GRASP and IPCEF promote ARF-to-Rac signaling and cell migration by coordinating the association of ARNO/cytohesin 2 with Dock180.
ABSTRACT: ARFs are small GTPases that regulate vesicular trafficking, cell shape, and movement. ARFs are subject to extensive regulation by a large number of accessory proteins. The many different accessory proteins are likely specialized to regulate ARF signaling during particular processes. ARNO/cytohesin 2 is an ARF-activating protein that promotes cell migration and cell shape changes. We report here that protein-protein interactions mediated by the coiled-coil domain of ARNO are required for ARNO induced motility. ARNO lacking the coiled-coil domain does not promote migration and does not induce ARF-dependent Rac activation. We find that the coiled-coil domain promotes the assembly of a multiprotein complex containing both ARNO and the Rac-activating protein Dock180. Knockdown of either GRASP/Tamalin or IPCEF, two proteins known to bind to the coiled-coil of ARNO, prevents the association of ARNO and Dock180 and prevents ARNO-induced Rac activation. These data suggest that scaffold proteins can regulate ARF dependent processes by biasing ARF signaling toward particular outputs.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent signaling factor that acts on epithelial cells, causing them to dissociate and scatter. This migration is coordinated by a number of small GTPases, such as ARF6 and Rac1. Active ARF6 is required for HGF-stimulated migration and intracellular levels of ARF6-GTP and Rac1-GTP increase following HGF treatment. During migration, cross talk between ARF6 and Rac1 occurs through formation of a multi-protein complex containing the ARF-GEF cytohesin-2, the scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin, and the Rac1-GEF Dock180. Previously, the role of ARF6 in this process was unclear. We have now found that ARF6 and ARF1 regulate trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 to the plasma membrane following HGF treatment. Trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 is impaired by blocking ARF6-mediated recycling pathways and is required for HGF-stimulated Rac1 activation. Finally, HGF treatment stimulates association of GRASP and Dock180. Inhibition of ARF6 trafficking pathways traps GRASP and Dock180 as a complex in the cell.
Project description:The integrity of the Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) is disrupted by brefeldin A (BFA), which inhibits the Golgi-localized BFA-sensitive factor (GBF1) and brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (BIG1 and BIG2). Using a cellular replacement assay to assess GBF1 functionality without interference from the BIGs, we show that GBF1 alone maintains Golgi architecture; facilitates secretion; activates ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)1, 3, 4, and 5; and recruits ARF effectors to Golgi membranes. Unexpectedly, GBF1 also supports TGN integrity and recruits numerous TGN-localized ARF effectors. The impact of the catalytic Sec7 domain (Sec7d) on GBF1 functionality was assessed by swapping it with the Sec7d from ARF nucleotide-binding site opener (ARNO)/cytohesin-2, a plasma membrane GEF reported to activate all ARFs. The resulting chimera (GBF1-ARNO-GBF1 [GARG]) targets like GBF1, supports Golgi/TGN architecture, and facilitates secretion. However, unlike GBF1, GARG activates all ARFs (including ARF6) at the Golgi/TGN and recruits additional ARF effectors to the Golgi/TGN. Our results have general implications: 1) GEF's targeting is independent of Sec7d, but Sec7d influence the GEF substrate specificity and downstream effector events; 2) all ARFs have access to all membranes, but are restricted in their distribution by the localization of their activating GEFs; and 3) effector association with membranes requires the coincidental presence of activated ARFs and specific membrane identifiers.
Project description:The prototypical DOCK protein, DOCK180, is an evolutionarily conserved Rac regulator and is indispensable during processes such as cell migration and myoblast fusion. The biological activity of DOCK180 is tightly linked to its binding partner ELMO. We previously reported that autoinhibited ELMO proteins regulate signaling from this pathway. One mechanism to activate the ELMO-DOCK180 complex appears to be the recruitment of this complex to the membrane via the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of ELMO. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel ELMO-interacting proteins to further define the molecular events capable of controlling ELMO recruitment to the membrane. To do so, we performed two independent interaction screens: one specifically interrogated an active GTPase library while the other probed a brain cDNA library. Both methods converged on Arl4A, an Arf-related GTPase, as a specific ELMO interactor. Biochemically, Arl4A is constitutively GTP-loaded, and our binding assays confirm that both wild-type and constitutively active forms of the GTPase associate with ELMO. Mechanistically, we report that Arl4A binds the ELMO RBD and acts as a membrane localization signal for ELMO. In addition, we report that membrane targeting of ELMO via Arl4A promotes cytoskeletal reorganization including membrane ruffling and stress fiber disassembly via an ELMO-DOCK1800-Rac signaling pathway. We conclude that ELMO is capable of interacting with GTPases from Rho and Arf families, leading to the conclusion that ELMO contains a versatile RBD. Furthermore, via binding of an Arf family GTPase, the ELMO-DOCK180 is uniquely positioned at the membrane to activate Rac signaling and remodel the actin cytoskeleton.
Project description:Membrane dynamic processes require Arf GTPase activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with a Sec7 domain. Cytohesin family Arf GEFs function in signaling and cell migration through Arf GTPase activation on the plasma membrane and endosomes. In this study, the structural organization of two cytohesins (Grp1 and ARNO) was investigated in solution by size exclusion-small angle X-ray scattering and negative stain-electron microscopy and on membranes by dynamic light scattering, hydrogen-deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange assays. The results suggest that cytohesins form elongated dimers with a central coiled coil and membrane-binding pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains at opposite ends. The dimers display significant conformational heterogeneity, with a preference for compact to intermediate conformations. Phosphoinositide-dependent membrane recruitment is mediated by one PH domain at a time and alters the conformational dynamics to prime allosteric activation by Arf-GTP. A structural model for membrane targeting and allosteric activation of full-length cytohesin dimers is discussed.
Project description:ARL4D is a developmentally regulated member of the ADP-ribosylation factor/ARF-like protein (ARF/ARL) family of Ras-related GTPases. Although the primary structure of ARL4D is very similar to that of other ARF/ARL molecules, its function remains unclear. Cytohesin-2/ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener (ARNO) is a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for ARF, and, at the plasma membrane, it can activate ARF6 to regulate actin reorganization and membrane ruffling. We show here that ARL4D interacts with the C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) and polybasic c domains of cytohesin-2/ARNO in a GTP-dependent manner. Localization of ARL4D at the plasma membrane is GTP- and N-terminal myristoylation-dependent. ARL4D(Q80L), a putative active form of ARL4D, induced accumulation of cytohesin-2/ARNO at the plasma membrane. Consistent with a known action of cytohesin-2/ARNO, ARL4D(Q80L) increased GTP-bound ARF6 and induced disassembly of actin stress fibers. Expression of inactive cytohesin-2/ARNO(E156K) or small interfering RNA knockdown of cytohesin-2/ARNO blocked ARL4D-mediated disassembly of actin stress fibers. Similar to the results with cytohesin-2/ARNO or ARF6, reduction of ARL4D suppressed cell migration activity. Furthermore, ARL4D-induced translocation of cytohesin-2/ARNO did not require phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. Together, these data demonstrate that ARL4D acts as a novel upstream regulator of cytohesin-2/ARNO to promote ARF6 activation and modulate actin remodeling.
Project description:In this investigation, we report identification and characterization of a 95 kDa postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing protein termed tamalin, also recently named GRP1-associated scaffold protein (GRASP), that interacts with group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro pull-down assays indicated that the PDZ domain-containing, amino-terminal half of tamalin directly binds to the class I PDZ-binding motif of group 1 mGluRs. The C-terminal half of tamalin also bound to cytohesins, the members of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) specific for the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of small GTP-binding proteins. Tamalin mRNA is expressed predominantly in the telencephalic region and highly overlaps with the expression of group 1 mGluR mRNAs. Both tamalin and cytohesin-2 were enriched and codistributed with mGluR1a in postsynaptic membrane fractions. Importantly, recombinant and native mGluR1a/tamalin/cytohesin-2 complexes were coimmunoprecipitated from transfected COS-7 cells and rat brain tissue, respectively. Transfection of tamalin and mutant tamalin lacking a cytohesin-binding domain caused an increase and decrease in cell-surface expression of mGluR1a in COS-7 cells, respectively. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of tamalin and dominant-negative tamalin facilitated and reduced the neuritic distribution of endogenous mGluR5 in cultured hippocampal neurons, respectively. The results indicate that tamalin plays a key role in the association of group 1 mGluRs with the ARF-specific GEF proteins and contributes to intracellular trafficking and the macromolecular organization of group 1 mGluRs at synapses.
Project description:Salmonella virulence effectors elicit host cell membrane ruffling to facilitate pathogen invasion. The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) governs the underlying membrane-localized actin polymerization, but how Salmonella manipulates WRC is unknown. We show that Rho GTPase activation by the Salmonella guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) SopE efficiently triggered WRC recruitment but not its activation, which required host Arf GTPase activity. Invading Salmonella recruited and activated Arf1 to facilitate ruffling and uptake. Arf3 and Arf6 could also enhance invasion. RNAi screening of host Arf-family GEFs revealed a key role for ARNO in pathogen invasion and generation of pathogen-containing macropinosomes enriched in Arf1 and WRC. Salmonella recruited ARNO via Arf6 and the phosphoinositide phosphatase effector SopB-induced PIP3 generation. ARNO in turn triggered WRC recruitment and activation, which was dramatically enhanced when SopE and ARNO cooperated. Thus, we uncover a mechanism by which pathogen and host GEFs synergize to regulate WRC and trigger Salmonella invasion.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and their activating guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) play key roles in membrane traffic and signaling. All ARF GEFs share a ?200-residue Sec7 domain (Sec7d) that alone catalyzes the GDP to GTP exchange that activates ARF. We determined the crystal structure of human BIG2 Sec7d. A C-terminal loop immediately following helix J (loop>J) was predicted to form contacts with helix H and the switch I region of the cognate ARF, suggesting that loop>J may participate in the catalytic reaction. Indeed, we identified multiple alanine substitutions within loop>J of the full length and/or Sec7d of two large brefeldin A-sensitive GEFs (GBF1 and BIG2) and one small brefeldin A-resistant GEF (ARNO) that abrogated binding of ARF and a single alanine substitution that allowed ARF binding but inhibited GDP to GTP exchange. Loop>J sequences are highly conserved, suggesting that loop>J plays a crucial role in the catalytic activity of all ARF GEFs. Using GEF mutants unable to bind ARF, we showed that GEFs associate with membranes independently of ARF and catalyze ARF activation in vivo only when membrane-associated. Our structural, cell biological, and biochemical findings identify loop>J as a key regulatory motif essential for ARF binding and GDP to GTP exchange by GEFs and provide evidence for the requirement of membrane association during GEF activity.
Project description:Proteins of the cytohesin/Arno/Grp1 family of Arf activators are positive regulators of the insulin-signaling pathway and control various remodeling events at the plasma membrane. Arno has a catalytic Sec7 domain, which promotes GDP to GTP exchange on Arf, followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Previous studies have revealed two functions of the PH domain: inhibition of the Sec7 domain and membrane targeting. Interestingly, the Arno PH domain interacts not only with a phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) but also with an activating Arf family member, such as Arf6 or Arl4. Using the full-length membrane-bound forms of Arf1 and Arf6 instead of soluble forms, we show here that the membrane environment dramatically affects the mechanism of Arno activation. First, Arf6-GTP stimulates Arno at nanomolar concentrations on liposomes compared with micromolar concentrations in solution. Second, mutations in the PH domain that abolish interaction with Arf6-GTP render Arno completely inactive when exchange reactions are reconstituted on liposomes but have no effect on Arno activity in solution. Third, Arno is activated by its own product Arf1-GTP in addition to a distinct activating Arf isoform. Consequently, Arno activity is strongly modulated by competition with Arf effectors. These results show that Arno behaves as a bistable switch, having an absolute requirement for activation by an Arf protein but, once triggered, becoming highly active through the positive feedback effect of Arf1-GTP. This property of Arno might provide an explanation for its function in signaling pathways that, once triggered, must move forward decisively.
Project description:ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) represent a family of small monomeric G proteins that switch from an inactive, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. One member of this family, ARF6, translocates on activation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and has been implicated in regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Because GDP release in vivo is rather slow, ARF activation is facilitated by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors like cytohesin-1 or ARNO. Here we show that msec7-1, a rat homologue of cytohesin-1, translocates ARF6 to the plasma membrane in living cells. Overexpression of msec7-1 leads to an increase in basal synaptic transmission at the Xenopus neuromuscular junction. msec7-1-containing synapses have a 5-fold higher frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents than control synapses. On stimulation, the amplitudes of the resulting evoked postsynaptic currents of msec7-1-overexpressing neurons are increased as well. However, further stimulation leads to a decline in amplitudes approaching the values of control synapses. This transient effect on amplitude is strongly reduced on overexpression of msec7-1E157K, a mutant incapable of translocating ARFs. Our results provide evidence that small G proteins of the ARF family and activating factors like msec7-1 play an important role in synaptic transmission, most likely by making more vesicles available for fusion at the plasma membrane.