COL25A1 triggers and promotes Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Collagen XXV alpha 1 (COL25A1) is a collagenous type II transmembrane protein purified from senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. COL25A1 alleles have been associated with increased risk for AD in a Swedish population. COL25A1 is specifically expressed in neurons and binds to aggregated Abeta in vitro. However, its contribution to the pathogenesis of AD and in vivo function are unknown. Here, we report that over-expression of COL25A1 in transgenic mice increases p35/p25 and beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) levels, facilitates intracellular aggregation and extracellular matrix deposits of Abeta, and causes synaptophysin loss and astrocyte activation. COL25A1 mice displayed reduced anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze and open field tests and significantly slower swimming speed in Morris water maze. In stable cell lines, motifs in noncollagenous domains of COL25A1 were important for the induction of BACE1 expression. These findings demonstrate that COL25A1 leads to AD-like pathology in vivo. Modulation of COL25A1 function may represent an alternative therapeutic intervention for AD.
Project description:The ?-secretase enzyme BACE1 initiates production of the amyloid-? (A?) peptide that comprises plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. BACE1 levels are increased in AD, potentially accelerating A? generation, but the mechanisms of BACE1 elevation are not fully understood. Cdk5/p25 has been implicated in neurodegeneration and BACE1 regulation, suggesting therapeutic Cdk5 inhibition for AD. In addition, caspase 3 has been implicated in BACE1 elevation. Here, we show that the Cdk5 level and p25:p35 ratio were elevated and correlated with BACE1 level in brains of AD patients and 5XFAD transgenic mice. Mouse primary cortical neurons treated with A?42 oligomers had increased BACE1 level and p25:p35 ratio. Surprisingly, the A?42-induced BACE1 elevation was not blocked by Cdk5 inhibitors CP68130 and roscovitine, and instead the BACE1 level was increased greater than with A?42 treatment alone. Moreover, Cdk5 inhibitors alone elevated BACE1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner that coincided with increased caspase 3 cleavage and decreased Cdk5 level. Caspase 3 inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD failed to prevent the A?42-induced BACE1 increase. Further experiments suggested that the A?42-induced BACE1 elevation was the result of a post-transcriptional mechanism. We conclude that A?42 may increase the BACE1 level independently of either Cdk5 or caspase 3 and that Cdk5 inhibition for AD may cause BACE1 elevation, a potentially negative therapeutic outcome.
Project description:The extracellular aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides and the intracellular hyperphosphorylation of tau at specific epitopes are pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cdk5 phosphorylates tau at AD-specific phospho-epitopes when it associates with p25. p25 is a truncated activator, which is produced from the physiological Cdk5 activator p35 upon exposure to Abeta peptides. We show that neuronal infections with Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) selectively inhibit p25/Cdk5 activity and suppress the aberrant tau phosphorylation in cortical neurons. Furthermore, Abeta(1-42)-induced apoptosis of these cortical neurons was also reduced by coinfection with CIP. Of particular importance is our finding that CIP did not inhibit endogenous or transfected p35/Cdk5 activity, nor did it inhibit the other cyclin-dependent kinases such as Cdc2, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6. These results, therefore, provide a strategy to address, and possibly ameliorate, the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases that may be a consequence of aberrant p25 activation of Cdk5, without affecting 'normal' Cdk5 activity.
Project description:Fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myofibers is crucial for skeletal muscle development and regeneration. However, the mechanisms controlling this process remain to be determined. Here we identified the involvement of a new extracellular matrix protein in myoblast fusion. Collagen XXV is a transmembrane-type collagen highly transcribed during early myogenesis when primary myofibers form. Limb muscles of E12.5 and E14.5 Col25a1-/- embryos show a clear defect in the formation of multinucleated myofibers. In cell culture, the cleaved soluble extracellular domain of the collagen XXV is sufficient to promote the formation of highly multinucleated myofibers. Col25a1 is transiently expressed during myogenic differentiation and Col25a1 transcripts are down-regulated in multinucleated myofibers by a muscle-specific microRNA, miR-499. Altogether, these findings indicate that collagen XXV is required in vivo and in vitro for the fusion of myoblasts into myofibers and give further evidence that microRNAs participate to the regulation of this process.
Project description:Amyloid plaques, composed of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), are hallmark neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Abeta fulfills a central role in AD pathogenesis, and reduction of Abeta levels should prove beneficial for AD treatment. Abeta generation is initiated by proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the beta-secretase enzyme BACE1. Bace1 knockout (Bace1(-/-)) mice have validated BACE1 as the authentic beta-secretase in vivo. BACE1 is essential for Abeta generation and represents a suitable drug target for AD therapy, especially because this enzyme is up-regulated in AD. However, although initial data indicated that Bace1(-/-) mice lack an overt phenotype, the BACE1-mediated processing of APP and other substrates may be important for specific biological processes. In this minireview, topics range from the initial identification of BACE1 to the fundamental knowledge gaps that remain in our understanding of this protease. We address pertinent questions such as putative causes of BACE1 elevation in AD and discuss why, nine years since the identification of BACE1, treatments that address the underlying pathological mechanisms of AD are still lacking.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an intractable, neurodegenerative disease that appears to be brought about by both genetic and non-genetic factors. The neuropathology associated with AD is complex, although amyloid plaques composed of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) are hallmark neuropathological lesions of AD brain. Indeed, Abeta plays an early and central role in this disease. beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the initiating enzyme in Abeta genesis and BACE1 levels are elevated under a variety of conditions. Given the strong correlation between Abeta and AD, and the elevation of BACE1 in this disease, this enzyme is a prime drug target for inhibiting Abeta production in AD. However, nine years on from the initial identification of BACE1, and despite intense research, a number of key questions regarding BACE1 remain unanswered. Indeed, drug discovery and development for AD continues to be challenging. While current AD therapies temporarily slow cognitive decline, treatments that address the underlying pathologic mechanisms of AD are completely lacking. Here we review the basic biology of BACE1. We pay special attention to recent research that has provided some answers to questions such as those involving the identification of novel BACE1 substrates, the potential causes of BACE1 elevation and the putative function of BACE1 in health and disease. Our increasing understanding of BACE1 biology should aid the development of compounds that interfere with BACE1 expression and activity and may lead to the generation of novel therapeutics for AD.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of p25, an activator of cdk5, led to increased levels of BACE1 mRNA and protein in vitro and in vivo. A p25/cdk5 responsive region containing multiple sites for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1/3) was identified in the BACE1 promoter. STAT3 interacts with the BACE1 promoter, and p25-overexpressing mice had elevated levels of pSTAT3 and BACE1, whereas cdk5-deficient mice had reduced levels. Furthermore, mice with a targeted mutation in the STAT3 cdk5 responsive site had lower levels of BACE1. Increased BACE levels in p25 overexpressing mice correlated with enhanced amyloidogenic processing that could be reversed by a cdk5 inhibitor. These data demonstrate a pathway by which p25/cdk5 increases the amyloidogenic processing of APP through STAT3-mediated transcriptional control of BACE1 that could have implications for AD pathogenesis.
Project description:In a series of studies, we have identified TFP5, a truncated fragment of p35, the Cdk5 kinase regulatory protein, which inhibits Cdk5/p35 and the hyperactive Cdk5/p25 activities in test tube experiments. In cortical neurons, however, and in vivo in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice, the peptide specifically inhibits the Cdk5/p25 complex and not the endogenous Cdk5/p35. To account for the selective inhibition of Cdk5/p25 activity, we propose that the "p10" N-terminal domain of p35, absent in p25, spares Cdk5/p35 because p10 binds to macromolecules (e.g., tubulin and actin) as a membrane-bound multimeric complex that favors p35 binding to Cdk5 and catalysis. To test this hypothesis, we focused on Munc 18, a key synapse-associated neuronal protein, one of many proteins copurifying with Cdk5/p35 in membrane-bound multimeric complexes. Here we show that, in vitro, the addition of p67 protects Cdk5/p35 and has no effect on Cdk5/p25 activity in the presence of TFP5. In cortical neurons transfected with p67siRNA, we also show that TFP5 inhibits Cdk5/p35 activity, whereas in the presence of p67 the activity is protected. It does so without affecting any other kinases of the Cdk family of cyclin kinases. This difference may be of significant therapeutic value because the accumulation of the deregulated, hyperactive Cdk5/p25 complex in human brains has been implicated in pathology of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates numerous neuronal functions with its activator, p35. Under neurotoxic conditions, p35 undergoes proteolytic cleavage to liberate p25, which has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that p25 is generated following neuronal activity under physiological conditions in a GluN2B- and CaMKII?-dependent manner. Moreover, we developed a knockin mouse model in which endogenous p35 is replaced with a calpain-resistant mutant p35 (?p35KI) to prevent p25 generation. The ?p35KI mice exhibit impaired long-term depression and defective memory extinction, likely mediated through persistent GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser845. Finally, crossing the ?p35KI mice with the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) resulted in an amelioration of ?-amyloid (A?)-induced synaptic depression and cognitive impairment. Together, these results reveal a physiological role of p25 production in synaptic plasticity and memory and provide new insights into the function of p25 in A?-associated neurotoxicity and AD-like pathology.
Project description:beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), the rate-limiting enzyme for beta-amyloid (Abeta) production, is elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we show that energy deprivation induces phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha (eIF2alpha-P), which increases the translation of BACE1. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of eIF2alpha-P phosphatase PP1c, directly increases BACE1 and elevates Abeta production in primary neurons. Preventing eIF2alpha phosphorylation by transfection with constitutively active PP1c regulatory subunit, dominant-negative eIF2alpha kinase PERK, or PERK inhibitor P58(IPK) blocks the energy-deprivation-induced BACE1 increase. Furthermore, chronic treatment of aged Tg2576 mice with energy inhibitors increases levels of eIF2alpha-P, BACE1, Abeta, and amyloid plaques. Importantly, eIF2alpha-P and BACE1 are elevated in aggressive plaque-forming 5XFAD transgenic mice, and BACE1, eIF2alpha-P, and amyloid load are correlated in humans with AD. These results strongly suggest that eIF2alpha phosphorylation increases BACE1 levels and causes Abeta overproduction, which could be an early, initiating molecular mechanism in sporadic AD.
Project description:Although the role of APP and PSEN genes in genetic Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases is well established, fairly little is known about the molecular mechanisms affecting Abeta generation in sporadic AD. Deficiency in Abeta clearance is certainly a possibility, but increased expression of proteins like APP or BACE1/beta-secretase may also be associated with the disease. We therefore investigated changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of sporadic AD patients and found that several miRNAs potentially involved in the regulation of APP and BACE1 expression appeared to be decreased in diseased brain. We show here that miR-29a, -29b-1, and -9 can regulate BACE1 expression in vitro. The miR-29a/b-1 cluster was significantly (and AD-dementia-specific) decreased in AD patients displaying abnormally high BACE1 protein. Similar correlations between expression of this cluster and BACE1 were found during brain development and in primary neuronal cultures. Finally, we provide evidence for a potential causal relationship between miR-29a/b-1 expression and Abeta generation in a cell culture model. We propose that loss of specific miRNAs can contribute to increased BACE1 and Abeta levels in sporadic AD.