Involvement of Notch1 signaling in neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic rat brain in vivo.
ABSTRACT: The Notch1 signaling pathway is regarded as one of the main regulators of neural stem cell behavior during development, but its role in the adult brain is less well understood. We found that Notch1 was mainly expressed in doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells corresponding to newborn neurons, whereas the Notch1 ligand, Jagged1, was predominantly expressed in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytic cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the normal adult brain. These findings were confirmed by conditional depletion of DCX-positive cells in transgenic mice carrying herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) under the control of the DCX promoter. In addition, the activated form of Notch1 (Notch intracellular domain, NICD) and its downstream transcriptional targets, Hes1 and sonic hedgehog (Shh), were also expressed in SVZ cells. Increased activation of Notch1 signaling increased SVZ cell proliferation, whereas inhibiting Notch1 signaling resulted in a reduction of proliferating cells in the SVZ. Levels of NICD, Hes1, and Shh were increased in the SVZ at 4 and 24 h after focal cerebral ischemia. Finally, ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the SVZ was blocked by inhibition of the Notch1 signaling pathway, suggesting that Notch1 signaling may have a key role in normal adult and ischemia-induced neurogenesis.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a risk factor for early graft dysfunction and an obstacle to expanding donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We have reported on the crucial role of macrophage Notch1 signaling in mouse warm hepatic IRI model. However, its clinical relevance or therapeutic potential remain unknown. Here, we used Serelaxin (SER), to verify Notch1 induction and putative hepatoprotective function in ischemia-reperfusion-stressed OLT. C57BL/6 mouse livers subjected to extended (18-hour) cold storage were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. SER treatment at reperfusion ameliorated IRI, improved post-OLT survival, decreased neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine programs, while simultaneously increasing Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) target genes. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures, SER suppressed proinflammatory while enhancing antiinflammatory gene expression concomitantly with increased NICD and Hes1. Hepatic biopsies from 21 adult primary liver transplant patients (2 hours postreperfusion) were divided into low-NICD (n = 11) and high-NICD (n = 10) expression groups (western blots). Consistent with our murine findings, human livers characterized by high NICD were relatively IRI resistant, as shown by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at day 1 post-OLT. Our study documents the efficacy of SER-Notch1 signaling in mouse OLT and highlights the protective function of Notch1 in liver transplant patients.
Project description:In the adult dentate gyrus (DG) and in the proliferative zone lining the lateral ventricle (LV-PZ), radial glia-like (RGL) cells are neural stem cells (NSCs) that generate granule neurons. A number of molecular markers including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Sox2 and nestin, can identify quiescent NSCs in these two niches. However, to date, there is no marker that distinguishes NSC origin of DG versus LV-PZ. Hopx, an atypical homeodomain only protein, is expressed by adult stem cell populations including those in the intestine and hair follicle. Here, we show that Hopx is specifically expressed in RGL cells in the adult DG, and these cells give rise to granule neurons. Assessed by non-stereological quantitation, Hopx-null NSCs exhibit enhanced neurogenesis evident by an increased number of BrdU-positive cells and doublecortin (DCX)-positive neuroblasts. In contrast, Sox2-positive, quiescent NSCs are reduced in the DG of Hopx-null animals and Notch signaling is reduced, as evidenced by reduced expression of Notch targets Hes1 and Hey2, and a reduction of the number of cells expressing the cleaved, activated form of the Notch1 receptor, the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in Hopx-null DG. Surprisingly, Hopx is not expressed in RGL cells of the adult LV-PZ, and Hopx-expressing cells do not give rise to interneurons of the olfactory bulb (OB). These findings establish that Hopx expression distinguishes NSCs of the DG from those of the LV-PZ, and suggest that Hopx potentially regulates hippocampal neurogenesis by modulating Notch signaling.
Project description:Notch signaling controls cell fate decisions and regulates multiple biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Computational modeling of the deterministic simulation of Notch signaling has provided important insight into the possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the switch from the undifferentiated stem cell to the differentiated cell. Here, we constructed a stochastic model of a Notch signaling model containing Hes1, Notch1, RBP-Jk, Mash1, Hes6, and Delta. mRNA and protein were represented as a discrete state, and 334 reactions were employed for each biochemical reaction using a graphics processing unit-accelerated Gillespie scheme. We employed the tuning of 40 molecular mechanisms and revealed several potential mediators capable of enabling the switch from cell stemness to differentiation. These effective mediators encompass different aspects of cellular regulations, including the nuclear transport of Hes1, the degradation of mRNA (Hes1 and Notch1) and protein (Notch1), the association between RBP-Jk and Notch intracellular domain (NICD), and the cleavage efficiency of the NICD. These mechanisms overlap with many modifiers that have only recently been discovered to modulate the Notch signaling output, including microRNA action, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and the competitive binding of the RBP-Jk-DNA complex. Moreover, we identified the degradation of Hes1 mRNA and nuclear transport of Hes1 as the dominant mechanisms that were capable of abolishing the cell state transition induced by other molecular mechanisms.
Project description:AIM:cAMP signal transduction cascade activation is important in regulating neurogenesis in adult rodents by increasing the proliferation of newborn cells. Although the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) both contain large populations of neural stem/precursor cells; it remains unclear whether an alternative target of cAMP, the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2), is involved in adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ and SGZ. Here, we investigated the cell-specific expression of Epac2 protein in the V-SVZ and SGZ of the adult mouse brain. METHODS:Immunohistochemical analyses were performed using antibodies against Epac2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), doublecortin (DCX), and beta-catenin, to examine the co-localization of Epac2 protein and neural stem/precursor cells in the V-SVZ and SGZ in three 8-week-old male mice. RESULTS:In the V-SVZ of the lateral ventricle, most GFAP-positive adult neural stem cells (NSC, defined as type B cells) and 75% of DCX-positive migrating neuroblasts (type A cells) expressed Epac2 proteins. Ninety-three percent of beta-catenin-positive ependymal cells (type E cells), which are in direct contact with NSCs and the ventricles, also expressed Epac2 protein. Similarly, in the SGZ of the hippocampus, Epac2-immunopositive signals were shown by 83% of GFAP-positive radial-glia-like NSCs (type 1 cells), 86% of DCX-positive transiently amplifying cells (type 2 and type 3 cells), and 71% of DCX-positive immature neurons. The present data suggest that a PKA-independent cAMP signaling pathway via Epac2 may be party to adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ and the SGZ.
Project description:Postnatal/adult neural stem cells (NSCs) within the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ; also called subependymal zone) generate doublecortin (Dcx)(+) neuroblasts that migrate and integrate into olfactory bulb circuitry. Continuous production of neuroblasts is controlled by the SVZ microenvironmental niche. It is generally thought that enhancing the neurogenic activities of endogenous NSCs may provide needed therapeutic options for disease states and after brain injury. However, SVZ NSCs can also differentiate into astrocytes. It remains unclear whether there are conditions that favour astrogenesis over neurogenesis in the SVZ niche, and whether astrocytes produced there have different properties compared with astrocytes produced elsewhere in the brain. Here we show in mice that SVZ-generated astrocytes express high levels of thrombospondin 4 (Thbs4), a secreted homopentameric glycoprotein, in contrast to cortical astrocytes, which express low levels of Thbs4. We found that localized photothrombotic/ischaemic cortical injury initiates a marked increase in Thbs4(hi) astrocyte production from the postnatal SVZ niche. Tamoxifen-inducible nestin-creER(tm)4 lineage tracing demonstrated that it is these SVZ-generated Thbs4(hi) astrocytes, and not Dcx(+) neuroblasts, that home-in on the injured cortex. This robust post-injury astrogenic response required SVZ Notch activation modulated by Thbs4 via direct Notch1 receptor binding and endocytosis to activate downstream signals, including increased Nfia transcription factor expression important for glia production. Consequently, Thbs4 homozygous knockout mice (Thbs4(KO/KO)) showed severe defects in cortical-injury-induced SVZ astrogenesis, instead producing cells expressing Dcx migrating from SVZ to the injury sites. These alterations in cellular responses resulted in abnormal glial scar formation after injury, and significantly increased microvascular haemorrhage into the brain parenchyma of Thbs4(KO/KO) mice. Taken together, these findings have important implications for post-injury applications of endogenous and transplanted NSCs in the therapeutic setting, as well as disease states where Thbs family members have important roles.
Project description:The Notch signaling pathway has been recognized as a key factor for the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), because of the high incidence of activating mutations of Notch1. Notch inhibition could serve as a new treatment strategy for T-ALL; however, the attempts to perturb Notch signaling pathways have been unsuccessful so far. In this study, we found that proteasome inhibitors exert cytotoxic effects on T-ALL cells with constitutive activation of Notch1 to a similar extent as myeloma cells. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib repressed the transcription of Notch1 and downstream effectors including Hes1, GATA3, RUNX3 and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) (p65 and p50), coincided with downregulation of the major transactivator Sp1 and its dissociation from Notch1 promoter. Overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) significantly ameliorated bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity against T-ALL cells. Drug combination studies revealed that bortezomib showed synergistic or additive effects with key drugs for the treatment of T-ALL such as dexamethasone (DEX), doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, which were readily abolished by NICD overexpression. The synergy of bortezomib and DEX was confirmed in vivo using a murine xenograft model. Our findings provide a molecular basis and rationale for the inclusion of proteasome inhibitors in treatment strategies for T-ALL.
Project description:Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in the West and around the world. The expression of Rnd3 and its ectopic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be explored. Here, we reported that Rnd3 was down-regulated in three NSCLC cell lines: H358, H520 and A549. The down-regulation of Rnd3 led to hyper-activation of Rho Kinase and Notch signaling. The reintroduction of Rnd3 or selective inhibition of Notch signaling, but not Rho Kinase signaling, blocked the proliferation of H358 and H520 cells. Mechanistically, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein abundance in H358 cells was regulated by Rnd3-mediated NICD proteasome degradation. Rnd3 regulated H358 and H520 cell proliferation through a Notch1/NICD/Hes1 signaling axis independent of Rho Kinase.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mammalian early embryo development requires a well-orchestrated interplay of cell signaling pathways. Notch is a major regulatory pathway involved in cell-fate determination in embryonic and adult scenarios. However, the role of Notch in embryonic pre-implantation development is controversial. In particular, Notch role on blastocyst development and hatching remains elusive, and a complete picture of the transcription and expression patterns of Notch components during this time-period is not available. RESULTS:This study provided a comprehensive view on the dynamics of individual embryo gene transcription and protein expression patterns of Notch components (receptors Notch1-4; ligands Dll1 and Dll4, Jagged1-2; and effectors Hes1-2), and their relationship with transcription of gene markers of pluripotency and differentiation (Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, Cdx2) during mouse blastocyst development and hatching. Transcription of Notch1-2, Jagged1-2 and Hes1 was highly prevalent and dynamic along stages of development, whereas transcription of Notch3-4, Dll4 and Hes2 had a low prevalence among embryos. Transcription levels of Notch1, Notch2, Jagged2 and Hes1 correlated with each other and with those of pluripotency and differentiation genes. Gene transcription was associated to protein expression, except for Jagged2, where high transcription levels in all embryos were not translated into protein. Presence of Notch signaling activity was confirmed through nuclear NICD and Hes1 detection, and downregulation of Hes1 transcription following canonical signaling blockade with DAPT. In vitro embryo culture supplementation with Jagged1 had no effect on embryo developmental kinetics. In contrast, supplementation with Jagged2 abolished Jagged1 transcription, downregulated Cdx2 transcription and inhibited blastocyst hatching. Notch signaling blockade by DAPT downregulated transcription of Sox2, and retarded embryo hatching. CONCLUSION:Transcription of Notch genes showed a dynamic pattern along blastocyst development and hatching. Data confirmed Notch signaling activity, and lead to the suggestion that Notch canonical signaling may be operating through Notch1, Notch3, Jagged1 and Hes1. Embryo culture supplementation with Jagged1 and Jagged2 unveiled a possible regulatory effect between Jagged1, Cdx2 and blastocyst hatching. Overall, results indicate that a deregulation in Notch signaling, either by its over or under-activation, affects blastocyst development and hatching.
Project description:Postmortem studies have confirmed the occurrence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans and implicated this process in antidepressant response, yet neurogenesis in other regions remains to be examined in the context of depression. Here we assess the extent of subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB) neurogenesis in adult humans having died by suicide. Protein expression of proliferative and neurogenic markers Sox2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and doublecortin (DCX) were examined in postmortem SVZ and OB samples from depressed suicides and matched sudden-death controls. In the SVZ, DCX-immunoreactive (IR) cells displayed phenotypes typical of progenitors, whereas in the olfactory tract (OT), they were multipolar with variable size and morphologies suggestive of differentiating cells. DCX expression was significantly increased in the OB of suicides, whereas SVZ DCX expression was higher among unmedicated, but not antidepressant-treated, suicides. Although very few DCX-IR cells were present in the control OT, they were considerably more common in suicides and correlated with OB DCX levels. Suicides also displayed higher DCX-IR process volumes. These results support the notion that OB neurogenesis is minimal in adult humans. They further raise the possibility that the differentiation and migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts may be altered in unmedicated suicides, leading to an accumulation of ectopically differentiating cells in the OT. Normal SVZ DCX expression among suicides receiving antidepressants suggests a potentially novel mode of action of antidepressant medication. Given the modest group sizes and rarity of DCX-IR cells assessed here, a larger-scale characterization will be required before firm conclusions can be made regarding the identity of these cells.
Project description:The Notch1 signalling pathway has been shown to control neural stem cell fate through lateral inhibition of mash1, a key promoter of neuronal differentiation. Interaction between the Delta1 ligand of a differentiating cell and the Notch1 protein of a neighbouring cell results in cleavage of the trans-membrane protein, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD) leading to the up regulation of hes1. Hes1 homodimerisation leads to down regulation of mash1. Most mathematical models currently represent this pathway up to the formation of the HES1 dimer. Herein, we present a detailed model ranging from the cleavage of the NICD and how this signal propagates through the Delta1/Notch1 pathway to repress the expression of the proneural genes. Consistent with the current literature, we assume that cells at the self renewal state are represented by a stable limit cycle and through in silico experimentation we conclude that a drastic change in the main pathway is required in order for the transition from self-renewal to differentiation to take place. Specifically, a model analysis based approach is utilised in order to generate hypotheses regarding potential mediators of this change. Through this process of model based hypotheses generation and testing, the degradation rates of Hes1 and Mash1 mRNA and the dissociation constant of Mash1-E47 heterodimers are identified as the most potent mediators of the transition towards neural differentiation.