Dysbindin regulates the transcriptional level of myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate via the interaction with NF-YB in mice brain.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Dtnbp1 (Dysbindin) is a key susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Using the yeast-two-hybrid screening system, we examined the candidate proteins interacting with Dysbindin and revealed one of these candidates to be the transcription factor NF-YB. METHODS: We employed an immunoprecipitation (IP) assay to demonstrate the Dysbindin-NF-YB interaction. DNA chips were used to screen for altered expression of genes in cells in which Dysbindin or NF-YB was down regulated, while Chromatin IP and Reporter assays were used to confirm the involvement of these genes in transcription of Myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS). The sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dysbindin, which exhibit behavioral abnormalities, and wild-type DBA2J mice were used to investigate MARCKS expression. RESULTS: We revealed an interaction between Dysbindin and NF-YB. DNA chips showed that MARCKS expression was increased in both Dysbindin knockdown cells and NF-YB knockdown cells, and Chromatin IP revealed interaction of these proteins at the MARCKS promoter region. Reporter assay results suggested functional involvement of the interaction between Dysbindin and NF-YB in MARCKS transcription levels, via the CCAAT motif which is a NF-YB binding sequence. MARCKS expression was increased in sdy mutant mice when compared to wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that abnormal expression of MARCKS via dysfunction of Dysbindin might cause impairment of neural transmission and abnormal synaptogenesis. Our results should provide new insights into the mechanisms of neuronal development and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder likely caused by environmental and genetic risk factors but functional interactions between the risk factors are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that dysbindin-1 (Dtnbp1) gene mutation combined with postnatal exposure to viral mimetic polyI:C results in schizophrenia-related behavioural changes in adulthood, and mediates polyI:C-induced inflammation in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Adult Sandy (Sdy, Dtnbp1 mutant) mice given early postnatal polyI:C injections displayed reduced prepulse inhibition of startle, reduced locomotion and deficits in novel object recognition. PolyI:C induced a canonical immune response in the SVZ; it increased mRNA expression of its toll-like receptor 3 (Tlr3) and downstream transcription factors RelA and Sp1. PolyI:C also increased SVZ Dtnbp1 mRNA expression, suggesting dysbindin-1 regulates immune responses. Dysbindin-1 loss in Sdy mice blocked the polyI:C-induced increases in mRNA expression of Tlr3, RelA and Sp1 in the SVZ. Dtnbp1 overexpression in SVZ-derived Sdy neurospheres rescued Tlr3, RelA and Sp1 mRNA expression supporting a functional interaction between dysbindin-1 and polyI:C-induced inflammation. Immunohistochemistry showed higher Iba1+ immune cell density in the SVZ of Sdy mice than in WT postnatally. PolyI:C did not alter SVZ Iba1+ cell density but increased CD45+/Iba1- cell numbers in the SVZ of Sdy mice. Finally, polyI:C injections in Sdy, but not WT mice reduced postnatal and adult SVZ proliferation. Together, we show novel functional interactions between the schizophrenia-relevant dysbindin-1 gene and the immune response to polyI:C. This work sheds light on the molecular basis for amplified abnormalities due to combined genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental schizophrenia risk factors.
Project description:Genetic variations in the gene encoding dysbindin has consistently been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although little is known about the neural functions carried out by dysbindin. To gain some insight into this area, we took advantage of the readily available dysbindin-null mouse sandy (sdy-/-) and studied hippocampal neurogenesis using thymidine analogue bromodeoxuridine (BrdU). No significant differences were found in the proliferation (4 hours) or survival (1, 4 and 8 weeks after the last BrdU injection) of progenitors in the subgranular regions of the dentate gyrus between sdy-/- and sdy+/+ (control) mice. However, 4 weeks after the last BrdU injection, a significant reduction was observed in the ratio of neuronal differentiation in sdy-/- when compared to that of sdy+/+ (sdy+/+ ?= 87.0 ± 5.3% vs. sdy-/- ?= 71.3 ± 8.3%, p = 0.01). These findings suggest that dysbindin plays a role during differentiation process in the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deficit may negatively affect neurogenesis-related functions such as cognition and mood.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1) gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Genetic variations in DTNBP1 are associated with cognitive functions, general cognitive ability and memory function, and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia including negative symptoms and cognitive decline. Since reduced expression of dysbindin-1 has been observed in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia, the sandy (sdy) mouse, which has a deletion in the Dtnbp1 gene and expresses no dysbindin-1 protein, could be an animal model of schizophrenia. To address this issue, we have carried out a comprehensive behavioral analysis of the sdy mouse in this study.<h4>Results</h4>In a rotarod test, sdy mice did not exhibit motor learning whilst the wild type mice did. In a Barnes circular maze test both sdy mice and wild type mice learned to selectively locate the escape hole during the course of the training period and in the probe trial conducted 24 hours after last training. However, sdy mice did not locate the correct hole in the retention probe tests 7 days after the last training trial, whereas wild type mice did, indicating impaired long-term memory retention. A T-maze forced alternation task, a task of working memory, revealed no effect of training in sdy mice despite the obvious effect of training in wild type mice, suggesting a working memory deficit.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Sdy mouse showed impaired long-term memory retention and working memory. Since genetic variation in DTNBP1 is associated with both schizophrenia and memory function, and memory function is compromised in patients with schizophrenia, the sdy mouse may represent a useful animal model to investigate the mechanisms of memory dysfunction in the disorder.