering analysis enabled identification of co-expression profiles. Aggrecan fragments retained in cartilage and released to medium and loss of cartilage sGAG were quantified. Increased expression of MMP-13 and ADAMTS4 clustered with effects of co-culture, while increased expression of ADAMTS5, MMP-3, TGF-beta, c-fos, c-jun clustered with cartilage injury. ADAMTS5 protein within cartilage (immunohistochemistry) increased following injury and with co-culture. Cartilage sGAG decreased over 16-days, most severely following injury plus co-culture. Cartilage aggrecan was cleaved at aggrecanase sites in the interglobular and C-terminal domains, resulting in loss of the G3 domain, especially after injury plus co-culture. Together, these results support the hypothesis that interactions between injured cartilage and other joint tissues are important in matrix catabolism after joint injury.
Project description:Native and recombinant neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) was shown to cleave at the E373-A374 'aggrecanase' site in the interglobular domain of aggrecan. The time course of digestion in vitro showed that MMP-8 cleaved initially at N341-F342, the predominant metalloproteinase site, before cleaving at the E373-A374 site. A synthetic peptide, IPENFFG, inhibited cleavage at E373-A374 but not N341-F342 in vitro, indicating that the E373-A374 sequence was a less preferred site for MMP-8 cleavage than N341-F342. IPENFFG also inhibited release of A374 RGSVI fragments from cartilage in explant culture, suggesting that a metalloproteinase cleaved at the aggrecanase site in situ. The possibility remains that 'aggrecanase' may be a metalloproteinase in cartilage.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The specific degradation of type II collagen and aggrecan by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, -13 and ADAMTS-4 and -5 (aggrecanase-1 and -2) in the cartilage matrix is a critical step in pathology of osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were: i) To investigate the relative contribution of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 to cartilage degradation upon catabolic stimulation; ii) To investigate the effect of regulating the activities of key enzymes by mean of broad-spectrum inhibitors.<h4>Methods</h4>Bovine full-depth cartilage explants stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and Oncostatin M (OSM) were cultured for 21 days with or without a number of inhibitors targeting different types of proteases. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the active sites of ADAMTS-4, -5, MMP-9 and -13, and 4 ELISAs were developed and technically validated. In addition, the established AGNxI (ADAMTS-degraded aggrecan), AGNxII (MMP-degraded aggrecan), and CTX-II (MMP-derived type II collagen) were quantified in the explants-conditioned media.<h4>Results</h4>We found that: i) Active ADAMTS-4, MMP-9, -13 were released in the late stage of TNF-?/ OSM stimulation, whereas no significant active ADAMTS-5 was detected in either extracts or supernatants; ii) Active ADAMTS-4 was primarily responsible for E373-374A bond cleavage in aggrecan in this setting; and iii) The compensatory mechanism could be triggered following the blockage of the enzyme caused by inhibitors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>ADAMTS-4 appeared to be the major protease for the generation of 374ARGS aggrecan fragment in the TNF-?/OSM stimulated bovine cartilage explants. This study addresses the need to determine the roles of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 in human articular degradation in OA and hence identify the attractive target for slowing down human cartilage breakdown.