Diversity of human parechoviruses isolated from stool samples collected from Thai children with acute gastroenteritis.
ABSTRACT: A total of 82 fecal specimens which were known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from January to December 2005 were screened for human parechovirus (HPeV). HPeV was detected by reverse transcription-PCR with a primer pair that amplified the 5' untranslated region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the VP1 region. HPeV was detected in 12 of 82 specimens tested, and the detection rate was found to be 14.6%. The capsid VP1 gene was successfully sequenced from nine of the HPeV strains detected. The HPeV strains studied clustered into four different genotypes, HPeV genotype 1 (HPeV1) to HPeV4, and the majority of the strains studied (five strains) belonged to HPeV1. This is the first finding of HPeV from children with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand. In addition, the diversity of the Thai HPeV strains was also noted.
Project description:Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are a species in the Parechovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. We report a complete genome sequence of a novel HPeV strain, CH-ZJ1, that was found in an infant with gastroenteritis in Zhenjiang City, China. The complete genome consists of 7,298 nucleotides (nt), excluding the 3' poly(A) tail; the open reading frame is mapped between nucleotide positions 654 and 7211 and encodes a 2,185-amino acid (aa) polyprotein. The phylogenetic tree obtained for the complete genome of this HPeV strain and the other HpeV strains available in GenBank indicated that CH-ZJ1 is intervenient between HpeV type 4 (HpeV4) and HpeV5. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 3D and VP1 genes reveals two incongruent trees. Recombination detection indicated that CH-ZJ1 might be a recombinant which was produced by more than one genomic recombination event that occurred among HPeV1, HPeV4, and HPeV3 strains.
Project description:Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are widespread pathogens belonging to the Picornavirus family. Six genotypes, which have predominantly been isolated from children, are known. Data on prevalence of HPeV genotypes are generally based on cell culture, which may underestimate the prevalence of certain HPeV strains that are difficult to grow. We studied 1,824 stool samples from 1,379 children (<5 years old) sent to the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between 2004 and 2006. Samples were screened using specific human enterovirus (HEV) and HPeV real-time PCRs based on the 5' untranslated region. A high percentage of HPeV infections (16.3%), comparable to the percentage of HEV infections (18.4%), were found by PCR in stool samples. HPeV-positive stool samples were directly genotyped based on the VP1 region for the first time to avoid a culture bias. HPeV1 was found to be the most prevalent type. The majority of the HPeV1 strains clustered separately from the prototype strain, Harris, which has not been reported to circulate lately. However, we could identify three strains as HPeV1 Harris. HPeV3 was identified as the second most predominant type during 2004 and 2006 but was not found in 2005. HPeV4 to -6 were found in smaller numbers. One strain could not be associated with a known HPeV type (VP1 gene nucleotide similarity: 71%), possibly indicating a new genotype. Also, we report the first identification of three HPeV5 strains and one HPeV1 strain with a different motif at the C-terminal end of VP1, where the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif is normally located.
Project description:Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are important causes of infection in children. However, without a comprehensive and persistent surveillance, the epidemiology and clinical features of HPeV infection remain ambiguous. We performed a hospital-based surveillance study among three groups of pediatric patients with acute respiratory infection (Group 1), acute diarrhea (Group 2), and hand, foot and mouth disease (Group 3) in Chongqing, China, from 2009 to 2015. Among 10,212 tested patients, 707 (6.92%) were positive for HPeV, with the positive rates differing significantly among three groups (Group 1, 3.43%; Group 2, 14.94%; Group 3, 3.55%; <i>P</i> < 0.001). The co-infection with other pathogens was detected in 75.2% (531/707) of HPeV-positive patients. Significant negative interaction between HPeV and Parainfluenza virus (PIV) (<i>P</i> = 0.046, OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.34-0.98) and positive interactions between HPeV and Enterovirus (EV) (<i>P</i> = 0.015, OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23-4.73) were identified. Among 707 HPeV-positive patients, 592 (83.73%) were successfully sequenced, and 10 genotypes were identified, with HPeV1 (<i>n</i> = 396), HPeV4 (<i>n</i> = 86), and HPeV3 (<i>n</i> = 46) as the most frequently seen. The proportion of genotypes differed among three groups (<i>P</i> < 0.001), with HPeV1 and HPeV4 overrepresented in Group 2 and HPeV6 overrepresented in Group 3. The spatial patterns of HPeV genotypes disclosed more close clustering of the currently sequenced strains than those from other countries/regions, although they were indeed mixed. Three main genotypes (HPeV1, HPeV3, and HPeV4) had shown distinct seasonal peaks, highlighting a bi-annual cycle of all HpeV and two genotypes (HPeV 1 and HPeV 4) with peaks in odd-numbered years and with peaks in even-numbered years HPeV3. Significantly higher HPeV1 viral loads were associated with severe diarrhea in Group 2 (<i>P</i> = 0.044), while associated with HPeV single infection than HPeV-EV coinfection among HFMD patients (<i>P</i> = 0.001). It's concluded that HPeV infection was correlated with wide clinical spectrum in pediatric patients with a high variety of genotypes determined. Still no clinical significance can be confirmed, which warranted more molecular surveillance in the future.
Project description:Between April 1999 and March 2008, a total of 4,976 stool specimens collected from patients with suspected viral infection through infectious agent surveillance in Aichi, Japan, were tested for the presence of human parechoviruses (HPeVs). We detected HPeVs in 110 samples by either cell culture, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), or both. Serotyping either by neutralization test or by nucleotide sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 region and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) regions revealed that 63 were HPeV type 1 (HPeV-1), followed by 44 HPeV-3 strains, 2 HPeV-4 strains, and 1 HPeV-6 strain. The high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of the Japanese HPeV-3 isolates in 2006 to the strains previously reported from Canada and Netherlands confirmed the worldwide prevalence of HPeV-3 infection. Ninety-seven percent of the HPeV-positive patients were younger than 3 years, and 86.2% younger than 12 months. The clinical diagnoses of HPeV-positive patients were gastroenteritis, respiratory illness, febrile illness, exanthema, "hand, foot, and mouth disease," aseptic meningitis, and herpangina. Among 49 HPeV-positive patients with gastroenteritis, 35 were positive with HPeV-1 and 12 with HPeV-3, and out of 25 with respiratory illness, 11 were positive with HPeV-1 and 14 with HPeV-3. HPeV-3 seemed to be an important etiological agent of respiratory infection of children. While HPeV-1 was detected predominantly during fall and winter, the majority of the HPeV-3 cases were detected during summer and fall. A different pattern of clinical manifestations as well as seasonality suggested that there are different mechanisms of pathogenesis between HPeV-1 and HPeV-3 infections.
Project description:Human parechoviruses (HPeVs), a poorly studied genus within the Picornaviridae family, are classified into 19 genotypes of which HPeV1 and HPeV3 are the most often detected. HPeV1 VP1 C terminus contains an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif and has been shown to depend on the host cell surface ?V integrins (?V ITGs) and heparan sulfate (HS) for entry. HPeV3 lacks this motif and the receptors remain unknown. HPeVs can be detected in patient nasopharyngeal and stool samples, and infection is presumed to occur after respiratory or gastro-intestinal transmission. HPeV pathogenesis is poorly understood as there are no animal models and previous studies have been conducted in immortalized monolayer cell cultures which do not adequately represent the characteristics of human tissues. To bridge this gap, we determined the polarity of infection, replication kinetics, and cell tropism of HPeV1 and HPeV3 in the well-differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE) model. We found the HAE cultures to be permissive for HPeVs. Both HPeV genotypes infected the HAE preferentially from the basolateral surface while the progeny virus was shed toward the apical side. Confocal microscopy revealed the target cell type to be the p63+ basal cells for both viruses, ?V ITG and HS blocking had no effect on the replication of either virus, and transcriptional profiling suggested that HPeV3 infection induced stronger immune activation than HPeV1. Genotype-specific host responses may contribute to the differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes associated with HPeV1 and HPeV3.
Project description:The epidemiology of human parechovirus (HPeV) in Asia remains obscure. We elucidated the prevalence, seasonality, type distribution and clinical presentation of HPeV among children in Hong Kong.A 24-month prospective study to detect HPeV in children ?36 months hospitalized for acute viral illnesses.2.3% of the 3911 children examined had HPeV infection, with most (87.5%) concentrated in September-January (autumn-winter). 81.3% were HPeV1 and 12.5% were HPeV4, while HPeV3 was rare (2.5%). HPeV was a probable cause of the disease in 47.7% (42/88), mostly self-limiting including acute gastroenteritis, upper respiratory tract infection and maculopapular rash. A neonate developed severe sepsis-like illness with HPeV3 as the only pathogen detected. A high proportion (60.0%) of children coinfected with HPeV and other respiratory virus(es) had acute bronchiolitis or pneumonia. Six children with HPeV coinfections developed convulsion / pallid attack. Most rash illnesses exhibited a generalized maculopapular pattern involving the trunk and limbs, and were more likely associated with HPeV4 compared to other syndrome groups (36.4% vs. 3.1%, p = 0.011).In Hong Kong, HPeV exhibits a clear seasonality (autumn-winter) and was found in a small proportion (2.3%) of young children (?36 months) admitted with features of acute viral illnesses. The clinical presentation ranged from mild gastroenteritis, upper respiratory tract infection and febrile rash to convulsion and severe sepsis-like illness. HPeV3, which is reported to associate with more severe disease in neonates, is rare in Hong Kong. HPeV coinfection might associate with convulsion and aggravate other respiratory tract infections.
Project description:Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are prevalent in young children and have been associated with mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, with meningitis and neonatal sepsis. To investigate the involvement of these viruses in respiratory disease, a highly sensitive nested PCR was used to screen a large archive of respiratory specimens, collected between January and December 2007. Respiratory samples had previously been tested for eight respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus, by PCR. HPeV was detected in 34 of 3,844 specimens, representing 27 of 2,220 study subjects (1.2%). HPeV types were identified by sequencing the VP3/VP1 junction amplified by PCR directly from clinical specimens. The assay could amplify all HPeV types examined with high sensitivity (types 1 and 3 to 6) and also identified HPeV types in all but one of the screen-positive study specimens (25 HPeV1 and eight HPeV6 specimens). Infections with both HPeV1 and HPeV6 were seasonal, with highest frequencies in July and August, and restricted to children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Other respiratory viruses were frequently codetected in HPeV-positive specimens, with significant overrepresentation of adenovirus coinfections (37%). Most HPeV-positive specimens were referred from emergency departments, although no association with specific respiratory symptoms or disease was found. In summary, the low frequency of detection and lack of clear disease associations indicate that HPeV1 and -6 are not major pathogens in individuals presenting with respiratory disease. However, the screening and typing methods developed will be of value in further HPeV testing, including testing for meningitis cases and other suspected HPeV-associated disease presentations.
Project description:Parechovirus epidemiology and disease association are not fully understood. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for all human parechoviruses (HPeV) was applied on stool samples from two groups of patients. Both groups contained patients with acute enteritis of all age groups, seen during one full year. Patients with norovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, astrovirus, or rotavirus infections were excluded. In 118 patients from outbreak and hospital settings, no HPeV was detected. In a prospective study group of 499 nonhospitalized patients, the detection rate was 1.6%. One virus-positive patient was detected from 39 control patients. Positive samples occurred only in summer and autumn. Only one patient had accompanying respiratory symptoms. An association with travel or animal contact was not found. All positive patients except one were <2 years of age, with a neutral gender ratio. In children <2 years of age, the detection rate was 11.6% (7 of 60 children). The range of viral loads was 3,170 to 503,377,290 copies per gram or milliliter of stool. One of the highest viral loads occurred in a control child without symptoms at the time of testing. Phylogenetic analysis showed mainly contemporary HPeV1 strains in our patients but also showed a separate new lineage of HPeV1 in evolutionary transition from the historical prototype strain. Moreover, a novel sixth HPeV type was identified. Full genome analysis of the two viruses revealed recombination between HPeV1 and -3 in one and HPeV6 and -1 in another. HPeV seems relevant in children <2 years and specific RT-PCR for HPeV should be included in enteritis screening.
Project description:The changing profile of infection over time for Human Parechoviruses (HPeVs) is not well known and no detailed study has been reported to date in China. This investigation on HPeV infection in hospitalized children in Lanzhou, China revealed variations in epidemiological characteristics after a three-year interval. To assess the changes that had occurred, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HPeVs were characterized and compared with previously reported data by our group. A comparable positivity rate (25.3%, 73/289) was revealed after the three-year interval with the majority of the infected children (95.9%, 70/73) being younger than two years of age. While a temporal change in the seasonal distribution was noted in the current study, HPeVs were more frequently detected during July to November compared to September to December in the previous study. Changes in HPeV genotypes patterns, a temporal change in the prevalence of HPeV1, a younger susceptible age to HPeV3 compared with HPeV1 and a tendency of older children to be infected with HPeV4 are in contrast to our previous report. HPeV2, a rarely reported genotype, was identified for the first time in China. In addition, an exclusive trinucleotide (GAT) insertion in the HPeV4 nucleotide sequence was identified. However, the profiles of co-infection with other enteric related viruses were similar to our previous findings. In summary, these data suggest temporal variation in the seasonal distribution of HPeV and changing patterns of HPeV genotypes over time in the study region.
Project description:Infection with human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) was described for the first time in Japan in 2004 and reportedly is more often associated with severe disease than infection with HPeV1 or HPeV2. In 2004, infections with HPeV3 were observed for the first time in The Netherlands. Genetic analysis showed several different lineages, suggesting endemic circulation. We analyzed 163 cell culture isolates from the same number of patients tested in routine virological laboratories as part of the national enterovirus surveillance program. Isolates were collected between 2000 and 2007 and could not be characterized by routine methods. In total, 155 isolates (95%) were found positive for HPeV by a reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the 5' untranslated region, explaining the majority of the diagnostic deficit in enterovirus surveillance for these years. Typing of the isolates by use of partial genome sequencing of the VP1/2A region revealed the presence of 55 HPeV1, 2 HPeV2, 89 HPeV3, 1 HPeV4, and 8 HPeV5 isolates. We compared isolation dates, age groups affected, and clinical pictures, which were reported as part of the routine surveillance. Clear differences in epidemiology were observed, with HPeV3 occurring at intervals of 2 years and in the spring-summer season, whereas HPeV1 was observed in small numbers throughout each year, with a low in the summer months. HPeV3 infection affected younger children than HPeV1 infection and was significantly more often associated with fever, meningitis, and viremia.