The ClC-3 Cl-/H+ antiporter becomes uncoupled at low extracellular pH.
ABSTRACT: Adenovirus expressing ClC-3 (Ad-ClC-3) induces Cl(-)/H(+) antiport current (I(ClC-3)) in HEK293 cells. The outward rectification and time dependence of I(ClC-3) closely resemble an endogenous HEK293 cell acid-activated Cl(-) current (ICl(acid)) seen at extracellular pH
Project description:ClC-3 is a Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter required for cytokine-induced intraendosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by Nox1. ClC-3 current is distinct from the swelling-activated chloride current (ICl(swell)), but overexpression of ClC-3 can activate currents that resemble ICl(swell). Because H(2)O(2) activates ICl(swell) directly, we hypothesized that ClC-3-dependent, endosomal ROS production activates ICl(swell). Whole-cell perforated patch clamp methods were used to record Cl(-) currents in cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells from wild type (WT) and ClC-3 null mice. Under isotonic conditions, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 ng/ml) activated outwardly rectifying Cl(-) currents with time-dependent inactivation in WT but not ClC-3 null cells. Inhibition by tamoxifen (10 microm) and by hypertonicity (340 mosm) identified them as ICl(swell). ICl(swell) was also activated by H(2)O(2) (500 microm), and the effect of TNF-alpha was completely inhibited by polyethylene glycol-catalase. ClC-3 expression induced ICl(swell) in ClC-3 null cells in the absence of swelling or TNF-alpha, and this effect was also blocked by catalase. ICl(swell) activation by hypotonicity (240 mosm) was only partially inhibited by catalase, and the size of these currents did not differ between WT and ClC-3 null cells. Disruption of endosome trafficking with either mutant Rab5 (S34N) or Rab11 (S25N) inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated activation of ICl(swell). Thrombin also activates ROS production by Nox1 but not in endosomes. Thrombin caused H(2)O(2)-dependent activation of ICl(swell), but this effect was not ClC-3- or Rab5-dependent. Thus, activation of ICl(swell) by TNF-alpha requires ClC-3-dependent endosomal H(2)O(2) production. This demonstrates a functional link between two distinct anion currents, ClC-3 and ICl(swell).
Project description:The Cl(-)/H(+) exchange mediated by ClC transporters can be uncoupled by external SCN(-) and mutations of the proton glutamate, a conserved residue at the internal side of the protein. We show here for the mammalian ClC transporter ClC-5 that acidic internal pH led to a greater increase in currents upon exchanging extracellular Cl(-) for SCN(-). However, transport uncoupling, unitary current amplitudes, and the voltage dependence of the depolarization-induced activation were not altered by low pH values. Therefore, it is likely that an additional gating process regulates ClC-5 transport. Higher internal [H(+)] and the proton glutamate mutant E268H altered the ratio between ClC-5 transport and nonlinear capacitance, indicating that the gating charge movements in ClC-5 arise from incomplete transport cycles and that internal protons increase the transport probability of ClC-5. This was substantiated by site-directed sulfhydryl modification of the proton glutamate mutant E268C. The mutation exhibited small transport currents together with prominent gating charge movements. The charge restoration using a negatively charged sulfhydryl reagent reinstated also the WT phenotype. Neutralization of the charge of the gating glutamate 211 by the E211C mutation abolished the effect of internal protons, showing that the increased transport probability of ClC-5 results from protonation of this residue. S168P (a mutation that decreases the anion affinity of the central binding site) reduced also the internal pH dependence of ClC-5. These results support the idea that protonation of the gating glutamate 211 at the central anion-binding site of ClC-5 is mediated by the proton glutamate 268.
Project description:ClC-4 is a secondary active transporter that exchanges Cl(-) ions and H(+) with a 2:1 stoichiometry. In external SCN(-), ClC-4 becomes uncoupled and transports anions with high unitary transport rate. Upon voltage steps, the number of active transporters varies in a time-dependent manner, resembling voltage-dependent gating of ion channels. We here investigated modification of the voltage dependence of uncoupled ClC-4 by protons and anions to quantify association of substrates with the transporter. External acidification shifts voltage dependence of ClC-4 transport to more positive potentials and leads to reduced transport currents. Internal pH changes had less pronounced effects. Uncoupled ClC-4 transport is facilitated by elevated external [SCN(-)] but impaired by internal Cl(-) and I(-). Block by internal anions indicates the existence of an internal anion-binding site with high affinity that is not present in ClC channels. The voltage dependence of ClC-4 coupled transport is modulated by external protons and internal Cl(-) in a manner similar to what is observed under uncoupling conditions. Our data illustrate functional differences but also similarities between ClC channels and transporters.
Project description:ClC-5 is a Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter that functions in endosomes and is important for endocytosis in the proximal tubule. The mechanism of transport coupling and voltage dependence in ClC-5 is unclear. Recently, a transport-deficient ClC-5 mutant (E268A) was shown to exhibit transient capacitive currents. Here, we studied the external and internal Cl(-) and pH dependence of the currents of E268A. Transient currents were almost completely independent of the intracellular pH. Even though the transient currents are modulated by extracellular pH, we could exclude that they are generated by proton-binding/unbinding reactions. In contrast, the charge movement showed a nontrivial dependence on external chloride, strongly supporting a model in which the movement of an intrinsic gating charge is followed by the voltage-dependent low-affinity binding of extracellular chloride ions. Mutation of the external Glu-211 (a residue implicated in the coupling of Cl(-) and proton transport) to aspartate abolished steady-state transport, but revealed transient currents that were shifted by ~150 mV to negative voltages compared to E268A. This identifies Glu(ext) as a major component of the gating charge underlying the transient currents of the electrogenic ClC-5 transporter. The molecular events underlying the transient currents of ClC-5 emerging from these results can be explained by an inward movement of the side chain of Glu(ext), followed by the binding of extracellular Cl(-) ions.
Project description:Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are sodium channels gated by extracellular protons. The recent crystallization of ASIC1a identified potential binding sites for Cl(-) in the extracellular domain that are highly conserved between ASIC isoforms. However, the significance of Cl(-) binding is unknown. We investigated the effect of Cl(-) substitution on heterologously expressed ASIC1a current and H(+)-gated currents from hippocampal neurons recorded by whole-cell patch clamp. Replacement of extracellular Cl(-) with the impermeable and inert anion methanesulfonate (MeSO(3)(-)) caused ASIC1a currents to desensitize at a faster rate and attenuated tachyphylaxis. However, peak current amplitude, pH sensitivity, and selectivity were unchanged. Other anions, including Br(-), I(-), and thiocyanate, also altered the kinetics of desensitization and tachyphylaxis. Mutation of the residues that form the Cl(-)-binding site in ASIC1a abolished the modulatory effects of anions. The results of anion substitution on native ASIC channels in hippocampal neurons mirrored those in heterologously expressed ASIC1a and altered acid-induced neuronal death. Anion modulation of ASICs provides new insight into channel gating and may prove important in pathological brain conditions associated with changes in pH and Cl(-).
Project description:The family of CLC proteins comprises both Cl(-) channels and Cl(-)/H(+) exchange transporters with varying degrees of voltage dependence. The human CLC-5 is an electrogenic voltage-dependent 2Cl(-)/1H(+) exchanger that gives rise to strongly outwardly rectifying currents when expressed. We conducted whole-cell recordings from HEK293 cells transiently transfected with either wild-type CLC-5 or a permeation-deficient mutant, E268A. With E268A CLC-5 we recorded transient voltage-dependent currents that represent the gating currents associated with CLC-5 activation and had kinetics that could be described by voltage-dependent forward and reverse transition rates. In extracellular solutions rich in Cl(-) or Br(-), CLC-5 exhibited a gating charge of 1.3, but this was reduced to 0.9 in solutions comprising the impermeant anions aspartate, methanesulfonate, sulfate, or HEPES. Extracellular ion depletion by local perfusion with isotonic mannitol failed to reduce the gating charge further. Lowering intracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.4 did not shift the voltage-dependence of the gating currents, but reducing and increasing intracellular Cl(-) shifted the charge-voltage relationship to more negative and positive potentials, respectively. Our data suggest that voltage sensing is an intrinsic property of the CLC-5 protein and that permeant anions, particularly Cl(-), modulate a voltage-dependent transition to an activated state from which Cl(-)/H(+) exchange can occur.
Project description:ClC-5 is a 2Cl(-)/1H(+) antiporter highly expressed in endosomes of proximal tubule cells. It is essential for endocytosis and mutations in ClC-5 cause Dent's disease, potentially leading to renal failure. However, the physiological role of ClC-5 is still unclear. One of the main issues is whether the strong rectification of ClC-5 currents observed in heterologous systems, with currents elicited only at positive voltages, is preserved in vivo and what is the origin of this rectification. In this work we identified a ClC-5 mutation, D76H, which, besides the typical outward currents of the wild-type (WT), shows inward tail currents at negative potentials that allow the estimation of the reversal of ClC-5 currents for the first time. A detailed analysis of the dependence of these inward tail currents on internal and external pH and [Cl(-)] shows that they are generated by a coupled transport of Cl(-) and H(+) with a 2 : 1 stoichiometry. From this result we conclude that the inward tail currents are caused by a gating mechanism that regulates ClC-5 transport activity and not by a major alteration of the transport mechanism itself. This implies that the strong rectification of the currents of WT ClC-5 is at least in part caused by a gating mechanism that activates the transporter at positive potentials. These results elucidate the biophysical properties of ClC-5 and contribute to the understanding of its physiological role.
Project description:CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl(-)) ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl(-) ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl(-) ions and protons (H(+)) with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Cytoplasmic cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion-transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate residue changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl(-)/H(+) exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters.
Project description:We report the novel, heterozygous AE1 mutation R730C associated with dominant, overhydrated, cation leak stomatocytosis and well-compensated anemia. Parallel elevations of red blood cell cation leak and ouabain-sensitive Na(+) efflux (pump activity) were apparently unaccompanied by increased erythroid cation channel-like activity, and defined ouabain-insensitive Na(+) efflux pathways of nystatin-treated cells were reduced. Epitope-tagged AE1 R730C at the Xenopus laevis oocyte surface exhibited severely reduced Cl(-) transport insensitive to rescue by glycophorin A (GPA) coexpression or by methanethiosulfonate (MTS) treatment. AE1 mutant R730K preserved Cl(-) transport activity, but R730 substitution with I, E, or H inactivated Cl(-) transport. AE1 R730C expression substantially increased endogenous oocyte Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-mediated (86)Rb(+) influx, but ouabain-insensitive flux was minimally increased and GPA-insensitive. The reduced AE1 R730C-mediated sulfate influx did not exhibit the wild-type pattern of stimulation by acidic extracellular pH (pH(o)) and, unexpectedly, was partially rescued by exposure to sodium 2-sulfonatoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) but not to 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate hydrobromide (MTSEA) or 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET). AE1 R730E correspondingly exhibited acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake at rates exceeding those of wild-type AE1 and AE1 R730K, whereas mutants R730I and R730H were inactive and pH(o) insensitive. MTSES-treated oocytes expressing AE1 R730C and untreated oocytes expressing AE1 R730E also exhibited unprecedented stimulation of Cl(-) influx by acid pH(o). Thus recombinant cation-leak stomatocytosis mutant AE1 R730C exhibits severely reduced anion transport unaccompanied by increased Rb(+) and Li(+) influxes. Selective rescue of acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake and conferral of acid pH(o)-stimulated Cl(-) influx, by AE1 R730E and MTSES-treated R730C, define residue R730 as critical to selectivity and regulation of anion transport by AE1.
Project description:The two human CLC Cl(-) channels, ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb, are almost exclusively expressed in kidney and inner ear epithelia. Mutations in the genes coding for ClC-Kb and barttin, an essential CLC-K channel beta subunit, lead to Bartter syndrome. We performed a biophysical analysis of the modulatory effect of extracellular Ca(2+) and H(+) on ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb in Xenopus oocytes. Currents increased with increasing [Ca(2+)](ext) without full saturation up to 50 mM. However, in the absence of Ca(2+), ClC-Ka currents were still 20% of currents in 10 mM [Ca(2+)](ext), demonstrating that Ca(2+) is not strictly essential for opening. Vice versa, ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb were blocked by increasing [H(+)](ext) with a practically complete block at pH 6. Ca(2+) and H(+) act as gating modifiers without changing the single-channel conductance. Dose-response analysis suggested that two protons are necessary to induce block with an apparent pK of approximately 7.1. A simple four-state allosteric model described the modulation by Ca(2+) assuming a 13-fold higher Ca(2+) affinity of the open state compared with the closed state. The quantitative analysis suggested separate binding sites for Ca(2+) and H(+). A mutagenic screen of a large number of extracellularly accessible amino acids identified a pair of acidic residues (E261 and D278 on the loop connecting helices I and J), which are close to each other but positioned on different subunits of the channel, as a likely candidate for forming an intersubunit Ca(2+)-binding site. Single mutants E261Q and D278N greatly diminished and the double mutant E261Q/D278N completely abolished modulation by Ca(2+). Several mutations of a histidine residue (H497) that is homologous to a histidine that is responsible for H(+) block in ClC-2 did not yield functional channels. However, the triple mutant E261Q/D278N/H497M completely eliminated H(+) -induced current block. We have thus identified a protein region that is involved in binding these physiologically important ligands and that is likely undergoing conformational changes underlying the complex gating of CLC-K channels.