Regulation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) by raptor Ser863 and multisite phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: The rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) promotes protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation in response to growth factors and nutritional cues. To elucidate the poorly defined mechanisms underlying mTORC1 regulation, we have studied the phosphorylation of raptor, an mTOR-interacting partner. We have identified six raptor phosphorylation sites that lie in two centrally localized clusters (cluster 1, Ser(696)/Thr(706) and cluster 2, Ser(855)/Ser(859)/Ser(863)/Ser(877)) using tandem mass spectrometry and generated phosphospecific antibodies for each of these sites. Here we focus primarily although not exclusively on raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation. We report that insulin promotes mTORC1-associated phosphorylation of raptor Ser(863) via the canonical PI3K/TSC/Rheb pathway in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. mTORC1 activation by other stimuli (e.g. amino acids, epidermal growth factor/MAPK signaling, and cellular energy) also promote raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation. Rheb overexpression increases phosphorylation on raptor Ser(863) as well as on the five other identified sites (e.g. Ser(859), Ser(855), Ser(877), Ser(696), and Thr(706)). Strikingly, raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation is absolutely required for raptor Ser(859) and Ser(855) phosphorylation. These data suggest that mTORC1 activation leads to raptor multisite phosphorylation and that raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation functions as a master biochemical switch that modulates hierarchical raptor phosphorylation (e.g. on Ser(859) and Ser(855)). Importantly, mTORC1 containing phosphorylation site-defective raptor exhibits reduced in vitro kinase activity toward the substrate 4EBP1, with a multisite raptor 6A mutant more strongly defective that single-site raptor S863A. Taken together, these data suggest that complex raptor phosphorylation functions as a biochemical rheostat that modulates mTORC1 signaling in accordance with environmental cues.
Project description:mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is a multiprotein complex that integrates diverse signals including growth factors, nutrients, and stress to control cell growth. Raptor is an essential component of mTORC1 that functions to recruit specific substrates. Recently, Raptor was suggested to be a key target of regulation of mTORC1. Here, we show that Raptor is phosphorylated by JNK upon osmotic stress. We identified that osmotic stress induces the phosphorylation of Raptor at Ser-696, Thr-706, and Ser-863 using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that JNK is responsible for the phosphorylation. The inhibition of JNK abolishes the phosphorylation of Raptor induced by osmotic stress in cells. Furthermore, JNK physically associates with Raptor and phosphorylates Raptor in vitro, implying that JNK is responsible for the phosphorylation of Raptor. Finally, we found that osmotic stress activates mTORC1 kinase activity in a JNK-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the molecular link between JNK and Raptor is a potential mechanism by which stress regulates the mTORC1 signaling pathway.
Project description:Cell growth is influenced by environmental stress. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the central regulator of cell growth, can be positively or negatively regulated by various stresses through different mechanisms. The p38 MAP kinase pathway is essential in cellular stress responses. Activation of MK2, a downstream kinase of p38?, enhances mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity by preventing TSC2 from inhibiting mTOR activation. The p38?-PRAK cascade targets Rheb to inhibit mTORC1 activity upon glucose depletion. Here we show the activation of p38? participates in activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) induced by arsenite but not insulin, nutrients, anisomycin, or H(2)O(2). Arsenite treatment of cells activates p38? and induces interaction between p38? and Raptor, a regulatory component of mTORC1, resulting in phosphorylation of Raptor on Ser(863) and Ser(771). The phosphorylation of Raptor on these sites enhances mTORC1 activity, and contributes largely to arsenite-induced mTORC1 activation. Our results shown here and in previous work demonstrate that the p38 pathway can regulate different components of the mTORC1 pathway, and that p38? can target different substrates to either positively or negatively regulate mTORC1 activation when a cell encounters different environmental stresses.
Project description:Cell growth can be suppressed by stressful environments, but the role of stress pathways in this process is largely unknown. Here we show that a cascade of p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38-regulated/activated kinase (PRAK) plays a role in energy-starvation-induced suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and that energy starvation activates the p38?-PRAK cascade. Depletion of p38? or PRAK diminishes the suppression of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and reduction of cell size induced by energy starvation. We show that p38?-PRAK operates independently of the known mTORC1 inactivation pathways--phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis protein 2 (TSC2) and Raptor by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)--and surprisingly, that PRAK directly regulates Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb), a key component of the mTORC1 pathway, by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Rheb at Ser 130 by PRAK impairs the nucleotide-binding ability of Rheb and inhibits Rheb-mediated mTORC1 activation. The direct regulation of Rheb by PRAK integrates a stress pathway with the mTORC1 pathway in response to energy depletion.
Project description:Rheb G-protein plays critical roles in the TSC/Rheb/mTOR signaling pathway by activating mTORC1. The activation of mTORC1 by Rheb can be faithfully reproduced in vitro by using mTORC1 immunoprecipitated by the use of anti-raptor antibody from mammalian cells starved for nutrients. The low in vitro kinase activity against 4E-BP1 of this mTORC1 preparation is dramatically increased by the addition of recombinant Rheb. On the other hand, the addition of Rheb does not activate mTORC2 immunoprecipitated from mammalian cells by the use of anti-rictor antibody. The activation of mTORC1 is specific to Rheb, because other G-proteins such as KRas, RalA/B, and Cdc42 did not activate mTORC1. Both Rheb1 and Rheb2 activate mTORC1. In addition, the activation is dependent on the presence of bound GTP. We also find that the effector domain of Rheb is required for the mTORC1 activation. FKBP38, a recently proposed mediator of Rheb action, appears not to be involved in the Rheb-dependent activation of mTORC1 in vitro, because the preparation of mTORC1 that is devoid of FKBP38 is still activated by Rheb. The addition of Rheb results in a significant increase of binding of the substrate protein 4E-BP1 to mTORC1. PRAS40, a TOR signaling (TOS) motif-containing protein that competes with the binding of 4EBP1 to mTORC1, inhibits Rheb-induced activation of mTORC1. A preparation of mTORC1 that is devoid of raptor is not activated by Rheb. Rheb does not induce autophosphorylation of mTOR. These results suggest that Rheb induces alteration in the binding of 4E-BP1 with mTORC1 to regulate mTORC1 activation.
Project description:Intestinal cell kinase (ICK), named after its cloning origin, the intestine, is actually a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase. Recently we reported that ICK supports cell proliferation and G(1) cell cycle progression. ICK deficiency significantly disrupted the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling events. However, the biological substrates that mediate the downstream signaling effects of ICK in proliferation and the molecular mechanisms by which ICK interacts with mTORC1 are not well defined. Our prior studies also provided biochemical evidence that ICK interacts with the mTOR/Raptor complex in cells and phosphorylates Raptor in vitro. In this report, we investigated whether and how ICK targets Raptor to regulate the activity of mTORC1. Using the ICK substrate consensus sequence [R-P-X-S/T-P/A/T/S], we identified a putative phosphorylation site, RPGT908T, for ICK in human Raptor. By mass spectrometry and a phospho-specific antibody, we showed that Raptor Thr-908 is a novel in vivo phosphorylation site. ICK is able to phosphorylate Raptor Thr-908 both in vitro and in vivo and when Raptor exists in protein complexes with or without mTOR. Although expression of the Raptor T908A mutant did not affect the mTORC1 integrity, it markedly impaired the mTORC1 activation by insulin or by overexpression of the small GTP-binding protein RheB under nutrient starvation. Our findings demonstrate an important role for ICK in modulating the activity of mTORC1 through phosphorylation of Raptor Thr-908 and thus implicate a potential signaling mechanism by which ICK regulates cell proliferation and division.
Project description:In this study, we explored the coordinate regulation of mTORC1 by insulin and amino acids. Rat livers were perfused with medium containing various concentrations of insulin and/or amino acids. At fasting (1×) or 2× (2×AA) concentrations of amino acids, insulin maximally stimulated Akt phosphorylation but had no effect on global rates of protein synthesis. In the absence of insulin, 4×AA produced a moderate stimulation of protein synthesis and activation of mTORC1. The combination of 4×AA and insulin produced a maximal stimulation of protein synthesis and activation of mTORC1. These effects were accompanied by decreases in raptor and PRAS40 and an increase in RagC associated with mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). The studies were extended to a cell culture model in which mTORC1 activity was repressed by deprivation of leucine and serum, and resupplementation with the amino acid and insulin acted in an additive manner to restore mTORC1 activation. In deprived cells, mTORC1 was activated by expressing either constitutively active (ca) Rheb or a caRagB·caRagC complex, and coexpression of the constructs had an additive effect. Notably, resupplementation with leucine in cells expressing caRheb or with insulin in cells expressing the caRagB·caRagC complex was as effective as resupplementation with both leucine and insulin in non-transfected cells. Moreover, changes in mTORC1 activity correlated directly with altered association of mTOR with RagB/RagC, Rheb, raptor, and PRAS40. Overall, the results suggest that amino acids signal through the Rag complex and insulin through Rheb to achieve coordinate activation of mTORC1.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Tetrameric ?(2)-macroglobulin (?(2)M), a plasma panproteinase inhibitor, is activated upon interaction with a proteinase, and undergoes a major conformational change exposing a receptor recognition site in each of its subunits. Activated ?(2)M (?(2)M*) binds to cancer cell surface GRP78 and triggers proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling. We have studied the role of ?(2)M* in the regulation of mTORC1 and TORC2 signaling in the growth of human prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Employing immunoprecipitation techniques and Western blotting as well as kinase assays, activation of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, as well as down stream targets were studied. RNAi was also employed to silence expression of Raptor, Rictor, or GRP78 in parallel studies. RESULTS: Stimulation of cells with ?(2)M* promotes phosphorylation of mTOR, TSC2, S6-Kinase, 4EBP, Akt(T308), and Akt(S473) in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Rheb, Raptor, and Rictor also increased. ?(2)M* treatment of cells elevated mTORC1 kinase activity as determined by kinase assays of mTOR or Raptor immunoprecipitates. mTORC1 activity was sensitive to LY294002 and rapamycin or transfection of cells with GRP78 dsRNA. Down regulation of Raptor expression by RNAi significantly reduced ?(2)M*-induced S6-Kinase phosphorylation at T389 and kinase activity in Raptor immunoprecipitates. ?(2)M*-treated cells demonstrate about a twofold increase in mTORC2 kinase activity as determined by kinase assay of Akt(S473) phosphorylation and levels of p-Akt(S473) in mTOR and Rictor immunoprecipitates. mTORC2 activity was sensitive to LY294002 and transfection of cells with GRP78 dsRNA, but insensitive to rapamycin. Down regulation of Rictor expression by RNAi significantly reduces ?(2)M*-induced phosphorylation of Akt(S473) phosphorylation in Rictor immunoprecipitates. CONCLUSION: Binding of ?(2)M* to prostate cancer cell surface GRP78 upregulates mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation and promotes protein synthesis in the prostate cancer cells.
Project description:The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy levels, and growth factors. It contains the atypical kinase mTOR and the RAPTOR subunit that binds to the Tor signalling sequence (TOS) motif of substrates and regulators. mTORC1 is activated by the small GTPase RHEB (Ras homologue enriched in brain) and inhibited by PRAS40. Here we present the 3.0 ångström cryo-electron microscopy structure of mTORC1 and the 3.4 ångström structure of activated RHEB-mTORC1. RHEB binds to mTOR distally from the kinase active site, yet causes a global conformational change that allosterically realigns active-site residues, accelerating catalysis. Cancer-associated hyperactivating mutations map to structural elements that maintain the inactive state, and we provide biochemical evidence that they mimic RHEB relieving auto-inhibition. We also present crystal structures of RAPTOR-TOS motif complexes that define the determinants of TOS recognition, of an mTOR FKBP12-rapamycin-binding (FRB) domain-substrate complex that establishes a second substrate-recruitment mechanism, and of a truncated mTOR-PRAS40 complex that reveals PRAS40 inhibits both substrate-recruitment sites. These findings help explain how mTORC1 selects its substrates, how its kinase activity is controlled, and how it is activated by cancer-associated mutations.
Project description:The mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) protein kinase regulates growth in response to nutrients and growth factors. Nutrients promote its translocation to the lysosomal surface, where its Raptor subunit interacts with the Rag guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-Ragulator complex. Nutrients switch the heterodimeric Rag GTPases among four different nucleotide-binding states, only one of which (RagA/B•GTP-RagC/D•GDP) permits mTORC1 association. We used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure of the supercomplex of Raptor with Rag-Ragulator at a resolution of 3.2 angstroms. Our findings indicate that the Raptor ?-solenoid directly detects the nucleotide state of RagA while the Raptor "claw" threads between the GTPase domains to detect that of RagC. Mutations that disrupted Rag-Raptor binding inhibited mTORC1 lysosomal localization and signaling. By comparison with a structure of mTORC1 bound to its activator Rheb, we developed a model of active mTORC1 docked on the lysosome.
Project description:The Hippo and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways are the two predominant growth-control pathways that dictate proper organ development. We therefore explored potential crosstalk between these two functionally relevant pathways to coordinate their growth-control functions. We found that the LATS1 and LATS2 kinases, the core components of the Hippo pathway, phosphorylate S606 of Raptor, an essential component of mTORC1, to attenuate mTORC1 activation by impairing the interaction of Raptor with Rheb. The phosphomimetic Raptor-S606D knock-in mutant led to a reduction in cell size and proliferation. Compared with Raptor+/+ mice, RaptorD/D knock-in mice exhibited smaller livers and hearts, and a significant inhibition of elevation in mTORC1 signalling induced by Nf2 or Lats1 and Lats2 loss. Thus, our study reveals a direct link between the Hippo and mTORC1 pathways to fine-tune organ growth.