Genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates.
ABSTRACT: This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated ovine (O), and the other from Bos taurus, designated bovine (B).
Project description:The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.
Project description:Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is the only pathogen that consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. Paradoxically, Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from BHS pneumonic lungs much more frequently than M. haemolytica. These observations suggest that there may be an interaction between these bacteria, and we hypothesized that B. trehalosi overgrows or otherwise inhibits the growth of M. haemolytica. Growth curves (monoculture) demonstrated that B. trehalosi has a shorter doubling time ( approximately 10 min versus approximately 27 min) and consistently achieves 3-log higher cell density (CFU/ml) compared to M. haemolytica. During coculture M. haemolytica growth was inhibited when B. trehalosi entered stationary phase (6 h) resulting in a final cell density for M. haemolytica that was 6 to 9 logs lower than expected with growth in the absence of B. trehalosi. Coculture supernatant failed to inhibit M. haemolytica growth on agar or in broth, indicating no obvious involvement of lytic phages, bacteriocins, or quorum-sensing systems. This observation was confirmed by limited growth inhibition of M. haemolytica when both pathogens were cultured in the same media but separated by a filter (0.4-microm pore size) that limited contact between the two bacterial populations. There was significant growth inhibition of M. haemolytica when the populations were separated by membranes with a pore size of 8 mum that allowed free contact. These observations demonstrate that B. trehalosi can both outgrow and inhibit M. haemolytica growth with the latter related to a proximity- or contact-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Proteomics data have been obtained from experimental mastitis in ewes after intramammary challenge with Mannheimia haemolytica. Animals were sampled before and sequentially after challenge; blood plasma and milk whey samples were produced and were subjected to proteomics evaluation by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Full protein maps and differential proteomics in sequential samples from blood plasma and milk whey of experimental ewes were presented. Post-challenge, 33 and 89 proteins were identified with differential abundance in blood plasma and milk whey, respectively. Also, 74 proteins were identified with differential abundance between the inoculated and contralateral glands. The data provide further insight in the pathogenesis of mastitis in sheep and indicate potential biomarkers for the disease. The data are further discussed in the research article "Differential quantitative proteomics study of experimental Mannheimia haemolytica mastitis in sheep" .
Project description:The Gram-negative bacterium Mannheimia haemolytica is the primary bacterial species associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and is responsible for significant economic losses to livestock industries worldwide. Healthy cattle are frequently colonized by commensal serotype A2 strains, but disease is usually caused by pathogenic strains of serotype A1. For reasons that are poorly understood, a transition occurs within the respiratory tract and a sudden explosive proliferation of serotype A1 bacteria leads to the onset of pneumonic disease. Very little is known about the interactions of M. haemolytica with airway epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa which might explain the different abilities of serotype A1 and A2 strains to cause disease. In the present study, host-pathogen interactions in the bovine respiratory tract were mimicked using a novel differentiated bovine bronchial epithelial cell (BBEC) infection model. In this model, differentiated BBECs were inoculated with serotype A1 or A2 strains of M. haemolytica and the course of infection followed over a 5-day period by microscopic assessment and measurement of key proinflammatory mediators. We have demonstrated that serotype A1, but not A2, M. haemolytica invades differentiated BBECs by transcytosis and subsequently undergoes rapid intracellular replication before spreading to adjacent cells and causing extensive cellular damage. Our findings suggest that the explosive proliferation of serotype A1 M. haemolytica that occurs within the bovine respiratory tract prior to the onset of pneumonic disease is potentially due to bacterial invasion of, and rapid proliferation within, the mucosal epithelium. The discovery of this previously unrecognized mechanism of pathogenesis is important because it will allow the serotype A1-specific virulence determinants responsible for invasion to be identified and thereby provide opportunities for the development of new strategies for combatting BRD aimed at preventing early colonization and infection of the bovine respiratory tract.
Project description:Aim:The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize the Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from blood, nasal discharge, and lung tissue of pneumonic goats. Materials and Methods:A total of 14 goats were investigated for pneumonic pasteurellosis. Of 14 goats, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from 10 clinically diseased animals. Moreover, lung tissue and heart blood samples were collected during necropsy of four goats died with pneumonia. All the samples were processed for the isolation of M. haemolytica and P. multocida in the laboratory. Bacterial isolates were identified by cultural and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. All the isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using commonly used antimicrobials. M. haemolytica isolates were characterized by PHSSA gene detection. P. multocida isolates were characterized by KMT1 gene detection and capsule typing. Results:On necropsy of dead goats, the pneumonia was characterized as acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Bacterial culture revealed the isolation of M. haemolytica (7) and P. multocida (5) of 10 clinical cases. Moreover, M. haemolytica and P. multocida were coisolated from two of the lung tissues. Furthermore, one of the other two lung tissues showed the isolation of M. haemolytica while the other showed recovery of P. multocida. Bacterial isolates were specifically identified by the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed reduced susceptibility to ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Moreover, the PHSSA and KMT1 genes were specifically detected among M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates, respectively. All P. multocida isolates belonged to serogroup A. Conclusion:The present study reported an occurrence of pneumonic pasteurellosis caused by M. haemolytica and P. multocida in a goat flock.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mannheimia haemolytica has been recognized as the principal cause of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats. It is one of the important diseases of small ruminants in Ethiopia. While annual vaccination using a monovalent vaccine (inactivated Pasteurella multocida biotype A) is common, respiratory diseases are still reported in various parts of Ethiopia. This suggests the need for further investigation into the species and strains responsible for the disease, which is vital information for development of a multivalent vaccine. The objective of the current study was to isolate M. heamolytica associated with pneumonic cases of sheep in selected areas of Central Ethiopia, determine its role and the strains/genotypes of the bacterium circulating in the study area. RESULTS:Bacteriological analysis of nasal swab samples collected from a total of 76 pneumonic cases of sheep showed that M. haemolytica was isolated from 26 of them while B.trehalosi from two cases. Further molecular analyses of the isolates using M. haemolytica species-specific and M.haemolytica serotype-1 antigen specific PCR assays revealed, 26 of the isolates were identified as M. haemolytica of which 21 of them were M. haemolytica serotype-1. Both M. haemolytica and B.trehalosi isolates were not detected in a PCR assay targeting capsular biosynthesis gene (capA) of P.multocida despite the non-specific products observed in M. haemolytica isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of M. haemolytica isolates included in this study in comparison with the reference strains with respect to PHSSA and Rpt2 genes revealed that the Ethiopian M. haemolytica isolates constituted three distinct genotypes consistent with site of origin. CONCLUSION:The study indicated that M.haemolytica is commonly associated with cases of pneumonia in sheep in the study areas of central Ethiopia although the remaining other pathogens responsible for majority of the cases are yet to be determined. Molecular characterization revealed the existence of three genotypes of M. haemolytica circulating in the study areas consistent to the site of isolation. The findings suggest further extensive work to determine all pathogens associated with sheep pneumonia and the strain distribution of M. heamolytica to understand its molecular epidemiology at national level and design cost effective prevention and control methods.
Project description:Mannheimia glucosida, M. haemolytica, and M. ruminalis were isolated from cases of acute mastitis in ewes. M. glucosida was found to be a common cause of clinical mastitis in sheep. Selected phenotypic tests in addition to genotyping were needed to definitively identify Mannheimia species causing ovine mastitis.
Project description:Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1) and 6 (S6) isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2) found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design intended to reduce the dependency on antibiotics to treat respiratory infection in cattle.
Project description:Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 is the principal cause of pneumonic mannheimiosis in ovine and caprine livestock; this disease is a consequence of immune suppression caused by stress and associated viruses and is responsible for significant economic losses in farm production worldwide. Gram-negative bacteria such as M. haemolytica produce outer membrane (OM)-derived spherical structures named outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain leukotoxin and other biologically active virulence factors. In the present study, the relationship between M. haemolytica A2 and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) was studied. BLf is an 80 kDa glycoprotein that possesses bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties and is part of the mammalian innate immune system. Apo-BLf (iron-free) showed a bactericidal effect against M. haemolytica A2, with an observed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16 µM. Sublethal doses (2-8 µM) of apo-BLf increased the release of OMVs, which were quantified by flow cytometry. Apo-BLf modified the normal structure of the OM and OMVs, as observed through transmission electron microscopy. Apo-BLf also induced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release from bacteria, disrupting OM permeability and functionality, as measured by silver staining and SDS and polymyxin B cell permeability assays. Western blot results showed that apo-BLf increased the secretion of leukotoxin in M. haemolytica A2 culture supernatants, possibly through its iron-chelating activity. In contrast, holo-BLf (with iron) did not have this effect, possibly due to differences in the tertiary structure between these proteins. In summary, apo-BLf affected the levels of several M. haemolytica virulence factors and could be evaluated for use in animals as an adjuvant in the treatment of ovine mannheimiosis.