The cAMP capture compound mass spectrometry as a novel tool for targeting cAMP-binding proteins: from protein kinase A to potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels.
ABSTRACT: The profiling of subproteomes from complex mixtures on the basis of small molecule interactions shared by members of protein families or small molecule interaction domains present in a subset of proteins is an increasingly important approach in functional proteomics. Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS) is a novel technology to address this issue. CCs are trifunctional molecules that accomplish the reversible binding of target protein families to a selectivity group (small molecule), covalent capturing of the bound proteins by photoactivated cross-linking through a reactivity group, and pullout of the small molecule-protein complexes through a sorting function, e.g. biotin. Here we present the design, synthesis, and application of a new Capture Compound to target and identify cAMP-binding proteins in complex protein mixtures. Starting with modest amounts of total protein mixture (65-500 microg), we demonstrate that the cAMP-CCs can be used to isolate bona fide cAMP-binding proteins from lysates of Escherichia coli, mammalian HepG2 cells, and subcellular fractions of mammalian brain, respectively. The identified proteins captured by the cAMP-CCs range from soluble cAMP-binding proteins, such as the catabolite gene activator protein from E. coli and regulatory subunits of protein kinase A from mammalian systems, to cAMP-activated potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels from neuronal membranes and specifically synaptosomal fractions from rat brain. The latter group of proteins has never been identified before in any small molecule protein interaction and mass spectrometry-based proteomics study. Given the modest amount of protein input required, we expect that CCMS using the cAMP-CCs provides a unique tool for profiling cAMP-binding proteins from proteome samples of limited abundance, such as tissue biopsies.
Project description:The cAMP-mediated allosteric transition in the catabolite activator protein (CAP; also known as the cAMP receptor protein, CRP) is a textbook example of modulation of DNA-binding activity by small-molecule binding. Here we report the structure of CAP in the absence of cAMP, which, together with structures of CAP in the presence of cAMP, defines atomic details of the cAMP-mediated allosteric transition. The structural changes, and their relationship to cAMP binding and DNA binding, are remarkably clear and simple. Binding of cAMP results in a coil-to-helix transition that extends the coiled-coil dimerization interface of CAP by 3 turns of helix and concomitantly causes rotation, by approximately 60 degrees , and translation, by approximately 7 A, of the DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of CAP, positioning the recognition helices in the DBDs in the correct orientation to interact with DNA. The allosteric transition is stabilized further by expulsion of an aromatic residue from the cAMP-binding pocket upon cAMP binding. The results define the structural mechanisms that underlie allosteric control of this prototypic transcriptional regulatory factor and provide an illustrative example of how effector-mediated structural changes can control the activity of regulatory proteins.
Project description:Mammalian cells express two distinct forms of transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) that are apparently the products of alternative splicing of the CREB gene transcript. The two proteins differ by a 14-amino acid serine-rich insertion present in one of the CREB isoforms. We show that both CREB isoforms are expressed in many cell types and mammalian species. Both encode proteins that bind specifically to a cAMP response element in vitro. As expected for proteins of this class, the CREB proteins bind DNA as dimers. Both proteins impart cAMP-regulated transcriptional activity to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, showing that cAMP directly modulates the transcriptional stimulatory activity of CREB. The presence of multiple CREB isoforms with identical DNA-binding specificities but differences in the presumed regulatory domain raises the possibility that CREB proteins may be able to integrate distinct regulatory signals at the level of gene transcription.
Project description:Mammalian exchange protein directly activated by cAMP isoform 1 (EPAC1), encoded by the RAPGEF3 gene, is one of the two-membered family of cAMP sensors that mediate the intracellular functions of cAMP by acting as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the Ras-like Rap small GTPases. Extensive studies have revealed that EPAC1-mediated cAMP signaling is highly coordinated spatiotemporally through the formation of dynamic signalosomes by interacting with a diverse array of cellular partners. Recent functional analyses of genetically engineered mouse models further suggest that EPAC1 functions as an important stress response switch and is involved in pathophysiological conditions of cardiac stresses, chronic pain, cancer and infectious diseases. These findings, coupled with the development of EPAC specific small molecule modulators, validate EPAC1 as a promising target for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:Spatiotemporal control of the cAMP signaling pathway is governed by both hormonal stimulation of cAMP generation by adenylyl cyclases (activation phase) and cAMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (termination phase). The termination phase is initiated by PDEs actively targeting the protein kinase A (PKA) R-subunit through formation of a PDE-PKAR-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) complex (the termination complex). Our results using PDE8 as a model PDE, reveal that PDEs mediate active hydrolysis of cAMP bound to its receptor RI? by enhancing the enzymatic activity. This accelerated cAMP turnover occurs via formation of a stable PDE8-RI? complex, where the protein-protein interface forms peripheral contacts and the central ligand cements this ternary interaction. The basis for enhanced catalysis is active translocation of cAMP from its binding site on RI? to the hydrolysis site on PDE8 through direct "channeling." Our results reveal cAMP channeling in the PDE8-RI? complex and a molecular description of how this channel facilitates processive hydrolysis of unbound cAMP. Thus, unbound cAMP maintains the PDE8-RI? complex while being hydrolyzed, revealing an undiscovered mode for amplification of PKA activity by cAMP-mediated sequestration of the R-subunit by PDEs. This novel regulatory mode explains the paradox of cAMP signal amplification by accelerated PDE-mediated cAMP turnover. This highlights how target effector proteins of small-molecule ligands can promote enzyme-mediated ligand hydrolysis by scaffolding effects. Enhanced activity of the PDE8-RI? complex facilitates robust desensitization, allowing the cell to respond to dynamic levels of cAMP rather than steady-state levels. The PDE8-RI? complex represents a new class of PDE-based complexes for specific drug discovery targeting the cAMP signaling pathway.
Project description:Although rates of protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPS) are determined by their rates of ubiquitination, we show here that the proteasome's capacity to degrade ubiquitinated proteins is also tightly regulated. We studied the effects of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on proteolysis by the UPS in several mammalian cell lines. Various agents that raise intracellular cAMP and activate PKA (activators of adenylate cyclase or inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4) promoted degradation of short-lived (but not long-lived) cell proteins generally, model UPS substrates having different degrons, and aggregation-prone proteins associated with major neurodegenerative diseases, including mutant FUS (Fused in sarcoma), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1), TDP43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43), and tau. 26S proteasomes purified from these treated cells or from control cells and treated with PKA degraded ubiquitinated proteins, small peptides, and ATP more rapidly than controls, but not when treated with protein phosphatase. Raising cAMP levels also increased amounts of doubly capped 26S proteasomes. Activated PKA phosphorylates the 19S subunit, Rpn6/PSMD11 (regulatory particle non-ATPase 6/proteasome subunit D11) at Ser14. Overexpression of a phosphomimetic Rpn6 mutant activated proteasomes similarly, whereas a nonphosphorylatable mutant decreased activity. Thus, proteasome function and protein degradation are regulated by cAMP through PKA and Rpn6, and activation of proteasomes by this mechanism may be useful in treating proteotoxic diseases.
Project description:Evidence was presented that thyrotropin [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)]-stimulated persistent cAMP signaling is dependent on receptor (with G-protein ? subunits and adenylyl cyclase) internalization. Because it is not clear whether G proteins and adenylyl cyclase internalize with receptors, we tested whether persistent cAMP signaling by TSH receptor (TSHR) is dependent on internalization. We measured persistent TSHR signaling as an accumulation of cAMP in HEK-EM293 cells permanently expressing human TSHRs incubated with isobutylmethylxanthine for 30 min after washing the cells to remove unbound TSH, and TSHR internalization by fluorescence microscopy using Alexa-tagged TSH and binding assays using (125)I-TSH. TSHRs, but not the closely related lutropin or follitropin receptors, exhibit persistent cAMP signaling. TSHRs were not internalized by 30 min incubation with unlabeled TSH; however, expression of ?-arrestin-2 promoted TSHR internalization that was inhibited by dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor. Expression of ?-arrestin-2 had no effect on TSHR cAMP signaling, dynasore inhibited TSHR cAMP signaling in the absence or presence of TSHR internalization, and expression of a dominant-negative mutant dynamin, which inhibited internalization, had no effect on persistent cAMP signaling. Persistent cAMP signaling was specifically inhibited by a small molecule TSHR antagonist. We conclude that TSHRs do not have to be internalized to exhibit persistent cAMP signaling.
Project description:cAMP and the cAMP binding domain (CBD) constitute a ubiquitous regulatory switch that translates an extracellular signal into a biological response. The CBD contains alpha- and beta-subdomains with cAMP binding to a phosphate binding cassette (PBC) in the beta-sandwich. The major receptors for cAMP in mammalian cells are the regulatory subunits (R-subunits) of PKA where cAMP and the catalytic subunit compete for the same CBD. The R-subunits inhibit kinase activity, whereas cAMP releases that inhibition. Here, we use NMR to map at residue resolution the cAMP-dependent interaction network of the CBD-A domain of isoform Ialpha of the R-subunit of PKA. Based on H/D, H/H, and N(z) exchange data, we propose a molecular model for the allosteric regulation of PKA by cAMP. According to our model, cAMP binding causes long-range perturbations that propagate well beyond the immediate surroundings of the PBC and involve two key relay sites located at the C terminus of beta(2) (I163) and N terminus of beta(3) (D170). The I163 site functions as one of the key triggers of global unfolding, whereas the D170 locus acts as an electrostatic switch that mediates the communication between the PBC and the B-helix. Removal of cAMP not only disrupts the cap for the B' helix within the PBC, but also breaks the circuitry of cooperative interactions stemming from the PBC, thereby uncoupling the alpha- and beta-subdomains. The proposed model defines a signaling mechanism, conserved in every genome, where allosteric binding of a small ligand disrupts a large protein-protein interface.
Project description:Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, encodes a number of different cAMP-specific PDE (phosphodiesterase) families. Here we report the identification and characterization of TcrPDEB1 and its comparison with the previously identified TcrPDEB2 (formerly known as TcPDE1). These are two different PDE enzymes of the TcrPDEB family, named in accordance with the recent recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee for Kinetoplast PDEs [Kunz, Beavo, D'Angelo, Flawia, Francis, Johner, Laxman, Oberholzer, Rascon, Shakur et al. (2006) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 145, 133-135]. Both enzymes show resistance to inhibition by many mammalian PDE inhibitors, and those that do inhibit do so with appreciable differences in their inhibitor profiles for the two enzymes. Both enzymes contain two GAF (cGMP-specific and -stimulated phosphodiesterases, Anabaena adenylate cyclases and Escherichia coli FhlA) domains and a catalytic domain highly homologous with that of the T. brucei TbPDE2/TbrPDEB2 family. The N-terminus+GAF-A domains of both enzymes showed significant differences in their affinities for cyclic nucleotide binding. Using a calorimetric technique that allows accurate measurements of low-affinity binding sites, the TcrPDEB2 N-terminus+GAF-A domain was found to bind cAMP with an affinity of approximately 500 nM. The TcrPDEB1 N-terminus+GAF-A domain bound cAMP with a slightly lower affinity of approximately 1 muM. The N-terminus+GAF-A domain of TcrPDEB1 did not bind cGMP, whereas the N-terminus+GAF-A domain of TcrPDEB2 bound cGMP with a low affinity of approximately 3 muM. GAF domains homologous with those found in these proteins were also identified in related trypanosomatid parasites. Finally, a fluorescent cAMP analogue, MANT-cAMP [2'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate], was found to be a substrate for the TcPDEB1 catalytic domain, opening the possibility of using this molecule as a substrate in non-radioactive, fluorescence-based PDE assays, including screening for trypanosome PDE inhibitors.
Project description:The nucleotide signaling molecule 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3',5'-cAMP) plays important physiological roles, ranging from carbon catabolite repression in bacteria to mediating the action of hormones in higher eukaryotes, including human. However, it remains unclear whether 3',5'-cAMP is universally present in the Firmicutes group of bacteria. We hypothesized that searching for proteins that bind 3',5'-cAMP might provide new insight into this question. Accordingly, we performed a genome-wide screen and identified the essential Staphylococcus aureus tRNA m1G37 methyltransferase enzyme TrmD, which is conserved in all three domains of life as a tight 3',5'-cAMP-binding protein. TrmD enzymes are known to use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) as substrate; we have shown that 3',5'-cAMP binds competitively with AdoMet to the S. aureus TrmD protein, indicating an overlapping binding site. However, the physiological relevance of this discovery remained unclear, as we were unable to identify a functional adenylate cyclase in S. aureus and only detected 2',3'-cAMP but not 3',5'-cAMP in cellular extracts. Interestingly, TrmD proteins from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, organisms known to synthesize 3',5'-cAMP, did not bind this signaling nucleotide. Comparative bioinformatics, mutagenesis, and biochemical analyses revealed that the highly conserved Tyr-86 residue in E. coli TrmD is essential to discriminate between 3',5'-cAMP and the native substrate AdoMet. Combined with a phylogenetic analysis, these results suggest that amino acids in the substrate binding pocket of TrmD underwent an adaptive evolution to accommodate the emergence of adenylate cyclases and thus the signaling molecule 3',5'-cAMP. Altogether this further indicates that S. aureus does not produce 3',5'-cAMP, which would otherwise competitively inhibit an essential enzyme.
Project description:Electrical activity in the brain and heart depends on rhythmic generation of action potentials by pacemaker ion channels (HCN) whose activity is regulated by cAMP binding<sup>1</sup>. Previous work has uncovered evidence for both positive and negative cooperativity in cAMP binding<sup>2,3</sup>, but such bulk measurements suffer from limited parameter resolution. Efforts to eliminate this ambiguity using single-molecule techniques have been hampered by the inability to directly monitor binding of individual ligand molecules to membrane receptors at physiological concentrations. Here we overcome these challenges using nanophotonic zero-mode waveguides<sup>4</sup> to directly resolve binding dynamics of individual ligands to multimeric HCN1 and HCN2 ion channels. We show that cAMP binds independently to all four subunits when the pore is closed, despite a subsequent conformational isomerization to a flip state at each site. The different dynamics in binding and isomerization are likely to underlie physiologically distinct responses of each isoform to cAMP<sup>5</sup> and provide direct validation of the ligand-induced flip-state model<sup>6-9</sup>. This approach for observing stepwise binding in multimeric proteins at physiologically relevant concentrations can directly probe binding allostery at single-molecule resolution in other intact membrane proteins and receptors.