AP24534, a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for chronic myeloid leukemia, potently inhibits the T315I mutant and overcomes mutation-based resistance.
ABSTRACT: Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL(T315I)-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by a constitutive activation of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Bcr-Abl/T315I is the predominant mutation that causes resistance to Imatinib. In the present study, we synthesized a novel Bcr-Abl inhibitor, HS-543, and investigated its effect on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl/T315I (BaF3/T315I) or wild-type Bcr-Abl (BaF3/WT). HS-543 showed anti-proliferative effects in the BaF3/WT cells as well as the BaF3/T315I cells with resistance to Imatinib and strongly inhibited the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it significantly increased the sub G1 phase associated with early apoptosis, with increased levels of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3, as well as the TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that HS-543 induced apoptosis with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential by decreasing the expression of Mcl-1 and survivin, together with increasing that of Bax. In BaF3/T315I xenograft models, HS-543 significantly delayed tumor growth, unlike Imatinib. Our results demonstrate that HS-543 exhibits the induction of apoptosis and anti-proliferative effect by blocking the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in the T315I-mutated Bcr-Abl cells with resistance to Imatinib. We suggest that HS-543 may be a novel promising agent to target Bcr-Abl and overcome Imatinib resistance in CML patients.
Project description:The emergence of resistance to imatinib mediated by mutations in the BCR-ABL has become a major challenge in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Alternative therapeutic strategies to override imatinib-resistant CML are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the effect of AKI603, a novel small molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinase A (AurA) to overcome resistance mediated by BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. Our results showed that AKI603 exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity in leukemic cells. AKI603 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation capacities in imatinib-resistant CML cells by inducing cell cycle arrest with polyploidy accumulation. Surprisingly, inhibition of AurA by AKI603 induced leukemia cell senescence in both BCR-ABL wild type and T315I mutation cells. Furthermore, the induction of senescence was associated with enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Moreover, the anti-tumor effect of AKI603 was proved in the BALB/c nude mice KBM5-T315I xenograft model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the small molecule AurA inhibitor AKI603 may be used to overcome drug resistance induced by BCR-ABL-T315I mutation in CML.
Project description:Chromosomal translocations generating the BCR-ABL oncogene cause chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation confers drug resistance to FDA-approved targeted therapeutics imatinib mesylate, dasatinib, and nilotinib. We tested the ability of a recombinant yeast-based vaccine expressing the T315I-mutated BCR-ABL antigen to stimulate an anti-BCR-ABL(T315I) immune response. The yeast-based immunotherapy significantly reduced or eliminated BCR-ABL(T315I) leukemia cells from the peripheral blood of immunized animals and extended leukemia-free survival in a murine model of BCR-ABL(+) leukemia compared to animals receiving sham injection or yeast expressing ovalbumin. With immunization, leukemic cells harboring BCR-ABL(T315I) were selectively eliminated after challenge with a mixed population of BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL(T315I) leukemias. In summary, yeast-based immunotherapy represents a novel approach against the emergence of cancer drug resistance by the pre-emptive targeted ablation of tumor escape mutants.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL fusion protein is the driver in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The gate-keeper mutation T315I is the most challenging mutant due to its resistance to most tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The third generation TKI ponatinib is the only effective TKI to treat CML patients harboring T315I-BCR-ABL mutation, but with high rate of major arterial thrombotic events. Alternative strategies to specifically target T315I-BCR-ABL are needed for the treatment of CML patients harboring such a mutation. Given that Sp1 is a fundamental transcriptional factor to positively regulate WT-BCR-ABL fusion oncogene, the purpose of this investigation was aimed at evaluating the anti-tumor activity and the underlying mechanism in terms of Sp1 regulational effect on the transcription of T315I-BCR-ABL fusion oncogene. Like in WT-BCR-ABL, we identified enrichment of Sp1 on the promoter of T315I-BCR-ABL fusion gene. Treatment of WT- and T315I-BCR-ABL-expressing CML cells by niclosamide diminished such an enrichment of Sp1, and decreased WT- and T315I-BCR-ABL transcription and its downstream signaling molecules such as STAT5 and Akt. Further, niclosamide significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis through intrinsic pathway. The in vivo efficacy validation of p-niclosamide, a water soluble derivative of niclosamide, showed that p-niclosamide significantly inhibited the tumor burden of nude mice subcutaneously bearing T315I-BCR-ABL-expressing CML cells, and prolonged the survival of allografted leukemic mice harboring BaF3-T315I-BCR-ABL. We conclude that niclosamide is active against T315I-BCR-ABL-expressing cells, and may be a promising agent for CML patients regardless of T315I mutation status.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by constitutively active fusion protein tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) against BCR-ABL, imatinib, is the first-line therapy for CML, acquired resistance almost inevitably emerges. The underlying mechanism are point mutations within the BCR-ABL gene, among which T315I is notorious because it resists to almost all currently available inhibitors. Here we took use of a previously generated chimeric ubiquitin ligase, SH2-U-box, in which SH2 from the adaptor protein Grb2 acts as a binding domain for activated BCR-ABL, while U-box from CHIP functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase domain, so as to target the ubiquitination and degradation of both native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL. As such, SH2-U-box significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in CML cells harboring either the wild-type or T315I-mutant BCR-ABL (K562 or K562R), with BCR-ABL-dependent signaling pathways being repressed. Moreover, SH2-U-box worked in concert with imatinib in K562 cells. Importantly, SH2-U-box-carrying lentivirus could markedly suppress the growth of K562-xenografts in nude mice or K562R-xenografts in SCID mice, as well as that of primary CML cells. Collectively, by degrading the native and T315I-mutant BCR-ABL, the chimeric ubiquitin ligase SH2-U-box may serve as a potential therapy for both imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the chimeric tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl-T315I is the notorious point mutation that causes resistance to imatinib and the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, leading to poor prognosis. CML blasts have constitutive p65 (RelA NF-kappaB) transcriptional activity, and NF-kappaB may be a potential target for molecular therapies in CML that may also be effective against CML cells with Bcr-Abl-T315I. RESULTS: In this report, we discovered that pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in CML cells, including the cells harboring Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation. Additionally, pristimerin inhibited the growth of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Pristimerin blocked the TNFalpha-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, translocation of p65, and expression of NF-kappaB-regulated genes. Pristimerin inhibited two steps in NF-kappaB signaling: TAK1TauIKK and IKKTauIkappaBalpha. Pristimerin potently inhibited two pairs of CML cell lines (KBM5 versus KBM5-T315I, 32D-Bcr-Abl versus 32D-Bcr-Abl-T315I) and primary cells from a CML patient with acquired resistance to imatinib. The mRNA and protein levels of Bcr-Abl in imatinib-sensitive (KBM5) or imatinib-resistant (KBM5-T315I) CML cells were reduced after pristimerin treatment. Further, inactivation of Bcr-Abl by imatinib pretreatment did not abrogate the TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation while silencing p65 by siRNA did not affect the levels of Bcr-Abl, both results together indicating that NF-kappaB inactivation and Bcr-Abl inhibition may be parallel independent pathways. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that pristimerin is effective in vitro and in vivo against CML cells, including those with the T315I mutation. The mechanisms may involve inhibition of NF-kappaB and Bcr-Abl. We concluded that pristimerin could be a lead compound for further drug development to overcome imatinib resistance in CML patients.
Project description:The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has considerably improved the survival of patients suffering chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Indeed, inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib, dasatinib or nilotinib triggers durable responses in most patients suffering from this disease. Moreover, resistance to imatinib due to kinase domain mutations can be generally circumvented using dasatinib or nilotinib, but the multi-resistant T315I mutation that is insensitive to these TKIs, remains to date a major clinical problem. In this line, ponatinib (AP24534) has emerged as a promising therapeutic option in patients with all kinds of BCR-ABL mutations, especially the T315I one. However and surprisingly, the effect of ponatinib has not been extensively studied on imatinib-resistant CML cell lines. Therefore, in the present study, we used several CML cell lines with different mechanisms of resistance to TKI to evaluate the effect of ponatinib on cell viability, apoptosis and signaling. Our results show that ponatinib is highly effective on both sensitive and resistant CML cell lines, whatever the mode of resistance and also on BaF3 murine B cells carrying native BCR-ABL or T315I mutation. We conclude that ponatinib could be effectively used for all types of TKI-resistant patients.
Project description:The introduction of imatinib into the clinical scene revolutionized the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The overall eight-year survival rate for CML has increased from about 6?% in the 1970s to over 90?% in the imatinib era. However, about 20?% of CML patients harbor primary or acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ABL1 point mutations in the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, such as ABL1(T315I), typically emerge after prolonged kinase inhibitor treatment. Ponatinib (AP24534) is currently the only approved CML drug that is active against the ABL1(T315I) mutation. However, ponatinib has severe cardiovascular toxicities; hence, there have been efforts to find safer CML drugs that work against ABL1 secondary mutations. We reveal that isoquinoline- or naphthyridine-based compounds, such as HSN431, HSN576, HSN459, and HSN608 potently inhibit the enzymatic activities of ABL1, ABL1(T315I), and ABL1(E255K). These compounds inhibit the proliferation of ABL1-driven CML cell lines, K652 and KCL22 as well as the drug-resistant cell line, KCL22-IR, which harbors the secondary mutated ABL1(T315I) kinase.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal malignant disease caused by the expression of BCR/ABL. MDM2 (human homolog of the murine double minute-2) inhibitors such as Nutlin-3 have been shown to induce apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner in CML cells and sensitize cells to Imatinib. Here, we demonstrate that JNJ-26854165, an inhibitor of MDM2, inhibits proliferation and triggers cell death in a p53-independent manner in various BCR/ABL-expressing cells, which include primary leukemic cells from patients with CML blast crisis and cells expressing the Imatinib-resistant T315I BCR/ABL mutant. The response to JNJ-26854165 is associated with the downregulation of BCR/ABL dependently of proteosome activation. Moreover, in all tested CML cells, with the exception of T315I mutation cells, combining JNJ-26854165 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Imatinib or PD180970 leads to a synergistic effect. In conclusion, our results suggest that JNJ-26854165, used either alone or in combination with TKIs, represents a promising novel targeted approach to overcome TKI resistance and improve patient outcome in CML.
Project description:The second generation of Bcr-Abl inhibitors nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib developed to override imatinib resistance are not active against the T315I "gatekeeper" mutation. Here we describe a type-II T315I inhibitor 2 (GNF-7), based upon a 3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one scaffold which is capable of potently inhibiting wild-type and T315I Bcr-Abl as well as other clinically relevant Bcr-Abl mutants such as G250E, Q252H, Y253H, E255K, E255V, F317L, and M351T in biochemical and cellular assays. In addition, compound 2 displayed significant in vivo efficacy against T315I-Bcr-Abl without appreciable toxicity in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model using a transformed T315I-Bcr-Abl-Ba/F3 cell line that has a stable luciferase expression. Compound 2 is among the first type-II inhibitors capable of inhibiting T315I to be described and will serve as a valuable lead to design the third generation Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitors.