The genetic architecture of lipoprotein subclasses in Gullah-speaking African American families enriched for type 2 diabetes: the Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR).
ABSTRACT: We sought to partition the genetic and environmental influences on lipoprotein subclasses and identify genomic regions that may harbor genetic variants that influence serum lipoprotein levels in a sample of Gullah-speaking African-Americans. We genotyped 5,974 SNPs in 979 subjects from 418 pedigrees and used the variance component approach to compute heritability estimates, genetic and environmental correlations, and linkage analyses for selected lipoprotein subclasses. The highest heritability estimate was observed for large VLDL particle concentration (0.56 +/- 0.14). Mean LDL particle size and small LDL particle concentration (-0.94) had the strongest genetic correlation estimate. The highest logarithm of odds (LOD) score detected (3.0) was on chromosome 6p24 for small LDL particle concentration. The strongest signal, obtained with the reduced sample of diabetic individuals only, was observed on chromosome 20p13 for small LDL particle concentration. The highest bivariate linkage signal (LOD 2.4) was observed on chromosome 6p24 for mean LDL particle size and small LDL particle concentration. Our results suggest a significant genetic contribution to multiple lipoprotein subclasses studied in this sample and that novel loci on chromosomes 6, 10, 16, and 20 may harbor genes contributing to small, atherogenic LDL particle concentration and large, triglyceride-rich VLDL particle concentration.
Project description:According to the current dogma, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) decreases high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) and increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C. However, detailed insight into the effects of CETP on lipoprotein subclasses is lacking. Therefore, we used a Mendelian randomization approach based on a genetic score for serum CETP concentration (rs247616, rs12720922 and rs1968905) to estimate causal effects per unit (µg/mL) increase in CETP on 159 standardized metabolic biomarkers, primarily lipoprotein subclasses. Metabolic biomarkers were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in 5672 participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Higher CETP concentrations were associated with less large HDL (largest effect XL-HDL-C, P?=?6?×?10-22) and more small VLDL components (largest effect S-VLDL cholesteryl esters, P?=?6?×?10-6). No causal effects were observed with LDL subclasses. All these effects were replicated in an independent cohort from European ancestry (MAGNETIC NMR GWAS; n ~20,000). Additionally, we assessed observational associations between ELISA-measured CETP concentration and metabolic measures. In contrast to results from Mendelian randomization, observationally, CETP concentration predominantly associated with more VLDL, IDL and LDL components. Our results show that CETP is an important causal determinant of HDL and VLDL concentration and composition, which may imply that the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib decreased cardiovascular disease risk through specific reduction of small VLDL rather than LDL. The contrast between genetic and observational associations might be explained by a high capacity of VLDL, IDL and LDL subclasses to carry CETP, thereby concealing causal effects on HDL.
Project description:It is uncertain whether pharmacological reductions in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), and their component triglyceride and cholesterol could reduce residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events among individuals in whom low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been adequately lowered. We examined whether individuals with greater on-statin reductions in VLDL-related measures-beyond reductions in LDL-C-were at further reduced risk of ASCVD.In 9423 participants in the JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention) trial (NCT00239681), at baseline and on statin we measured standard lipids, 400-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured VLDL particle subclasses (small, medium, and large VLDL lipoprotein particle concentration), and total VLDL cholesterol mass. Compared with individuals allocated to placebo, we examined risk of incident ASCVD (N=211) among statin-allocated participants who achieved minimal (<median) or greater (?median) marker reductions using adjusted Cox models. On-statin changes in VLDL-related markers were only modestly correlated (Spearman r?0.29) with change in LDL-C. On-statin median LDL-C was 54 mg/dL and triglyceride was 101 mg/dL. Dose-response reductions in ASCVD risk were observed for greater reductions in LDL-C, VLDL cholesterol mass, and small VLDL lipoprotein particle concentration; the latter 2 remained significant after incremental adjustment for change in LDL-C (P?0.006). Conversely, there was no further risk reduction with greater reductions in triglycerides or large/medium VLDL lipoprotein particle concentration.Pharmacological reduction in small, cholesterol-enriched, triglyceride-depleted VLDL was associated with reduction in ASCVD risk. Chemically measured triglycerides may not sufficiently capture risk related to VLDL pathways. These findings also support broader profiling of lipid and lipoprotein changes in response to statins as prognostic markers of individual benefit, supporting more precision-medicine, individualized approaches to cardiovascular risk reduction.URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681.
Project description:The associations of serum omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with lipoprotein subclasses at the population level are uncertain.We aimed to examine associations between major n-6 fatty acids [ie, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6)] and the lipoprotein subclasses VLDL, LDL, and HDL.We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1098 participants using population-based data from US white, Japanese American, Japanese, and Korean men aged 40-49 y. Serum fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models as a function of each fatty acid were used after adjustment for age, population, body mass index, pack-years of smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, hypertension, and omega-3 (n-3) and trans fatty acids.Serum LA was inversely associated with large VLDL (beta = -0.62, P < 0.001), total LDL (beta = -22.08, P < 0.001), and small LDL (beta = -31.89, P < 0.001) particle concentrations and VLDL size (beta = -0.72, P < 0.001). Serum LA was positively associated with large HDL particle concentration (beta = 0.21, P < 0.001) and HDL size (beta = 0.03, P < 0.001). The patterns of association of AA with large VLDL and large HDL particle concentrations were comparable with those of LA.At the population level, higher serum concentrations of LA were significantly associated with lower concentrations of total LDL particles. Higher serum concentrations of LA and AA were significantly associated with a lower concentration of large VLDL particles and a higher concentration of large HDL particles. These associations were consistent across the population groups. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00069797.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated the effects of 34 genetic risk variants for hyperglycemia/type 2 diabetes on lipoprotein subclasses and particle composition in a large population-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The study included 6,580 nondiabetic Finnish men from the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study (aged 57 ± 7 years; BMI 26.8 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)). Genotyping of 34 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) for hyperglycemia/type 2 diabetes was performed. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure particle concentrations of 14 lipoprotein subclasses and their composition in native serum samples. RESULTS:The glucose-increasing allele of rs780094 in GCKR was significantly associated with low concentrations of VLDL particles (independently of their size) and small LDL and was nominally associated with low concentrations of intermediate-density lipoprotein, all LDL subclasses, and high concentrations of very large and large HDL particles. The glucose-increasing allele of rs174550 in FADS1 was significantly associated with high concentrations of very large and large HDL particles and nominally associated with low concentrations of all VLDL particles. SNPs rs10923931 in NOTCH2 and rs757210 in HNF1B genes showed nominal or significant associations with several lipoprotein traits. The genetic risk score of 34 SNPs was not associated with any of the lipoprotein subclasses. CONCLUSIONS:Four of the 34 risk loci for type 2 diabetes or hyperglycemia (GCKR, FADS1, NOTCH2, and HNF1B) were significantly associated with lipoprotein traits. A GCKR variant predominantly affected the concentration of VLDL, and the FADS1 variant affected very large and large HDL particles. Only a limited number of risk loci for hyperglycemia/type 2 diabetes significantly affect lipoprotein metabolism.
Project description:A battery of methods for multivariate data analysis has been used to assess the associations between concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) and lipoprotein subclasses and particle size in serum for a normolipidemic population of ethnic Norwegians living in the rural Fjord region. Significant gender differences were found in the lipoprotein and FA patterns. Predictive FA patterns were revealed for lipoprotein features of importance for cardiovascular (CV) health. Thus, the subclasses of atherogenic small and very small low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and the same subclasses of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were associated with a pattern of saturated FAs and mono-unsaturated C16-C18 FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (AA) had strongest associations to features that promotes CV health: (i) large average size of HDL and LDL particles, and, (ii) small average size of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. Total concentration of HDL in both genders correlated to EPA, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) correlated just as strongly for women. For men, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed stronger association to HDL concentration than EPA. For both genders, concentration of large LDL particles showed associations to levels of EPA, but stronger to DHA and DPA. High values of EPA/AA seem to be the strongest single biomarker for good CV health in both men and women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite strong and consistent prospective associations of elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration with incident coronary and cerebrovascular disease, data for incident peripheral artery disease (PAD) are less robust. Atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by increased small LDL particle (LDL-P) concentration, rather than total LDL cholesterol content, along with elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C), may be the primary lipid driver of PAD risk. METHODS:The study population was a prospective cohort study of 27 888 women ?45 years old free of cardiovascular disease at baseline and followed for a median of 15.1 years. We tested whether standard lipid concentrations, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-derived lipoprotein measures, were associated with incident symptomatic PAD (n=110) defined as claudication and/or revascularization. RESULTS:In age-adjusted analyses, while LDL cholesterol was not associated with incident PAD, we found significant associations for increased total and small LDL-P concentrations, triglycerides, and concentrations of very LDL (VLDL) particle (VLDL-P) subclasses, increased total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C, low HDL-C, and low HDL particle (HDL-P) concentration (all P for extreme tertile comparisons <0.05). Findings persisted in multivariable-adjusted models comparing extreme tertiles for elevated total LDL-P (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj] 2.03; 95% CI, 1.14-3.59), small LDL-P (HRadj 2.17; 95% CI, 1.10-4.27), very large VLDL-P (HRadj 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.66), medium VLDL-P (HRadj 1.98; 95% CI, 1.15-3.41), and TC:HDL-C (HRadj, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.67-5.81). HDL was inversely associated with risk; HRadj for extreme tertiles of HDL-C and HDL-P concentration were 0.30 ( P trend < 0.0001) and 0.29 ( P trend < 0.0001), respectively. These components of atherogenic dyslipidemia, including small LDL-P, medium and very large VLDL-P, TC:HDL-C, HDL-C, and HDL-P, were more strongly associated with incident PAD than incident coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Finally, the addition of LDL-P and HDL-P concentration to TC:HDL-C measures identified women at heightened PAD risk. CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective study, nuclear magnetic resonance-derived measures of LDL-P, but not LDL cholesterol, were associated with incident PAD. Other features of atherogenic dyslipidemia, including elevations in TC:HDL-C, elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and low standard and nuclear magnetic resonance-derived measures of HDL, were significant risk determinants. These data help clarify prior inconsistencies and may elucidate a unique lipoprotein signature for PAD compared to coronary and cerebrovascular disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ . Unique Identifier: NCT00000479.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol coupled with increased VLDL synthesis in the liver. In addition, increased cholesterol content in the liver associates with NASH. Here we study the association of lipoprotein subclass metabolism with NASH. To this aim, liver biopsies from 116 morbidly obese individuals [age 47.3 ± 8.7 (mean ± SD) years, BMI 45.1 ± 6.1 kg/m², 39 men and 77 women] were used for histological assessment. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure lipid concentrations of 14 lipoprotein subclasses in native serum samples at baseline and after obesity surgery. We observed that total lipid concentration of VLDL and LDL subclasses, but not HDL subclasses, associated with NASH [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1]. More specifically, total lipid and cholesterol concentration of VLDL and LDL subclasses associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cell injury (FDR < 0.1), independent of steatosis. Cholesterol concentration of all VLDL subclasses also correlated with total and free cholesterol content in the liver. All NASH-related changes in lipoprotein subclasses were reversed by obesity surgery. High total lipid and cholesterol concentration of serum VLDL and LDL subclasses are linked to cholesterol accumulation in the liver and to liver cell injury in NASH.
Project description:In addition to lowering hemoglobin A1C, colesevelam has been shown to improve the atherogenic lipoprotein profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) when used in combination with metformin and/or sulfonylureas. A recent study evaluated the effects of colesevelam as antidiabetes monotherapy in adults with T2DM who had inadequate glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C ?7.5 to ?9.5 %) with diet and exercise alone; we report here the effects on lipoprotein particle subclasses.Subjects were randomized to receive oral colesevelam 3.75 g/day (n?=?176) or placebo (n?=?181) for 24 weeks. Changes in lipoprotein particle subclasses were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.At Week 24 with last observation carried forward, colesevelam produced a reduction in total low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle concentration (baseline: 1,611 nmol/L; least-squares [LS] mean treatment difference: -143 nmol/L, p?<?0.0001) versus placebo; reductions were also seen in large, small, and very small LDL particle concentrations (all p?<?0.05). There was also a reduction in total very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron particle concentration (baseline: 88 nmol/L; LS mean treatment difference: -1 nmol/L, p?=?0.82) that resulted from a lowering in small VLDL particle concentration (baseline: 45 nmol/L; LS mean treatment difference: -5 nmol/L, p?=?0.03). In addition, with colesevelam there was an increase in total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle concentration versus placebo (baseline: 31 ?mol/L; LS mean treatment difference: +0.6 ?mol/L, p?=?0.20), due to increases in the large (baseline: 5 ?mol/L; LS mean treatment difference: +0.5 ?mol/L, p?=?0.007) and medium (baseline: 3 ?mol/L; LS mean treatment difference: +0.8 ?mol/L, p?=?0.02) HDL subclasses.Colesevelam monotherapy in subjects with T2DM resulted in generally favorable changes in certain lipoprotein subclass profiles compared with placebo.
Project description:The goal was to examine lipoprotein subclass responses to regular exercise as measured in 10 exercise interventions derived from six cohorts.Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify average particle size, total and subclass concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL-P, LDL-P, and HDL-P, respectively) before and after an exercise intervention in 1555 adults from six studies, encompassing 10 distinct exercise programs: APOE (N = 106), DREW (N = 385), GERS (N = 79), HERITAGE (N = 715), STRRIDE I (N = 168) and II (N = 102). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the overall estimate of mean change across the unadjusted and adjusted mean change values from each exercise group.Meta-analysis of unadjusted data showed that regular exercise induced significant decreases in the concentration of large VLDL-P, small LDL-P, and medium HDL-P and mean VLDL-P size, with significant increases in the concentration of large LDL-P and large HDL-P and mean LDL-P size. These changes remained significant in meta-analysis with adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline body mass index, and baseline trait value.Despite differences in exercise programs and study populations, regular exercise produced putatively beneficial changes in the lipoprotein subclass profile across 10 exercise interventions. Further research is needed to examine how exercise-induced changes in lipoprotein subclasses may be associated with (concomitant changes in) cardiovascular disease risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The effect of interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on lipoprotein particle subclasses has not been studied. We examined short-term changes in lipids and lipoprotein particles among 332 HIV-infected individuals randomized to interrupt or continue ART in the "Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy" trial. METHODS:Lipids and lipoprotein particles measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared between randomized groups at month 1; associations with inflammatory and coagulation markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein; interleukin 6; amyloid A; amyloid P; D-dimer; prothrombin fragment 1 + 2) were assessed. RESULTS:Compared with continuation of ART, treatment interruption resulted in substantial declines in total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, at month 1 but had little net effect on total/HDL cholesterol ratio [baseline-adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)] interruption versus continuation arms: -0.10 (-0.59 to 0.38); P = 0.67]. ART interruption resulted in declines in total, large, and medium very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle concentrations (VLDL-p) and total and medium HDL-p. However, there was no change in small HDL-p [baseline-adjusted percentage difference between arms: -4.6% (-13.1%, +5.1% ); P = 0.35], small LDL-p [-5.0% (-16.9%, +8.6%); P = 0.45], or other LDL-p subclasses. Changes in lipid parameters on ART interruption did not differ according to baseline ART class (protease inhibitor versus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) but were negatively associated both with changes in HIV viral load and with changes in inflammatory and coagulation markers, particularly D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that ART interruption does not favorably influence overall lipid profile: there was little net effect on total/HDL cholesterol ratio, and no change in small LDL-p or small HDL-p, the lipoprotein particle subclasses most consistently linked to coronary risk. Short-term declines in lipid parameters after ART interruption were not associated with class of ART and may be linked to increases in viral replication, inflammation and coagulation.