Timing-dependent actions of NGF required for cell differentiation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the timing-dependency of the NGF action, we performed a discontinuous stimulation assay consisting of a first transient stimulation followed by an interval and then a second sustained stimulation and quantified the neurite extension level. Consequently, we observed a timing-dependent action of NGF on cell differentiation, and discontinuous NGF stimulation similarly induced differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is likely required as a prerequisite condition. These observations indicate that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: an initial stimulation-driven latent process and a second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require the activities of ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, whereas the extension-process requires the activities of ERK and PI3K, but not transcription. We also found that during the first stimulation, the activity of NGF can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin; during the second stimulation, however, the activity of NGF cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes, using a microarray. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that NGF induces the differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: an ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process, and an ERK- and PI3K-driven and transcription-independent extension process.
Project description:Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation; however, it is unclear whether NGF is continuously required for differentiation. We found that discontinuous NGF stimulation, consisting of the first transient stimulation followed by an interval and the second sustained stimulation, similarly induces differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is required as prerequisite conditions. This indicates that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: the first stimulation-driven latent process and the second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, activities, whereas the extension-process requires ERK and PI3K, but not transcription, activities. We also found that NGF in the first stimulation can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin, whereas NGF in the second stimulation cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes. These results demonstrate that NGF induces differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: the ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process; and the ERK- and PI3K-driven, and transcription-independent extension process. Overall design: Gene expression in PC12 cells was measured at 3 hours after following stimulations, complete medium (n = 4), continuous NGF (n = 2), 1 hour of NGF (n = 4), 1 hour of PACAP (n = 2), 1 hour of Insulin (n = 2), 1 hour of NGF in presence of U0126 (n = 2) or 1 hour of NGF in presence of LY294002 (n = 2).
Project description:Neuronal differentiation involves the formation and extension of neuronal processes. We have identified a novel regulator of neurite formation and extension, the neurite outgrowth multiadaptor, NOMA-GAP, which belongs to a new family of multiadaptor proteins with RhoGAP activity. We show that NOMA-GAP is essential for NGF-stimulated neuronal differentiation and for the regulation of the ERK5 MAP kinase and the Cdc42 signaling pathways downstream of NGF. NOMA-GAP binds directly to the NGF receptor, TrkA, and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon receptor activation, thus enabling recruitment and activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Recruitment of SHP2 is required for the stimulation of neuronal process extension and for sustained activation of ERK5 downstream of NOMA-GAP. In addition, we show that NOMA-GAP promotes neurite outgrowth by tempering activation of the Cdc42/PAK signaling pathway in response to NGF. NOMA-GAP, through its dual function as a multiadaptor and RhoGAP protein, thus plays an essential role downstream of NGF in promoting neurite outgrowth and extension.
Project description:It has been proposed that differential activation kinetics allows cells to use a common set of signaling pathways to specify distinct cellular outcomes. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce different activation kinetics of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and result in differentiation and proliferation, respectively. However, a direct and quantitative linkage between the temporal profile of Raf/MEK/ERK activation and the cellular outputs has not been established due to a lack of means to precisely perturb its signaling kinetics. Here, we construct a light-gated protein-protein interaction system to regulate the activation pattern of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Light-induced activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade leads to significant neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines in the absence of growth factors. Compared with NGF stimulation, light stimulation induces longer but fewer neurites. Intermittent on/off illumination reveals that cells achieve maximum neurite outgrowth if the off-time duration per cycle is shorter than 45 min. Overall, light-mediated kinetic control enables precise dissection of the temporal dimension within the intracellular signal transduction network.
Project description:Differentiation of PC12 cells by nerve growth factor (NGF) is characterized by changes in signal transduction pathways leading to growth arrest and neurite extension. The transcription factor p53, involved in regulating cell cycle and apoptosis, is also activated during PC12 differentiation and contributes to each of these processes but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. NGF signaling stabilizes p53 protein expression, which enables its transcriptional regulation of target genes, including the newly identified target, wnt7b, a member of the wnt family of secreted morphogens. We tested the hypothesis that wnt7b expression is a factor in NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth of differentiating PC12 cells. Wnt7b transcript and protein levels are increased following NGF treatment in a p53-dependent manner, as demonstrated by a reduction in wnt7b protein levels following stable shRNA-mediated silencing of p53. In addition, overexpressed human tp53 was capable of inducing marked wnt7b expression in neuronal PC12 cells but tp53 overexpression did not elevate wnt7b levels in several tested human tumor cell lines. Ectopic wnt7b overexpression was sufficient to rescue neurite outgrowth in NGF-treated p53-silenced PC12 cells, which could be blocked by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition with SP600125 and did not involve beta-catenin nuclear translocation. Addition of sFRP1 to differentiation medium inhibited wnt7b-dependent phosphorylation of JNK, demonstrating that wnt7b is secreted and signals through a JNK-dependent mechanism in PC12 cells. We further identify an NGF-inducible subset of wnt receptors that likely supports wnt7b-mediated neurite extension in PC12 cells. In conclusion, wnt7b is a novel p53-regulated neuritogenic factor in PC12 cells that in conjunction with NGF-regulated Fzd expression is involved in p53-dependent neurite outgrowth through noncanonical JNK signaling.
Project description:Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neurite outgrowth and differentiation in a process that involves NGF binding to its receptor TrkA and endocytosis of the NGF-TrkA complex into signaling endosomes. Here, we find that biogenesis of signaling endosomes requires inactivation of Rab5 to block early endosome fusion. Expression of dominant-negative Rab5 mutants enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, whereas a constitutively active Rab5 mutant or Rabex-5 inhibited this process. Consistently, inactivation of Rab5 sustained TrkA activation on the endosomes. Furthermore, NGF treatment rapidly decreased cellular level of active Rab5-GTP, as shown by pull-down assays. This Rab5 down-regulation was mediated by RabGAP5, which was shown to associate with TrkA by coimmunoprecipitation assays. Importantly, RNA interference of RabGAP5 as well as a RabGAP5 truncation mutant containing the TrkA-binding domain blocked NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, indicating a requirement for RabGAP5 in this process. Thus, NGF signaling down-regulates Rab5 activity via RabGAP5 to facilitate neurite outgrowth and differentiation.
Project description:Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) is a protein identified as an antagonist of Fas-induced cell death. We show that FAIM overexpression fails to rescue neurons from trophic factor deprivation, but exerts a marked neurite growth-promoting action in different neuronal systems. Whereas FAIM overexpression greatly enhanced neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells and sympathetic neurons grown with nerve growth factor (NGF), reduction of endogenous FAIM levels by RNAi decreased neurite outgrowth in these cells. FAIM overexpression promoted NF-kappa B activation, and blocking this activation by using a super-repressor I kappa B alpha or by carrying out experiments using cortical neurons from mice that lack the p65 NF-kappa B subunit prevented FAIM-induced neurite outgrowth. The effect of FAIM on neurite outgrowth was also blocked by inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway. Finally, we show that FAIM interacts with both Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptor NGF receptors in a ligand-dependent manner. These results reveal a new function of FAIM in promoting neurite outgrowth by a mechanism involving activation of the Ras-ERK pathway and NF-kappa B.
Project description:Cell cycle analysis typically relies on fixed time-point measurements of cells in particular phases of the cell cycle. The cell cycle, however, is a dynamic process whose subtle shifts are lost by fixed time-point methods. Live-cell fluorescent biosensors and time-lapse microscopy allows the collection of temporal information about real time cell cycle progression and arrest. Using two genetically-encoded biosensors, we measured the precision of the G(1), S, G(2) and M cell cycle phase durations in different cell types and identified a bimodal G(1) phase duration in a fibroblast cell line that is not present in the other cell types. Using a cell line model for neuronal differentiation, we demonstrated that NGF-induced neurite extension occurs independently of NGF-induced cell cycle G(1) phase arrest. Thus, we have begun to use cell cycle fluorescent biosensors to examine the proliferation of cell populations at the resolution of individual cells and neuronal differentiation as a dynamic process of parallel cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although exosomes, as byproducts of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs), have been demonstrated to be an effective therapy for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), their mechanism of action remains unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We designed and performed this study to determine whether exosomes attenuate the lesion size of SCI by ameliorating neuronal injury induced by a secondary inflammatory storm and promoting neurite outgrowth. We determined the absolute levels of all exosomal miRNAs and investigated the potential mechanisms of action of miR-199a-3p/145-5p in inducing neurite outgrowth in vivo and in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>miR-199a-3p/145-5p, which are relatively highly expressed miRNAs in exosomes, promoted PC12 cell differentiation suppressed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro through modulation of the NGF/TrkA pathway. We also demonstrated that Cblb was a direct target of miR-199a-3p and that Cbl was a direct target of miR-145-5p. Cblb and Cbl gene knockdown resulted in significantly decreased TrkA ubiquitination levels, subsequently activating the NGF/TrkA downstream pathways Akt and Erk. Conversely, overexpression of Cblb and Cbl was associated with significantly increased TrkA ubiquitination level, subsequently inactivating the NGF/TrkA downstream pathways Akt and Erk. Western blot and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the direct interaction between TrkA and Cblb and TrkA and Cbl. In an in vivo experiment, exosomal miR-199a-3p/145-5p was found to upregulate TrkA expression at the lesion site and also promote locomotor function in SCI rats.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In summary, our study showed that exosomes transferring miR-199a-3p/145-5p into neurons in SCI rats affected TrkA ubiquitination and promoted the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway, indicating that hUC-MSC-derived exosomes may be a promising treatment strategy for SCI.
Project description:Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation requires the activation of members of the Rho family of small GTPases. However, the molecular mechanisms through which NGF regulates cytoskeletal changes and neurite outgrowth are not totally understood. In this work, we identify the Rac1-specific guanine exchange factor (GEF) Tiam1 as a novel mediator of NGF/TrkA-dependent neurite elongation. In particular, we report that knockdown of Tiam1 causes a significant reduction in Rac1 activity and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF. Physical interaction between Tiam1 and active Ras (Ras-GTP), but not tyrosine phosphorylation of Tiam1, plays a central role in Rac1 activation by NGF. In addition, our findings indicate that Ras is required to associate Tiam1 with Rac1 and promote Rac1 activation upon NGF stimulation. Taken together, these findings define a novel molecular mechanism through which Tiam1 mediates TrkA signaling and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF.
Project description:Electrical and/or electromechanical stimulation has been shown to play a significant role in regenerating various functionalities in soft tissues, such as tendons, muscles, and nerves. In this work, we investigate the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a potential substrate for wireless neuronal differentiation. Piezoelectric PVDF enables generation of electrical charges on its surface upon acoustic stimulation, inducing neuritogenesis of PC12 cells. We demonstrate that the effect of pure piezoelectric stimulation on neurite generation in PC12 cells is comparable to the ones induced by neuronal growth factor (NGF). In inhibitor experiments, our results indicate that dynamic stimulation of PVDF by ultrasonic (US) waves activates calcium channels, thus inducing the generation of neurites via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. This mechanism is independent from the well-studied NGF induced mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERK) pathway. The use of US, in combination with piezoelectric polymers, is advantageous since focused power transmission can occur deep into biological tissues, which holds great promise for the development of non-invasive neuroregenerative devices.