Reaction of human albumin with aspirin in vitro: mass spectrometric identification of acetylated lysines 199, 402, 519, and 545.
ABSTRACT: The aspirin esterase activity of human plasma is due to butyrylcholinesterase and albumin. Our goal was to identify the amino acid residues involved in the aspirin esterase activity of albumin. Fatty acid-free human albumin and human plasma were treated with aspirin for 5 min-24 h. Acetylated residues were identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Treatment with 0.3 mM aspirin resulted in acetylation of Lys-199, Lys-402, Lys-519, and Lys-545. Treatment with 20 mM aspirin resulted in acetylation of 26 lysines. There was no acetylation of Tyr-411, under any conditions. Acetylated lysine was stable for at least 21 days at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C. Albumin acetylated by aspirin had reduced esterase activity with beta-naphthyl acetate as shown on gels stained for esterase activity. It was concluded that the aspirin esterase activity of albumin is a pseudo-esterase activity in which aspirin stably acetylates lysines and releases salicylate.
Project description:Human albumin is thought to hydrolyze esters because multiple equivalents of product are formed for each equivalent of albumin. Esterase activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate has been attributed to turnover at tyrosine 411. However, p-nitrophenyl acetate creates multiple, stable, acetylated adducts, a property contrary to turnover. Our goal was to identify residues that become acetylated by p-nitrophenyl acetate and determine the relationship between stable adduct formation and turnover. Fatty acid-free human albumin was treated with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 5 min to 2 weeks, or with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 48 h to 2 weeks. Aliquots were digested with pepsin, trypsin, or GluC and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify labeled residues. Only Tyr-411 was acetylated within the first 5 min of reaction with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate. After 0.5-6 h there was partial acetylation of 16-17 residues including Asp-1, Lys-4, Lys-12, Tyr-411, Lys-413, and Lys-414. Treatment with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate resulted in acetylation of 59 lysines, 10 serines, 8 threonines, 4 tyrosines, and Asp-1. When Tyr-411 was blocked with diisopropylfluorophosphate or chlorpyrifos oxon, albumin had normal esterase activity with beta-naphthyl acetate as visualized on a nondenaturing gel. However, after 82 residues had been acetylated, esterase activity was almost completely inhibited. The half-life for deacetylation of Tyr-411 at pH 8.0, 22 degrees C was 61 +/- 4 h. Acetylated lysines formed adducts that were even more stable. In conclusion, the pseudo-esterase activity of albumin is the result of irreversible acetylation of 82 residues and is not the result of turnover.
Project description:Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is a key mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme. We previously demonstrated increased LCAD lysine acetylation in SIRT3 knockout mice concomitant with reduced LCAD activity and reduced fatty acid oxidation. To study the effects of acetylation on LCAD and determine sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) target sites, we chemically acetylated recombinant LCAD. Acetylation impeded substrate binding and reduced catalytic efficiency. Deacetylation with recombinant SIRT3 partially restored activity. Residues Lys-318 and Lys-322 were identified as SIRT3-targeted lysines. Arginine substitutions at Lys-318 and Lys-322 prevented the acetylation-induced activity loss. Lys-318 and Lys-322 flank residues Arg-317 and Phe-320, which are conserved among all acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and coordinate the enzyme-bound FAD cofactor in the active site. We propose that acetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 causes a conformational change which reduces hydride transfer from substrate to FAD. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9, two related enzymes with lysines at positions equivalent to Lys-318/Lys-322, were also efficiently deacetylated by SIRT3 following chemical acetylation. These results suggest that acetylation/deacetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 is a mode of regulating fatty acid oxidation. The same mechanism may regulate other acyl-CoA dehydrogenases.
Project description:The lysine residues of rat heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were acetylated by acetic anhydride in the absence and presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) or biliverdin reductase (BVR). Nine acetylated peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the tryptic fragments obtained from HO-1 acetylated without the reductases (referred to as the fully acetylated HO-1). The presence of CPR prevented HO-1 from acetylation of lysine residues, Lys-149 and Lys-153, located in the F-helix. The heme degradation activity of the fully acetylated HO-1 in the NADPH/CPR-supported system was significantly reduced, whereas almost no inactivation was detected in HO-1 in the presence of CPR, which prevented acetylation of Lys-149 and Lys-153. On the other hand, the presence of BVR showed no protective effect on the acetylation of HO-1. The interaction of HO-1 with CPR or BVR is discussed based on the acetylation pattern and on molecular modeling.
Project description:Lysine acetylation (LysAc) is a conserved and important post-translational modification (PTM) that plays a key role in plant physiological and metabolic processes. Based on advances in Lys-acetylated protein immunoenrichment and mass-spectrometric technology, LysAc proteomics studies have been performed in many species. Such studies have made substantial contributions to our understanding of plant LysAc, revealing that Lys-acetylated histones and nonhistones are involved in a broad spectrum of plant cellular processes. Here, we present an extensive overview of recent research on plant Lys-acetylproteomes. We provide in-depth insights into the characteristics of plant LysAc modifications and the mechanisms by which LysAc participates in cellular processes and regulates metabolism and physiology during plant growth and development. First, we summarize the characteristics of LysAc, including the properties of Lys-acetylated sites, the motifs that flank Lys-acetylated lysines, and the dynamic alterations in LysAc among different tissues and developmental stages. We also outline a map of Lys-acetylated proteins in the Calvin-Benson cycle and central carbon metabolism-related pathways. We then introduce some examples of the regulation of plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses by LysAc. We discuss the interaction between LysAc and N<sup>α</sup>-terminal acetylation and the crosstalk between LysAc and other PTMs, including phosphorylation and succinylation. Finally, we propose recommendations for future studies in the field. We conclude that LysAc of proteins plays an important role in the regulation of the plant life cycle.
Project description:Although the magnitude of a protein's net charge (Z) can control its rate of self-assembly into amyloid, and its interactions with cellular membranes, the net charge of a protein is not viewed as a druggable parameter. This article demonstrates that aspirin (the quintessential acylating pharmacon) can inhibit the amyloidogenesis of superoxide dismutase (SOD1) by increasing the intrinsic net negative charge of the polypeptide, i.e., by acetylation (neutralization) of multiple lysines. The protective effects of acetylation were diminished (but not abolished) in 100 mM NaCl and were statistically significant: a total of 432 thioflavin-T amyloid assays were performed for all studied proteins. The acetylation of as few as three lysines by aspirin in A4V apo-SOD1-a variant that causes familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-delayed amyloid nucleation by 38% and slowed amyloid propagation by twofold. Lysines in wild-type- and ALS-variant apo-SOD1 could also be peracetylated with aspirin after fibrillization, resulting in supercharged fibrils, with increases in formal net charge of ?2 million units. Peracetylated SOD1 amyloid defibrillized at temperatures below unacetylated fibrils, and below the melting temperature of native Cu2,Zn2-SOD1 (e.g., fibril Tm = 84.49°C for acetylated D90A apo-SOD1 fibrils). Targeting the net charge of native or misfolded proteins with small molecules-analogous to how an enzyme's Km or Vmax are medicinally targeted-holds promise as a strategy in the design of therapies for diseases linked to protein self-assembly.
Project description:Acetylation is a post-translational modification that influences the activity of numerous proteins in vitro. Among them, the myogenic transcription factor MyoD shows an increased transcriptional activity in vitro when acetylated on two lysines (K): lysines 99 and 102. Here, we have investigated the biological relevance of this acetylation in vivo. Using specific antibodies, we show that endogenous MyoD is acetylated on lysines 99 and 102 in myoblasts. Moreover, we show the functional importance of acetylation in live animals by using a mutant of MyoD in which lysines 99 and 102 were replaced by arginines (R). Knock-in embryos homozygous for the MyoD(R99,102) allele expressed slightly reduced levels of MyoD but developed normally. However, the knock-in homozygous adult mice showed a phenotype that was almost identical to that of MyoD-knockout animals, including delayed muscle regeneration in vivo and an increased number of myoblasts but with reduced differentiation potential in vitro. Together, these results show the importance of MyoD acetylation for adult myogenesis.
Project description:The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300/CBP has been shown to undergo autoacetylation on lysines in an apparent regulatory loop that stimulates HAT activity. Here we have developed a strategy to introduce acetyl-Lys at up to six known modification sites in p300/CBP HAT using a combination of circular permutation and expressed protein ligation. We show that these semisynthetic, circularly permuted acetylated proteins retain high affinity for an acetyl-CoA substrate analogue and that HAT activity correlates positively with degree of acetylation. This study provides novel evidence for control of p300/CBP HAT activity by site-specific autoacetylation and outlines a potentially general strategy for using expressed protein ligation and circular permutation to chemically interrogate internal regions of proteins.
Project description:The pattern of histone H4 acetylation in different genomic regions has been investigated by immunoprecipitating oligonucleosomes from a human lymphoblastoid cell line with antibodies to H4 acetylated at lysines 5, 8, 12 or 16. DNA from antibody-bound or unbound chromatin was assayed by slot blotting. Pol I and pol II transcribed genes located in euchromatin were shown to have levels of H4 acetylation at lysines 5, 8 and 12 equivalent to those in input chromatin, but to be slightly enriched in H4 acetylated at lysine 16. In no case did the acetylation level correlate with actual or potential transcriptional activity. All acetylated histone H4 isoforms were depleted in non-coding, simple repeat DNA in heterochromatin, though the extent of depletion varied with the type of heterochromatin and with the isoform. Two single copy genes that map within or adjacent to blocks of paracentric heterochromatin are depleted in H4 acetylated at lysines 5, 8 and 12, but not 16. Consensus sequences of repetitive elements of the Alu family (SINES, enriched in R bands) were associated with H4 that was more highly acetylated at all four lysines than input chromatin, while H4 associated with Kpn I elements (LINES, enriched in G bands) was significantly underacetylated.
Project description:Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers.
Project description:Previous proteomic analyses have shown that aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in many organisms can be modified by acetylation of Lys. In this present study, leucyl-tRNA synthetase and arginyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli (EcLeuRS and EcArgRS) were overexpressed and purified and found to be acetylated on Lys residues by MS. Gln scanning mutagenesis revealed that Lys619, Lys624, and Lys809 in EcLeuRS and Lys126 and Lys408 in EcArgRS might play important roles in enzyme activity. Furthermore, we utilized a novel protein expression system to obtain enzymes harboring acetylated Lys at specific sites and investigated their catalytic activity. Acetylation of these Lys residues could affect their aminoacylation activity by influencing amino acid activation and/or the affinity for tRNA. In vitro assays showed that acetyl-phosphate nonenzymatically acetylates EcLeuRS and EcArgRS and suggested that the sirtuin class deacetylase CobB might regulate acetylation of these two enzymes. These findings imply a potential regulatory role for Lys acetylation in controlling the activity of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and thus protein synthesis.