Specific roles of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 (GluA1) phosphorylation sites in regulating synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of hippocampus.
ABSTRACT: Activity-dependent changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS have been shown to depend on the regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). In particular, several lines of evidence suggest that reversible phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1, also referred to as GluA1 or GluR-A) plays a role in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). We previously reported that regulation of serines (S) 831 and 845 on the GluR1 subunit may play a critical role in bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1. Specifically, gene knockin mice lacking both S831 and S845 phosphorylation sites ("double phosphomutants"), where both serine residues were replaced by alanines (A), showed a faster decaying LTP and a deficit in LTD. To determine which of the two phosphorylation sites was responsible for the phenotype, we have now generated two lines of gene knockin mice: one that specifically lacks S831 (S831A mutants) and another that lacks only S845 (S845A mutants). We found that S831A mutants display normal LTP and LTD, whereas S845A mutants show a specific deficit in LTD. Taken together with our previous results from the "double phosphomutants," our data suggest that either S831 or S845 alone may support LTP, whereas the S845 site is critical for LTD expression.
Project description:AMPA receptor (AMPAR) channel properties and function are regulated by its subunit composition and phosphorylation. Certain types of neural activity can recruit Ca(2+)-permeable (CP) AMPARs, such as GluR1 homomers, to synapses likely via lateral diffusion from extrasynaptic sites. Here we show that GluR1-S845 phosphorylation can alter the subunit composition of perisynaptic AMPARs by providing stability to GluR1 homomers. Using mice specifically lacking phosphorylation of the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), we demonstrate that this site is necessary for maintaining CP-AMPARs. Specifically, in the GluR1-S845A mutants, CP-AMPARs were absent from perisynaptic locations mainly due to lysosomal degradation. This regulation was mimicked by acute desphosphorylation of the GluR1-S845 site in wild-type mice by NMDA application. Furthermore, long-term depression (LTD) was associated with a reduction in perisynaptic CP-AMPAR levels. Our findings suggest that GluR1-S845 is necessary for maintaining CP-AMPARs on the surface, especially at perisynaptic sites, and suggest that the regulation of these receptors is involved in synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Sensory experience, and the lack thereof, can alter the function of excitatory synapses in the primary sensory cortices. Recent evidence suggests that changes in sensory experience can regulate the synaptic level of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a process have not been determined. We found that binocular visual deprivation, which is a well-established in vivo model to produce multiplicative synaptic scaling in visual cortex of juvenile rodents, is accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPAR GluR1 (or GluA1) subunit at the serine 845 (S845) site and the appearance of CP-AMPARs at synapses. To address the role of GluR1-S845 in visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity, we used mice lacking key phosphorylation sites on the GluR1 subunit. We found that mice specifically lacking the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), which is a substrate of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), show abnormal basal excitatory synaptic transmission and lack visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We also found evidence that increasing GluR1-S845 phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to produce normal multiplicative synaptic scaling. Our study provides concrete evidence that a GluR1 dependent mechanism, especially S845 phosphorylation, is a necessary pre-requisite step for in vivo homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Bidirectional synaptic plasticity occurs locally at individual synapses during long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), or globally during homeostatic scaling. LTP, LTD, and homeostatic scaling alter synaptic strength through changes in postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), suggesting the existence of overlapping molecular mechanisms. Phosphorylation controls AMPAR trafficking during LTP/LTD. We addressed the role of AMPAR phosphorylation during homeostatic scaling. We observed bidirectional changes of the levels of phosphorylated GluA1 S845 during scaling, resulting from a loss of protein kinase A (PKA) from synapses during scaling down and enhanced activity of PKA in synapses during scaling up. Increased phosphorylation of S845 drove scaling up, while a knockin mutation of S845, or knockdown of the scaffold AKAP5, blocked scaling up. Finally, we show that AMPARs scale differentially based on their phosphorylation status at S845. These results show that rearrangement in PKA signaling controls AMPAR phosphorylation and surface targeting during homeostatic plasticity.
Project description:Phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors has been proposed to regulate receptor trafficking and synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it remains unclear whether GluA1 phosphorylation is permissive or sufficient for enacting these functional changes. Here we investigate the role of GluA1 phosphorylation at S831 and S845 residues in the hippocampus through the analyses of GluA1 S831D/S845D phosphomimetic knock-in mice. S831D/S845D mice showed normal total and surface expression and subcellular localization of GluA1 as well as intact basal synaptic transmission. In addition, theta-burst stimulation, a protocol that was sufficient to induce robust long-term potentiation (LTP) in WT mice, resulted in LTP of similar magnitude in S831D/S845D mice. However, S831D/S845D mice showed LTP induced with 10-Hz stimulation, a protocol that is weaker than theta-burst stimulation and was not sufficient to induce LTP in WT mice. Moreover, S831D/S845D mice exhibited LTP induced with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) protocol at a long pre-post interval that was subthreshold for WT mice, although a suprathreshold STDP protocol at a short pre-post interval resulted in similarly robust LTP for WT and S831D/S845D mice. These results indicate that phosphorylation of GluA1 at S831 and S845 is sufficient to lower the threshold for LTP induction, increasing the probability of synaptic plasticity.
Project description:The closely related ? and ? isoforms of the serine/threonine protein kinase casein kinase 1 (Csnk1) have been implicated in the generation of psychostimulant-induced behaviors. In this study, we show that Csnk1?/? produces its effects on behavior by acting on the Darpp-32-PP1 signaling pathway to regulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Inhibiting Csnk1?/? in the NAcc with the selective inhibitor PF-670462 blocks amphetamine induced locomotion and its ability to increase phosphorylation of Darpp-32 at S137 and T34, decrease PP1 activity and increase phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit at S845. Consistent with these findings, preventing GluR1 phosphorylation with the alanine mutant GluR1(S845A) reduces glutamate-evoked currents in cultured medium spiny neurons and blocks the locomotor activity produced by NAcc amphetamine. Thus, Csnk1 enables the locomotor and likely the incentive motivational effects of amphetamine by regulating Darrp-32-PP1-GlurR1(S845) signaling in the NAcc. As such, Csnk1 may be a critical target for intervention in the treatment of drug use disorders.
Project description:Chronic morphine treatment resulting in the alteration of postsynaptic levels of AMPA receptors, thereby modulating synaptic strength, has been reported. However, the mechanism underlying such drug-induced synaptic modification has not been resolved. By monitoring the GluR1 trafficking in primary hippocampal neurons using the pHluorin-GluR1 imaging and biotinylation studies, we observed that prolonged morphine exposure significantly induced loss of synaptic and extrasynaptic GluR1 by internalization. The morphine-induced GluR1 endocytosis was independent of neural network activities or NMDA receptor activities, as neither blocking the sodium channels with tetrodotoxin nor NMDA receptors with dl-APV altered the effects of morphine. Instead, morphine-induced GluR1 endocytosis is attributed to a change in the phosphorylation state of the GluR1 at Ser(845) as morphine significantly decreased the dephosphorylation of GluR1 at this site. Such changes in Ser(845) phosphorylation required morphine-induced activation of calcineurin, based on the observations that a calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, completely abrogated the dephosphorylation, and morphine treatment led to an increase in calcineurin enzymatic activity, even in the presence of dl-APV. Importantly, pretreatment with FK506 and overexpression of the GluR1 mutants, S845D (phospho-mimic) or S845A (phospho-blocking) attenuated the morphine-induced GluR1 endocytosis. Therefore, the calcineurin-mediated GluR1-S845 dephosphorylation is critical for the morphine-induced changes in the postsynaptic AMPA receptor level. Together, these findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism for opioid-induced neuronal adaptation and/or synaptic impairment.
Project description:Traditionally, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength requires Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and other kinases, whereas long-term depression (LTD) requires phosphatases. Here, we found that LTD also requires CaMKII and its phospho-T286-induced "autonomous" (Ca(2+)-independent) activity. However, whereas LTP is known to induce phosphorylation of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA1 at S831, LTD instead induced CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation at S567, a site known to reduce synaptic GluA1 localization. GluA1 S831 phosphorylation by "autonomous" CaMKII was further stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM, as expected for traditional substrates. By contrast, GluA1 S567 represents a distinct substrate class that is unaffected by such stimulation. This differential regulation caused GluA1 S831 to be favored by LTP-type stimuli (strong but brief), whereas GluA1 S567 was favored by LTD-type stimuli (weak but prolonged). Thus, requirement of autonomous CaMKII in opposing forms of plasticity involves distinct substrate classes that are differentially regulated to enable stimulus-dependent substrate-site preference.
Project description:It has been proposed that the AMPAR phosphorylation regulates trafficking and channel activity, thereby playing an important role in synaptic plasticity. However, the actual stoichiometry of phosphorylation, information critical to understand the role of phosphorylation, is not known because of the lack of appropriate techniques for measurement. Here, using Phos-tag SDS-PAGE, we estimated the proportion of phosphorylated AMPAR subunit GluA1. The level of phosphorylated GluA1 at S831 and S845, two major sites implicated in AMPAR regulation, is almost negligible. Less than 1% of GluA1 is phosphorylated at S831 and less than 0.1% at S845. Considering the number of AMPAR at each synapse, the majority of synapses do not contain any phosphorylated AMPAR. Also, we did not see evidence of GluA1 dually phosphorylated at S831 and S845. Neuronal stimulation and learning increased phosphorylation, but the proportion was still low. Our results impel us to reconsider the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Two key transmitters in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dopamine and acetylcholine, are believed to interact with each other to modulate local glutamatergic transmission, although molecular mechanisms underlying their crosstalk are poorly understood. Here we investigated effects of pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and muscarinic receptors on phosphorylation of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the adult rat mPFC in vivo. We found that an agonist selective for G?s-coupled dopamine D1 receptors, SKF81297, increased AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit phosphorylation at a protein kinase A-sensitive site (S845), while SKF81297 had no effect on GluA1 phosphorylation at S831. An agonist for G?i/o-coupled dopamine D2 receptors, quinpirole, also increased S845 but not S831 phosphorylation. When coinjected, the two agonists induced an additive increase in S845 phosphorylation. The D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 blocked the SKF81297/quinpirole-stimulated S845 phosphorylation. The D2 antagonist eticlopride also partially blocked S845 responses to SKF81297/quinpirole. VU0152100, a positive allosteric modulator selective for G?i/o-coupled muscarinic M4 receptors, reduced the S845 phosphorylation induced by SKF81297 and quinpirole injected alone or together. In contrast, coinjection of subthreshold doses of tropicamide, an M4 antagonist, and SKF81297 facilitated S845 phosphorylation. Additionally, coadministered SFK81297 and quinpirole increased the abundance of mPFC GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. These data reveal that both D1 and D2 receptors upregulate GluA1 phosphorylation in mPFC neurons probably via a direct and indirect mechanism, respectively. The indirect mechanism involves M4 receptors which generally counteract the effect of dopamine on GluA1 phosphorylation.
Project description:The opioid antagonists naloxone/naltrexone are involved in improving learning and memory, but their cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effect of naloxone/naltrexone on hippocampal ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking, a molecular substrate of learning and memory, as a probable mechanism for the antagonists activity.To measure naloxone/naltrexone-regulated AMPAR trafficking, pHluorin-GluA1 imaging and biochemical analyses were performed on primary hippocampal neurons. To establish the in vivo role of GluA1-Serine 845 (S845) phosphorylation on the behavioral effect induced by inhibition of the endogenous ?-opioid receptor (MOR) by naltrexone, MOR knockout, and GluA1-S845A mutant (in which Ser(845) was mutated to Ala) mice were tested in a water maze after chronic naltrexone administration. Behavioral responses and GluA1 levels in the hippocampal postsynaptic density in wild-type and GluA1-S845A mutant mice were compared using western blot analysis.In vitro prolonged naloxone/naltrexone exposure significantly increased synaptic and extrasynaptic GluA1 membrane expression as well as GluA1-S845 phosphorylation. In the MOR knockout and GluA1-S845A mutant mice, naltrexone did not improve learning, which suggests that naltrexone acts via inhibition of endogenous MOR action and alteration of GluA1 phosphorylation. Naltrexone-treated wild-type mice had significantly increased phosphorylated GluA1-S845 and GluA1 levels in their hippocampal postsynaptic density on the third day of acquisition, which is the time when naltrexone significantly improved learning.The beneficial effect of naltrexone on spatial learning and memory under normal conditions appears to be the result of increasing GluA1-S845 phosphorylation-dependent AMPAR trafficking. These results can be further explored in a mouse model of memory loss.