Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) regulates adipocyte differentiation via forkhead box O1.
ABSTRACT: The serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is an inducible kinase the physiological function of which has been characterized primarily in the kidney. Here we show that SGK1 is expressed in white adipose tissue and that its levels are induced in the conversion of preadipocytes into fat cells. Adipocyte differentiation is significantly diminished via small interfering RNA inhibition of endogenous SGK1 expression, whereas ectopic expression of SGK1 in mesenchymal precursor cells promotes adipogenesis. The SGK1-mediated phenotypic effects on differentiation parallel changes in the mRNA levels for critical regulators and markers of adipogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha, and fatty acid binding protein aP2. We demonstrate that SGK1 affects differentiation by direct phosphorylation of Foxo1, thereby changing its cellular localization from the nucleus to the cytosol. In addition we show that SGK1-/- cells are unable to relocalize Foxo1 to the cytosol in response to dexamethasone. Together these results show that SGK1 influences adipocyte differentiation by regulating Foxo1 phosphorylation and reveal a potentially important function for this kinase in the control of fat mass and function.
Project description:Three Akt isoforms, encoded by 3 separate genes, are expressed in mammals. While the roles of Akt1 and Akt2 in metabolism are well established, it is not yet known whether Akt3 plays a role in metabolic diseases. We now report that Akt3 protects mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity by suppressing an alternative pathway of adipogenesis via with no lysine protein kinase-1 (WNK1) and serum/glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). We demonstrate that Akt3 specifically phosphorylates WNK1 at T58 and promotes its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A lack of Akt3 in adipocytes increases the WNK1 protein level, leading to activation of SGK1. SGK1, in turn, promotes adipogenesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting transcription factor FOXO1 and, subsequently, activating the transcription of PPAR? in adipocytes. Akt3-deficient mice have an increased number of adipocytes and, when fed a high-fat diet, display increased weight gain, white adipose tissue expansion, and impaired glucose homeostasis. Pharmacological blockade of SGK1 in high-fat diet-fed Akt3-deficient mice suppressed adipogenesis, prevented excessive weight gain and adiposity, and ameliorated metabolic parameters. Thus, Akt3/WNK1/SGK1 represents a potentially novel signaling pathway controlling the development of obesity.
Project description:Adipocytes play a central role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in the body. Differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells requires the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (Ppar?) and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/Ebps). Transcriptional activity is regulated by signaling modules activated by a plethora of hormones and nutrients. Mechanistic target of rapamacin complexes (mTORC) 1 and 2 are central for the coordination of hormonal and nutritional inputs in cells and are essential for adipogenesis. Serum glucocorticoid kinase 1 (Sgk1)-dependent phosphorylation of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1) is a hallmark of mTORC2 activation in cells. Moreover, Ppar? activation promotes Ndrg1 expression. However, the impact of Ndrg1 on adipocyte differentiation and function has not yet been defined. Here, we show that Ndrg1 expression and its Sgk1-dependent phosphorylation are induced during adipogenesis. Consistently, we demonstrate that Ndrg1 promotes adipocyte differentiation and function by inducing Ppar? expression. Additionally, our results indicate that Ndrg1 is required for C/Ebp? phosphorylation. Moreover, we found that Ndrg1 phosphorylation by Sgk1 promotes adipocyte formation. Taken together, we show that induction of Ndrg1 expression by Ppar? and its phosphorylation by Sgk1 kinase are required for the acquisition of adipocyte characteristics by precursor cells.
Project description:We have previously identified a protein, consisting of seven WD-repeats, forming a putative beta-propeller, and an FYVE domain, ProF, which is highly expressed in 3T3-L1 cells, a cell line that can be differentiated into adipocytes. We recently found ProF to interact with the kinases Akt and protein kinase Czeta. Here we demonstrate that ProF is a positive regulator of adipogenesis. Knockdown of ProF by RNA interference leads to decreased adipocyte differentiation. This is shown by reduced lipid accumulation, decreased expression of the differentiation markers PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha, and reduced glucose uptake in differentiated cells. Furthermore, ProF overexpression leads to increased adipogenesis. ProF binds to the transcription factor Foxo1 (Forkhead box O1), a negative regulator of insulin action and adipogenesis, and facilitates the phosphorylation and thus inactivation of Foxo1 by Akt. Additionally, dominant-negative Foxo1 restores adipogenesis in ProF knockdown cells. Thus, ProF modulates Foxo1 phosphorylation by Akt, promoting adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, ProF might be involved in metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
Project description:TH17 cells (interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells) are highly proinflammatory cells that are critical for clearing extracellular pathogens and for inducing multiple autoimmune diseases. IL-23 has a critical role in stabilizing and reinforcing the TH17 phenotype by increasing expression of IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and endowing TH17 cells with pathogenic effector functions. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which IL-23 sustains the TH17 response and induces pathogenic effector functions has not been elucidated. Here we used transcriptional profiling of developing TH17 cells to construct a model of their signalling network and nominate major nodes that regulate TH17 development. We identified serum glucocorticoid kinase 1 (SGK1), a serine/threonine kinase, as an essential node downstream of IL-23 signalling. SGK1 is critical for regulating IL-23R expression and stabilizing the TH17 cell phenotype by deactivation of mouse Foxo1, a direct repressor of IL-23R expression. SGK1 has been shown to govern Na(+) transport and salt (NaCl) homeostasis in other cells. We show here that a modest increase in salt concentration induces SGK1 expression, promotes IL-23R expression and enhances TH17 cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo, accelerating the development of autoimmunity. Loss of SGK1 abrogated Na(+)-mediated TH17 differentiation in an IL-23-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that SGK1 has a critical role in the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells and provide a molecular insight into a mechanism by which an environmental factor such as a high salt diet triggers TH17 development and promotes tissue inflammation.
Project description:Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) 1can be triggered in several malignancies. Most research on SGK1has focused on its role in cancer cells, and we sought to investigate its potential upstream non-coding RNA nominated as Lnc-SGK1, and their expression and diagnostic value in T cells in human gastric cancer (GC). Excessive expression of Lnc-SGK1 and SGK1 were observed in T cell either within the tumor or peripheral T cells, and furthermore associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and high-salt diet (HSD). Within T cells, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and high-salt dietcan up-regulated SGK1 expression and in turn enhance expression of Lnc-SGK1 through JunB activation. And expression of Lnc-SGK1 can further enhance transcription of SGK1 through cis regulatory mode. Lnc-SGK1 can induce Th2 and Th17 and reduce Th1 differentiation via SGK1/JunB signaling. Serum Lnc-SGK1 expression in combination with H. pylori infection and/or HSD in T cells was associated with poor prognosis of GC patients, and could be an ideal diagnostic index in human GC.
Project description:Hyperplasia (i.e., increased adipogenesis) contributes to excess adiposity, the hallmark of obesity that can trigger metabolic complications. As FoxO1 has been implicated in adipogenic regulation, we investigated the kinetics of FoxO1 activation during adipocyte differentiation, and tested the effects of FoxO1 antagonist (AS1842856) on adipogenesis. We found for the first time that the kinetics of FoxO1 activation follows a series of sigmoid curves, and reveals the phases relevant to clonal expansion, cell cycle arrest, and the regulation of PPAR?, adiponectin, and mitochondrial proteins (complexes I and III). In addition, multiple activation-inactivation transitions exist in the stage of terminal differentiation. Importantly, persistent inhibition of FoxO1 with AS1842856 almost completely suppressed adipocyte differentiation, while selective inhibition in specific stages had differential effects on adipogenesis. Our data present a new view of FoxO1 in adipogenic regulation, and suggest AS1842856 can be an anti-obesity agent that warrants further investigation.
Project description:A balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells is critical for immune homeostasis and tolerance. Our previous work has shown Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) is critical for the development and function of Th17 cells. Here, we show that SGK1 restrains the function of Treg cells and reciprocally regulates development of Th17/Treg balance. SGK1 deficiency leads to protection against autoimmunity and enhances self-tolerance by promoting Treg cell development and disarming Th17 cells. Treg cell-specific deletion of SGK1 results in enhanced Treg cell-suppressive function through preventing Foxo1 out of the nucleus, thereby promoting Foxp3 expression by binding to Foxp3 CNS1 region. Furthermore, our data suggest that SGK1 also plays a critical role in IL-23R-mediated inhibition of Treg and development of Th17 cells. Therefore, we demonstrate that SGK1 functions as a pivotal node in regulating the reciprocal development of pro-inflammatory Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg cells during autoimmune tissue inflammation.
Project description:Obesity and related metabolic disorders constitute one of the most pressing heath concerns worldwide. Increased adiposity is linked to autophagy upregulation in adipose tissues. However, it is unknown how autophagy is upregulated and contributes to aberrant adiposity. Here we show a FoxO1-autophagy-FSP27 axis that regulates adipogenesis and lipid droplet (LD) growth in adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was associated with upregulation of autophagy and fat specific protein 27 (FSP27), a key regulator of adipocyte maturation and expansion by promoting LD formation and growth. However, FoxO1 specific inhibitor AS1842856 potently suppressed autophagy, FSP27 expression, and adipocyte differentiation. In terminally differentiated adipocytes, AS1842856 significantly reduced FSP27 level and LD size, which was recapitulated by autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin-A1 and leupeptin, BL). Similarly, AS1842856 and BL dampened autophagy activity and FSP27 expression in explant cultures of white adipose tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study addressing FoxO1 in the regulation of adipose autophagy, shedding light on the mechanism of increased autophagy and adiposity in obese individuals. Given that adipogenesis and adipocyte expansion contribute to aberrant adiposity, targeting the FoxO1-autophagy-FSP27 axis may lead to new anti-obesity options.
Project description:The serine/threonine protein kinase Sgk1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1) is characterized by a short half-life and has been implicated in the control of a large variety of functions in different subcellular compartments and tissues. Here, we analysed the influence of the N-terminus of Sgk1 on protein turnover and subcellular localization. Using green fluorescent protein-tagged Sgk1 deletion variants, we identified amino acids 17-32 to function as an anchor for the OMM (outer mitochondrial membrane). Subcellular fractionation of mouse tissue revealed a predominant localization of Sgk1 to the mitochondrial fraction. A cytosolic orientation of the kinase at the OMM was determined by in vitro import of Sgk1 and protease protection assays. Pulse-chase experiments showed that half-life and subcellular localization of Sgk1 are inseparable and determined by identical amino acids. Our results provide evidence that Sgk1 is primarily localized to the OMM and shed new light on the role of Sgk1 in the control of cellular function.
Project description:PURPOSE:The molecular events that determine intestinal cell differentiation are poorly understood and it is unclear whether it is primarily a passive event or an active process. It is clinically important to gain a greater understanding of the process, because in colorectal cancer, the degree of differentiation of a tumor is associated with patient survival. SGK1 has previously been identified as a gene that is principally expressed in differentiated intestinal cells. In colorectal cancer, there is marked downregulation of SGK1 compared with normal tissue.Experimental Design: An inducible SGK1 viral overexpression system was utilized to induce reexpression of SGK1 in colorectal cancer cell lines. Transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of these colorectal cancer lines was performed and validation in mouse and human cohorts was performed. RESULTS:We demonstrate that SGK1 is upregulated in response to, and an important controller of, intestinal cell differentiation. Reexpression of SGK1 in colorectal cancer cell lines results in features of differentiation, decreased migration rates, and inhibition of metastasis in an orthotopic xenograft model. These effects may be mediated, in part, by SGK1-induced PKP3 expression and increased degradation of MYC. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that SGK1 is an important mediator of differentiation of colorectal cells and may inhibit colorectal cancer metastasis.