Comprehensive follow-up of the first genome-wide association study of multiple sclerosis identifies KIF21B and TMEM39A as susceptibility loci.
ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have proven highly effective, identifying hundreds of associations across numerous complex diseases. These studies typically test hundreds of thousands of variations and identify hundreds of potential associations. However, to date, follow-up attempts have generally only concentrated on just the few most significant initial associations, leaving the majority of true associations in any GWAS study without replication. Here, we present a substantially more comprehensive follow-up of the first genome-wide association screen performed in multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex genetic disease with central nervous system inflammation. We genotyped approximately 30 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that demonstrated mild-to-moderate levels of significance (P < or = 0.10) in the initial GWAS in an independent set of 1343 MS cases and 1379 controls. We further replicated several of the most significant findings in another independent data set of 2164 MS cases and 2016 controls. We find considerable evidence for a number of novel susceptibility loci including KIF21B [rs12122721, combined P = 6.56 x 10(-10), odds ratio (OR) = 1.22] and TMEM39A (rs1132200, P = 3.09 x 10(-8), OR = 1.24), both of which meet genome-wide significance. Both of these loci were overlooked in the initial replication, despite being among the top 3000 ( approximately 1%) SNP hits in the original screen.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of new potential genetic risk loci associated with numerous complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Genes which have been discovered by GWAS are now the focus of numerous ongoing studies. The goal of this study was to confirm and understand the potential role of one of such genes-transmembrane protein 39A gene (TMEM39A)-in multiple sclerosis.We showed the difference in TMEM39A messenger RNA (mRNA) expression between MS patients and controls (T 22;74 = 5.429; p = 0.0063). In our study, the lower mRNA expression of TMEM39A gene in patients did not correlate with a higher methylation level of the TMEM39A promoter. Moreover, a decreased level of TMEM39A mRNA was associated neither with rs1132200 nor with rs17281647. Additionally, we did not find an association between these two TMEM39A polymorphisms and the risk and progression of multiple sclerosis.Our investigation is the first which indicates that TMEM39A mRNA expression may be associated with the development and/or course of multiple sclerosis.
Project description:Kinesin family member 21b (kif21b) is one of the few multiple sclerosis (MS) risk genes with a presumed central nervous system function. Kif21b belongs to the kinesin family, proteins involved in intracellular transport of proteins and organelles. We hypothesised that kif21b is involved in the neurodegenerative component of MS and Alzheimer's (AD) disease. Post-mortem kinesin expression was assessed in 50 MS, 58 age and gender matched non-demented controls (NDC) and 50 AD. Kif21b expression was five-fold increased in AD compared to MS and NDC aged below 62 years (p = 8*10(-5)), three-fold between 62-72 years (p = 0.005) and not different above 72 years. No significant differences were observed between MS and NDC. In AD, kif21b expression was two-fold increased in Braak stage 6 (scoring for density of neurofibrillary tangles) compared with stage 5 (p = 0.003). In MS patients, kif21b correlated with the extent of grey matter demyelination (Spearman's rho = 0.31, p = 0.03). Abundant kif21b, defined as expression above the median, was associated with a two-fold accelerated development of the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6.0 (median time in low kif21b group 16 years vs. high kif21b 7.5 years, log-rank test p = 0.04) in MS. Given the genetic association of kif21b with MS, the results were stratified according to rs12122721[A] single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). No association was found between kif21b expression or the time to EDSS 6 in kif21b risk SNP carriers compared to non-risk carriers. Kif21b was expressed in astrocytes in addition to neurons. Upon astrocyte activation, kif21b increased nine-fold. Abundant kif21b expression is associated with severe MS and AD pathology and with accelerated neurodegeneration independent of the kif21b risk SNP.
Project description:<i>TMEM39A</i> encodes an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein and carries single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk of major human autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The exact cellular function of TMEM39A remains not well understood. Here, we report that TMEM-39, the sole <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> (<i>C. elegans</i>) ortholog of TMEM39A, regulates lysosome distribution and accumulation. Elimination of <i>tmem-39</i> leads to lysosome tubularization and reduced lysosome mobility, as well as accumulation of the lysosome-associated membrane protein LMP-1. In mammalian cells, loss of <i>TMEM39A</i> leads to redistribution of lysosomes from the perinuclear region to cell periphery. Mechanistically, TMEM39A interacts with the dynein intermediate light chain DYNC1I2 to maintain proper lysosome distribution. Deficiency of <i>tmem-39</i> or the DYNC1I2 homolog in <i>C. elegans</i> impairs mTOR signaling and activates the downstream TFEB-like transcription factor HLH-30. We propose evolutionarily conserved roles of TMEM39 family proteins in regulating lysosome distribution and lysosome-associated signaling, dysfunction of which in humans may underlie aspects of autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Microtubules are dynamic polymers that in cells can grow, shrink or pause, but the factors that promote pausing are poorly understood. Here, we show that the mammalian kinesin-4 KIF21B is a processive motor that can accumulate at microtubule plus ends and induce pausing. A few KIF21B molecules are sufficient to induce strong growth inhibition of a microtubule plus end in vitro. This property depends on non-motor microtubule-binding domains located in the stalk region and the C-terminal WD40 domain. The WD40-containing KIF21B tail displays preference for a GTP-type over a GDP-type microtubule lattice and contributes to the interaction of KIF21B with microtubule plus ends. KIF21B also contains a motor-inhibiting domain that does not fully block the interaction of the protein with microtubules, but rather enhances its pause-inducing activity by preventing KIF21B detachment from microtubule tips. Thus, KIF21B combines microtubule-binding and regulatory activities that together constitute an autonomous microtubule pausing factor.
Project description:This study aimed to assess the association between 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes (IRF8, TMEM39A, IKZF3, ORMDL3, GSDMB, and ZPBP2) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Chinese Han population sample.We carried out a case-control study of 415 patients with SLE and 470 healthy controls without autoimmune disease or cancer. DNA for genetic analysis was isolated from the blood of all subjects using standard phenol-chloroform method. TagSNPs were identified using genotype data from the panel (Han Chinese in Beijing) of the HapMap Project and were selected using the Haploview program. Genotyping assay was conducted using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX Gold platform. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes were calculated and analyzed. Association studies and haplotype analysis were also performed.The genotypic frequencies of rs12493175 and rs13062955 were significantly different between the SLE patients and the healthy controls. Compared with the common homozygous genotype, the CT and CT?+?TT genotypes in rs12493175 and the AC and AC?+?AA genotypes in rs13062955 was observed to significantly reduce the risk of SLE. The haplotype analysis of TMEM39A polymorphisms showed that the CGTA haplotype frequency was significantly low in the SLE patients.Our findings identified three novel associations in SNPs located in the TMEM39A gene associated with SLE susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.
Project description:Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function.
Project description:KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.
Project description:The kinesin KIF21B is implicated in several human neurological disorders, including delayed cognitive development, yet it remains unclear how KIF21B dysfunction may contribute to pathology. One limitation is that relatively little is known about KIF21B-mediated physiological functions. Here, we generated Kif21b knockout mice and used cellular assays to investigate the relevance of KIF21B in neuronal and in vivo function. We show that KIF21B is a processive motor protein and identify an additional role for KIF21B in regulating microtubule dynamics. In neurons lacking KIF21B, microtubules grow more slowly and persistently, leading to tighter packing in dendrites. KIF21B-deficient neurons exhibit decreased dendritic arbor complexity and reduced spine density, which correlate with deficits in synaptic transmission. Consistent with these observations, Kif21b-null mice exhibit behavioral changes involving learning and memory deficits. Our study provides insight into the cellular function of KIF21B and the basis for cognitive decline resulting from KIF21B dysregulation.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignancy that occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence; however, no clear molecular or biological mechanism has been identified. In this study, we aimed to explore new biomarkers for the early diagnosis, targeted treatment, and prognostic determination of osteosarcoma. We first used bioinformatics analysis to show that KIF21B can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of osteosarcoma. We then examined the expression of KIF21B in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and qRT-PCR. It was found that KIF21B expression was significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. After knocking down the expression of KIF21B in the osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and U2-OS, we used cell fluorescence counting, CCK-8 assays, flow cytometry, and TUNEL staining to examine the effects of KIF21B on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and apoptosis. The results demonstrated that knocking down KIF21B in 143B and U2-OS cells could increase cell apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation, and reduce tumor formation in nude mice. Subsequently, we used gene chips and bioinformatics to analyze the differential gene expression caused by knocking down KIF21B. The results showed that KIF21B may regulate OS cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway. We then examined the expression of PI3K/AKT- and apoptosis-related proteins using western blotting. KIF21B knockdown inhibited the PI3K pathway, downregulated Bcl-2, and upregulated Bax. Moreover, the use of PI3K/AKT pathway agonists reversed the regulatory effect of KIF21B on the apoptosis and proliferation of 143B and U2-OS cells. In conclusion, our results indicated that KIF21B plays a key role in osteosarcoma. Low KIF21B expression might indirectly increase the apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells through the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Project description:When a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell form an immunological synapse, rapid dynein-driven translocation of the centrosome toward the contact site leads to reorganization of microtubules and associated organelles. Currently, little is known about how the regulation of microtubule dynamics contributes to this process. Here, we show that the knockout of KIF21B, a kinesin-4 linked to autoimmune disorders, causes microtubule overgrowth and perturbs centrosome translocation. KIF21B restricts microtubule length by inducing microtubule pausing typically followed by catastrophe. Catastrophe induction with vinblastine prevented microtubule overgrowth and was sufficient to rescue centrosome polarization in KIF21B-knockout cells. Biophysical simulations showed that a relatively small number of KIF21B molecules can restrict mirotubule length and promote an imbalance of dynein-mediated pulling forces that allows the centrosome to translocate past the nucleus. We conclude that proper control of microtubule length is important for allowing rapid remodeling of the cytoskeleton and efficient T cell polarization.