Independent deletions of a pathogen-resistance gene in Brassica and Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Plant disease resistance (R) genes confer race-specific resistance to pathogens and are genetically defined on the basis of intra-specific functional polymorphism. Little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this polymorphism. Most R loci examined to date contain alternate alleles and/or linked homologs even in disease-susceptible plant genotypes. In contrast, the resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar maculicola (RPM1) bacterial resistance gene is completely absent (rpm1-null) in 5/5 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions that lack RPM1 function. The rpm1-null locus contains a 98-bp segment of unknown origin in place of the RPM1 gene. We undertook comparative mapping of RPM1 and flanking genes in Brassica napus to determine the ancestral state of the RPM1 locus. We cloned two B. napus RPM1 homologs encoding hypothetical proteins with approximately 81% amino acid identity to Arabidopsis RPM1. Collinearity of genes flanking RPM1 is conserved between B. napus and Arabidopsis. Surprisingly, we found four additional B. napus loci in which the flanking marker synteny is maintained but RPM1 is absent. These B. napus rpm1-null loci have no detectable nucleotide similarity to the Arabidopsis rpm1-null allele. We conclude that RPM1 evolved before the divergence of the Brassicaceae and has been deleted independently in the Brassica and Arabidopsis lineages. These results suggest that functional polymorphism at R gene loci can arise from gene deletions.
Project description:Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a major disease in rapeseed (Brassica napus) worldwide. Breeding for SSR resistance in B. napus, as in other crops, relies only on germplasms with quantitative resistance genes. A better understanding of the genetic basis for SSR resistance in B. napus thus holds promise for the genetic improvement of disease resistance. In the present study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for SSR resistance in B. napus were performed using an association panel of 448 accessions genotyped with the Brassica 60K Infinium® single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 26 SNPs corresponding to three loci, DSRC4, DSRC6, and DSRC8 were associated with SSR resistance. Haplotype analysis showed that the three favorable alleles for SSR resistance exhibited cumulative effects. After aligning SSR resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified in the present and previous studies to the B. napus reference genome, one locus (DSRC6) was found to be located within the confidence interval of a QTL identified in previous QTL mapping studies and another two loci (DSRC4 and DSRC8) were considered novel loci for SSR resistance. A total of 39 candidate genes were predicted for the three loci based on the GWAS combining with the differentially expressed genes identified in previous transcriptomics analyses.
Project description:Over 1000 genetically linked RFLP loci in Brassica napus were mapped to homologous positions in the Arabidopsis genome on the basis of sequence similarity. Blocks of genetically linked loci in B. napus frequently corresponded to physically linked markers in Arabidopsis. This comparative analysis allowed the identification of a minimum of 21 conserved genomic units within the Arabidopsis genome, which can be duplicated and rearranged to generate the present-day B. napus genome. The conserved regions extended over lengths as great as 50 cM in the B. napus genetic map, equivalent to approximately 9 Mb of contiguous sequence in the Arabidopsis genome. There was also evidence for conservation of chromosome landmarks, particularly centromeric regions, between the two species. The observed segmental structure of the Brassica genome strongly suggests that the extant Brassica diploid species evolved from a hexaploid ancestor. The comparative map assists in exploiting the Arabidopsis genomic sequence for marker and candidate gene identification within the larger, intractable genomes of the Brassica polyploids.
Project description:Resistance to pod shattering (shatter resistance) is a target trait for global rapeseed (canola, Brassica napus L.), improvement programs to minimise grain loss in the mature standing crop, and during windrowing and mechanical harvest. We describe the genetic basis of natural variation for shatter resistance in B. napus and show that several quantitative trait loci (QTL) control this trait. To identify loci underlying shatter resistance, we used a novel genotyping-by-sequencing approach DArT-Seq. QTL analysis detected a total of 12 significant QTL on chromosomes A03, A07, A09, C03, C04, C06, and C08; which jointly account for approximately 57% of the genotypic variation in shatter resistance. Through Genome-Wide Association Studies, we show that a large number of loci, including those that are involved in shattering in Arabidopsis, account for variation in shatter resistance in diverse B. napus germplasm. Our results indicate that genetic diversity for shatter resistance genes in B. napus is limited; many of the genes that might control this trait were not included during the natural creation of this species, or were not retained during the domestication and selection process. We speculate that valuable diversity for this trait was lost during the natural creation of B. napus. To improve shatter resistance, breeders will need to target the introduction of useful alleles especially from genotypes of other related species of Brassica, such as those that we have identified.
Project description:Key message "We identified both quantitative and quantitative resistance loci to Leptosphaeria maculans, a fungal pathogen, causing blackleg disease in canola. Several genome-wide significant associations were detected at known and new loci for blackleg resistance. We further validated statistically significant associations in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to L. maculans. One of the novel loci identified for the first time, Rlm12, conveys adult plant resistance in canola." Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a significant disease which affects the sustainable production of canola (Brassica napus). This study reports a genome-wide association study based on 18,804 polymorphic SNPs to identify loci associated with qualitative and quantitative resistance to L. maculans. Genomic regions delimited with 694 significant SNP markers, that are associated with resistance evaluated using 12 single spore isolates and pathotypes from four canola stubble were identified. Several significant associations were detected at known disease resistance loci including in the vicinity of recently cloned Rlm2/LepR3 genes, and at new loci on chromosomes A01/C01, A02/C02, A03/C03, A05/C05, A06, A08, and A09. In addition, we validated statistically significant associations on A01, A07, and A10 in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to L. maculans. One of the novel loci identified for the first time, Rlm12, conveys adult plant resistance and mapped within 13.2 kb from Arabidopsis R gene of TIR-NBS class. We showed that resistance loci are located in the vicinity of R genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus on the sequenced genome of B. napus cv. Darmor-bzh. Significantly associated SNP markers provide a valuable tool to enrich germplasm for favorable alleles in order to improve the level of resistance to L. maculans in canola.
Project description:The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.
Project description:Silique length (SL) is an important yield trait and positively correlates with seeds per silique and seed weight. In the present study, two double haploid (DH) populations, established from crosses Zhongshuang11 × R11 (ZR) and R1 × R2 (RR), containing 280 and 95 DH lines, respectively, were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SL. A high-dense genetic map from ZR population was constructed comprising 14,658 bins on 19 linkage groups, with map length of 2,198.85 cM and an average marker distance of 0.15 cM. Genetic linkage map from RR population was constructed by using 2,046 mapped markers anchored to 19 chromosomes with 2,217-cM map length and an average marker distance of 1.08 cM. Major QTL qSL_ZR_A09 and qSL_RR_A09b on A09 were identified from ZR and RR populations, respectively. Both QTL could be stably detected in four environments. QTL qSL_RR_A09b and qSL_ZR_A09 were located on 68.5-70.8 cM and 91.33-91.94 cM interval with R2 values of 14.99-39.07% and 15.00-20.36% in RR and ZR populations, respectively. Based on the physical positions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers flanking qSL_ZR_A09 and gene annotation in Arabidopsis, 26 genes were identified with SNP/Indel variation between parents and two genes (BnaA09g41180D and BnaA09g41380D) were selected as the candidate genes. Expression analysis further revealed BnaA09g41180D, encoding homologs of Arabidopsis fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLA3), as the most promising candidate gene for qSL_ZR_A09. The QTL identification and candidate gene analysis will provide new insight into the genomic regions controlling SL in Brassica napus as well as candidate genes underlying the QTL.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous male sterility is an advantageous trait for both constructing efficient pollination control systems and for understanding the developmental process of the male reproductive unit in many crops. A triallelic genetic male-sterile locus (BnMs5) has been identified in Brassica napus; however, its complicated genome structure has greatly hampered the isolation of this locus. The aim of this study was to physically map BnMs5 through an integrated map-based cloning strategy and analyse the local chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. METHODS: A large F(2) population was used to integrate the existing genetic maps around BnMs5. A map-based cloning strategy in combination with comparative mapping among B. napus, Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea was employed to facilitate the identification of a target bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone covering the BnMs5 locus. The genomic sequences from the Brassica species were analysed to reveal the regional chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. KEY RESULTS: BnMs5 was finally delimited to a 0·3-cM genetic fragment from an integrated local genetic map, and was anchored on the B. napus A8 chromosome. Screening of a B. napus BAC clone library and identification of the positive clones validated that JBnB034L06 was the target BAC clone. The closest flanking markers restrict BnMs5 to a 21-kb region on JBnB034L06 containing six predicted functional genes. Good collinearity relationship around BnMs5 between several Brassica species was observed, while violent chromosomal evolutionary events including insertions/deletions, duplications and single nucleotide mutations were also found to have extensively occurred during their divergence. CONCLUSIONS: This work represents major progress towards the molecular cloning of BnMs5, as well as presenting a powerful, integrative method to mapping loci in plants with complex genomic architecture, such as the amphidiploid B. napus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Correct timing of flowering is critical for plants to produce enough viable offspring. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), flowering time is regulated by an intricate network of molecular signaling pathways. Arabidopsis srr1-1 mutants lacking SENSITIVITY TO RED LIGHT REDUCED 1 (SRR1) expression flower early, particularly under short day (SD) conditions (1). SRR1 ensures that plants do not flower prematurely in such non-inductive conditions by controlling repression of the key florigen FT. Here, we have examined the role of SRR1 in the closely related crop species Brassica napus. RESULTS:Arabidopsis SRR1 has five homologs in Brassica napus. They can be divided into two groups, where the A02 and C02 copies show high similarity to AtSRR1 on the protein level. The other group, including the A03, A10 and C09 copies all carry a larger deletion in the amino acid sequence. Three of the homologs are expressed at detectable levels: A02, C02 and C09. Notably, the gene copies show a differential expression pattern between spring and winter type accessions of B. napus. When the three expressed gene copies were introduced into the srr1-1 background, only A02 and C02 were able to complement the srr1-1 early flowering phenotype, while C09 could not. Transcriptional analysis of known SRR1 targets in Bna.SRR1-transformed lines showed that CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1) expression is key for flowering time control via SRR1. CONCLUSIONS:We observed subfunctionalization of the B. napus SRR1 gene copies, with differential expression between early and late flowering accessions of some Bna.SRR1 copies. This suggests involvement of Bna.SRR1 in regulation of seasonal flowering in B. napus. The C09 gene copy was unable to complement srr1-1 plants, but is highly expressed in B. napus, suggesting specialization of a particular function. Furthermore, the C09 protein carries a deletion which may pinpoint a key region of the SRR1 protein potentially important for its molecular function. This is important evidence of functional domain annotation in the highly conserved but unique SRR1 amino acid sequence.
Project description:The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) protein family is important in the export of toxins and other substrates, but detailed information on this family in the Brassicaceae has not yet been reported compared to Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we identified 57, 124, 81, 85, 130, and 79 MATE genes in A. thaliana, Brassica napus, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea, and Brassica nigra, respectively, which were unevenly distributed on chromosomes owing to both tandem and segmental duplication events. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes could be classified into four subgroups, shared high similarity and conservation within each group, and have evolved mainly through purifying selection. Furthermore, numerous B. napusMATE genes showed differential expression between tissues and developmental stages and between plants treated with heavy metals or hormones and untreated control plants. This differential expression was especially pronounced for the Group 2 and 3 BnaMATE genes, indicating that they may play important roles in stress tolerance and hormone induction. Our results provide a valuable foundation for the functional dissection of the different BnaMATE homologs in B. napus and its parental lines, as well as for the breeding of more stress-tolerant B. napus genotypes.
Project description:A detailed comparative map of Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana has been established based largely on mapping of Arabidopsis ESTs in two Arabidopsis and four Brassica populations. Based on conservative criteria for inferring synteny, "one to one correspondence" between Brassica and Arabidopsis chromosomes accounted for 57% of comparative loci. Based on 186 corresponding loci detected in B. oleracea and A. thaliana, at least 19 chromosome structural rearrangements differentiate B. oleracea and A. thaliana orthologs. Chromosomal duplication in the B. oleracea genome was strongly suggested by parallel arrangements of duplicated loci on different chromosomes, which accounted for 41% of loci mapped in Brassica. Based on 367 loci mapped, at least 22 chromosomal rearrangements differentiate B. oleracea homologs from one another. Triplication of some Brassica chromatin and duplication of some Arabidopsis chromatin were suggested by data that could not be accounted for by the one-to-one and duplication models, respectively. Twenty-seven probes detected three or more loci in Brassica, which represent 25.3% of the 367 loci mapped in Brassica. Thirty-one probes detected two or more loci in Arabidopsis, which represent 23.7% of the 262 loci mapped in Arabidopsis. Application of an EST-based, cross-species genomic framework to isolation of alleles conferring phenotypes unique to Brassica, as well as the challenges and opportunities in extrapolating genetic information from Arabidopsis to Brassica and to more distantly related crops, are discussed.