Cdc20 is required for the post-anaphase, KEN-dependent degradation of centromere protein F.
ABSTRACT: Progression through mitosis and cytokinesis requires the sequential proteolysis of several cell-cycle regulators. This proteolysis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, with the E3 ligase being the anaphase-promoting complex, also known as the cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C is regulated by two activators, namely Cdc20 and Cdh1. The current view is that prior to anaphase, the APC/C is activated by Cdc20, but that following anaphase, APC/C switches to Cdh1-dependent activation. However, here we present an analysis of the kinetochore protein Cenp-F that is inconsistent with this notion. Although it has long been appreciated that Cenp-F is degraded sometime during or after mitosis, exactly when and how has not been clear. Here we show that degradation of Cenp-F initiates about six minutes after anaphase, and that this is dependent on a C-terminal KEN-box. Although these two observations are consistent with Cenp-F being a substrate of Cdh1-activated APC/C, Cenp-F is degraded normally in Cdh1-null cells. By contrast, RNAi-mediated repression of APC/C subunits or Cdc20 does inhibit Cenp-F degradation. These findings therefore suggest that the APC/C does not simply 'switch' upon anaphase onset; rather, our observations indicate that Cdc20 also contributes to post-anaphase activation of the APC/C. We also show that the post-anaphase, KEN-box-dependent degradation of Cenp-F requires it to be farnesylated, a post-translational modification usually linked to membrane association. Because so many of the behaviours of Cenp-F are farnesylation-dependent, we suggest that this modification plays a more global role in Cenp-F function.
Project description:Cdc20 and cdh1 are coactivators of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). APC(cdc20) is necessary for the metaphase-anaphase transition and, at the end of mitosis, vertebrate cdc20 itself becomes a target for degradation through KEN-box-dependent APC(cdh1) activity. By studying the degradation of fluorescent protein chimaeras in mammalian oocytes and early embryos, we found that cdc20 was degraded through two independent degradation signals (degrons), the KEN box and a newly described CRY box. In both oocytes and G1-stage embryos, the rate of degradation through the CRY box was greater than through the KEN box, although both were mediated by APC(cdh1). Thus, mammalian oocytes and embryos have the capacity to recognize two degrons in cdc20.
Project description:Mitotic progression is driven by proteolytic destruction of securin and cyclins. These proteins are labeled for destruction by an ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase (E3) known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C requires activators (Cdc20 or Cdh1) to efficiently recognize its substrates, which are specified by destruction (D box) and/or KEN box signals. The spindle assembly checkpoint responds to unattached kinetochores and to kinetochores lacking tension, both of which reflect incomplete biorientation of chromosomes, by delaying the onset of anaphase. It does this by inhibiting Cdc20-APC/C. Certain checkpoint proteins interact directly with Cdc20, but it remains unclear how the checkpoint acts to efficiently inhibit Cdc20-APC/C activity. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we find that the Mad3 and Mad2 spindle checkpoint proteins interact stably with the APC/C in mitosis. Mad3 contains two KEN boxes, conserved from yeast Mad3 to human BubR1, and mutation of either of these abrogates the spindle checkpoint. Strikingly, mutation of the N-terminal KEN box abolishes incorporation of Mad3 into the mitotic checkpoint complex (Mad3-Mad2-Slp1 in S. pombe, where Slp1 is the Cdc20 homolog that we will refer to as Cdc20 hereafter) and stable association of both Mad3 and Mad2 with the APC/C. Our findings demonstrate that this Mad3 KEN box is a critical mediator of Cdc20-APC/C inhibition, without which neither Mad3 nor Mad2 can associate with the APC/C or inhibit anaphase onset.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) controls a variety of cellular processes through its ability to target numerous protein substrates for timely degradation. Substrate selection by this ubiquitin ligase depends on related activator proteins, Cdc20 and Cdh1, which bind and activate the APC/C at distinct cell cycle stages. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that Cdc20 and Cdh1 carry conserved receptor domains to recognize specific sequence motifs in substrates, such as D and KEN boxes. The mechanisms for ordered degradation of APC/C substrates, however, remain incompletely understood. Here we describe minimal degradation sequences (degrons) sufficient for rapid APC/C-Cdh1-specific in vivo degradation. The polo kinase Cdc5-derived degron contained an essential KEN motif, whereas a single RxxL-type D box was the relevant signal in the Cdc20-derived degradation domain, indicating that either motif may support specific recognition by Cdh1. In both degrons, the APC/C recognition motif was flanked by a nuclear localization sequence. Forced localization of the degron constructs revealed that proteolysis mediated by APC/C-Cdh1 is restricted to the nucleus and maximally active in the nucleoplasm. Levels of Iqg1, a cytoplasmic Cdh1 substrate, decreased detectably later than the nucleus-localized Cdh1 substrate Ase1, indicating that confinement to the nucleus may allow for temporal control of APC/C-Cdh1-mediated proteolysis.
Project description:We have found that key mitotic regulators show distinct patterns of degradation during exit from mitosis in human cells. Using a live-cell assay for proteolysis, we show that two of these regulators, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and Aurora A, are degraded at different times after the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) switches from binding Cdc20 to Cdh1. Therefore, events in addition to the switch from Cdc20 to Cdh1 control the proteolysis of APC/C(Cdh1) substrates in vivo. We have identified a putative destruction box in Plk1 that is required for degradation of Plk1 in anaphase, and have examined the effect of nondegradable Plk1 on mitotic exit. Our results show that Plk1 proteolysis contributes to the inactivation of Plk1 in anaphase, and that this is required for the proper control of mitotic exit and cytokinesis. Our experiments reveal a role for APC/C-mediated proteolysis in exit from mitosis in human cells.
Project description:Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an E3 ubiquitin ligase incorporated with Cdh1 and/or Cdc20 recognizes and interacts with specific substrates, and faithfully orchestrates the proper cell cycle events by targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. Experimental identification of APC/C substrates is largely dependent on the discovery of APC/C recognition motifs, e.g., the D-box and KEN-box. Although a number of either stringent or loosely defined motifs proposed, these motif patterns are only of limited use due to their insufficient powers of prediction. We report the development of a novel GPS-ARM software package which is useful for the prediction of D-boxes and KEN-boxes in proteins. Using experimentally identified D-boxes and KEN-boxes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-ARM performance was found to be much better than the one using simple motifs. With this powerful tool, we predicted 4,841 potential D-boxes in 3,832 proteins and 1,632 potential KEN-boxes in 1,403 proteins from H. sapiens, while further statistical analysis suggested that both the D-box and KEN-box proteins are involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes beyond the cell cycle. In addition, with the co-localization information, we predicted hundreds of mitosis-specific APC/C substrates with high confidence. As the first computational tool for the prediction of APC/C-mediated degradation, GPS-ARM is a useful tool for information to be used in further experimental investigations. The GPS-ARM is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://arm.biocuckoo.org.
Project description:The switch from activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by CDC20 to CDH1 during anaphase is crucial for accurate mitosis. APC/C(CDC20) ubiquitinates a limited set of substrates for subsequent degradation, including Cyclin B1 and Securin, whereas APC/C(CDH1) has a broader specificity. This switch depends on dephosphorylation of CDH1 and the APC/C, and on the degradation of CDC20. Here we show, in human cells, that the APC/C inhibitor MAD2L2 also contributes to ensuring the sequential activation of the APC/C by CDC20 and CDH1. In prometaphase, MAD2L2 sequestered free CDH1 away from the APC/C. At the onset of anaphase, MAD2L2 was rapidly degraded by APC/C(CDC20), releasing CDH1 to activate the dephosphorylated APC/C. Loss of MAD2L2 led to premature association of CDH1 with the APC/C, early destruction of APC/C(CDH1) substrates, and accelerated mitosis with frequent mitotic aberrations. Thus, MAD2L2 helps to ensure a robustly bistable switch between APC/C(CDC20) and APC/C(CDH1) during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, thereby contributing to mitotic fidelity.
Project description:The kinase Aurora-B, a regulator of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, is highly expressed in a variety of tumors. During the cell cycle, the level of this protein is tightly controlled, and its deregulated abundance is suspected to contribute to aneuploidy. Here, we provide evidence that Aurora-B is a short-lived protein degraded by the proteasome via the anaphase-promoting cyclosome complex (APC/c) pathway. Aurora-B interacts with the APC/c through the Cdc27 subunit, Aurora-B is ubiquitinated, and its level is increased upon treatment with inhibitors of the proteasome. Aurora-B binds in vivo to the degradation-targeting proteins Cdh1 and Cdc20, the overexpression of which accelerates Aurora-B degradation. Using deletions or point mutations of the five putative degradation signals in Aurora-B, we show that degradation of this protein does not depend on its D-boxes (RXXL), but it does require intact KEN boxes and A-boxes (QRVL) located within the first 65 amino acids. Cells transfected with wild-type or A-box-mutated or KEN box-mutated Aurora-B fused to green fluorescent protein display the protein localized to the chromosomes and then to the midzone during mitosis, but the mutated forms are detected at greater intensities. Hence, we identified the degradation pathway for Aurora-B as well as critical regions for its clearance. Intriguingly, overexpression of a stable form of Aurora-B alone induces aneuploidy and anchorage-independent growth.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) regulates sister chromatid segregation and the exit from mitosis. Selection of most APC/C substrates is controlled by coactivator subunits (either Cdc20 or Cdh1) that interact with substrate destruction motifs--predominantly the destruction (D) box and KEN box degrons. How coactivators recognize D box degrons and how this is inhibited by APC/C regulatory proteins is not defined at the atomic level. Here, from the crystal structure of S. cerevisiae Cdh1 in complex with its specific inhibitor Acm1, which incorporates D and KEN box pseudosubstrate motifs, we describe the molecular basis for D box recognition. Additional interactions between Acm1 and Cdh1 identify a third protein-binding site on Cdh1 that is likely to confer coactivator-specific protein functions including substrate association. We provide a structural rationalization for D box and KEN box recognition by coactivators and demonstrate that many noncanonical APC/C degrons bind APC/C coactivators at the D box coreceptor.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) promotes anaphase onset and mitotic exit through ubiquitinating securin and cyclin B1. The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--the destruction (D) and KEN boxes. APC/C(Cdc20) is the target of the spindle checkpoint. Checkpoint inhibition of APC/C(Cdc20) requires the binding of a BubR1 KEN box to Cdc20. How APC/C recognizes substrates is not understood. We report the crystal structures of human Cdc20 alone or bound to a BubR1 KEN box. Cdc20 has a disordered N-terminal region and a C-terminal WD40 ? propeller with a preformed KEN-box-binding site at its top face. We identify a second conserved surface at the side of the Cdc20 ? propeller as a D-box-binding site. The D box of securin, but not its KEN box, is critical for securin ubiquitination by APC/C(Cdc20). Although both motifs contribute to securin ubiquitination by APC/C(Cdh1), securin mutants lacking either motif are efficiently ubiquitinated. Furthermore, D-box peptides diminish the ubiquitination of KEN-box substrates by APC/C(Cdh1), suggesting possible competition between the two motifs. Our results indicate the lack of strong positive cooperativity between the two degrons of securin. We propose that low-cooperativity, multisite target recognition enables APC/C to robustly ubiquitinate diverse substrates and helps to drive cell cycle oscillations.
Project description:The Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C) is critical to the control of mitosis. The APC/C is an ubiquitin ligase that targets specific mitotic regulators for proteolysis at distinct times in mitosis, but how this is achieved is not well understood. We have addressed this question by determining whether the same substrate, cyclin B1, is recognised in the same way by the APC/C at different times in mitosis. Unexpectedly, we find that distinct but overlapping motifs in cyclin B1 are recognised by the APC/C in metaphase compared with anaphase, and this does not depend on the exchange of Cdc20 for Cdh1. Thus, changes in APC/C substrate specificity in mitosis can potentially be conferred by altering interaction sites in addition to exchanging Cdc20 for Cdh1.