Specific strains of Escherichia coli are pathogenic for the endometrium of cattle and cause pelvic inflammatory disease in cattle and mice.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli are widespread in the environment and pathogenic strains cause diseases of mucosal surfaces including the female genital tract. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; metritis) or endometritis affects approximately 40% of cattle after parturition. We tested the expectation that multiple genetically diverse E. coli from the environment opportunistically contaminate the uterine lumen after parturition to establish PID.Distinct clonal groups of E. coli were identified by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) from animals with uterine disease and these differed from known diarrhoeic or extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. The endometrial pathogenic E. coli (EnPEC) were more adherent and invasive for endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, compared with E. coli isolated from the uterus of clinically unaffected animals. The endometrial epithelial and stromal cells produced more prostaglandin E(2) and interleukin-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from EnPEC compared with non-pathogenic E. coli. The EnPEC or their LPS also caused PID when infused into the uterus of mice with accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the endometrium. Infusion of EnPEC was only associated with bacterial invasion of the endometrium and myometrium. Despite their ability to invade cultured cells, elicit host cell responses and establish PID, EnPEC lacked sixteen genes commonly associated with adhesion and invasion by enteric or extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, though the ferric yersiniabactin uptake gene (fyuA) was present in PID-associated EnPEC. Endometrial epithelial or stromal cells from wild type but not Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) null mice secreted prostaglandin E(2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in response to LPS from EnPEC, highlighting the key role of LPS in PID.The implication arising from the discovery of EnPEC is that development of treatments or vaccines for PID should focus specifically on EnPEC and not other strains of E. coli.
Project description:Endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus which is composed of epithelial and stromal tissue compartments enclosed by the two smooth muscle layers of the myometrium. In women, much of the endometrium is shed and regenerated each month during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial regeneration also occurs after parturition. The cellular mechanisms that regulate endometrial regeneration are still poorly understood. Using genetic fate-mapping in the mouse, we found that the epithelial compartment of the endometrium maintains its epithelial identity during the estrous cycle and postpartum regeneration. However, whereas the stromal compartment maintains its identity during homeostatic cycling, after parturition a subset of stromal cells differentiates into epithelium that is subsequently maintained. These findings identify potential progenitor cells within the endometrial stromal compartment that produce long-term epithelial tissue during postpartum endometrial regeneration.
Project description:Escherichia coli infection of the endometrium causes uterine disease after parturition and is associated with prolonged luteal phases of the ovarian cycle in cattle. Termination of the luteal phase is initiated by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF) from oxytocin-stimulated endometrial epithelial cells. Compared with normal animals, the peripheral plasma of animals with E. coli infection of the endometrium had higher concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE) but not PGF. Endometrial explants accumulated predominantly PGE in the culture medium in response to LPS, and this effect was not reversed by oxytocin. Endometrial cells expressed the Toll-like receptor 4/CD14/MD-2 receptor complex necessary to detect LPS. Epithelial and stromal cells treated with LPS had higher steady-state media concentrations of PGE rather than PGF. Arachadonic acid is liberated from cell membranes by phospholipase 2 (PLA2) enzymes and converted to prostaglandins by synthase enzymes. Treatment of epithelial and stromal cells with LPS did not change the levels of PGE or PGF synthase enzymes. However, LPS stimulated increased levels of PLA2 group VI but not PLA2 group IV C immunoreactive protein in epithelial cells. Endometrial cells expressed the E prostanoid 2 and E prostanoid 4 receptors necessary to respond to PGE, which regulates inflammation as well as being luteotropic. In conclusion, LPS detection by endometrial cells stimulated the accumulation of PGE rather than PGF, providing a mechanism to explain prolonged luteal phases in animals with uterine disease, and this PGE may also be important for regulating inflammatory responses in the endometrium.
Project description:Infection of the bovine endometrium with Gram-negative bacteria commonly causes uterine disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on cells of the immune system bind Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulating the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1B (IL1B) and IL6, and the chemokine IL8. Because the endometrium is the first barrier to infection of the uterus, the signaling cascade triggered by LPS and the subsequent expression of inflammatory mediators were investigated in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and the key pathways identified using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and biochemical inhibitors. Treatment of endometrial cells with ultrapure LPS stimulated an inflammatory response characterized by increased IL1B, IL6, and IL8 mRNA expression, and IL6 protein accumulation in epithelial cells, and by increased IL1B and IL8 mRNA expression, and IL6 and IL8 protein accumulation in stromal cells. Treatment of endometrial cells with LPS also induced the degradation of IKB and the nuclear translocation of NFKB, as well as rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) and MAPK14. Knockdown of TLR4 or its signaling adaptor molecule, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88), using siRNA reduced the inflammatory response to LPS in epithelial and stromal cells. Biochemical inhibition of MAPK3/1, but not JNK or MAPK14, reduced LPS-induced IL1B, IL6, and IL8 expression in endometrial cells. In conclusion, epithelial and stromal cells have an intrinsic role in innate immune surveillance in the endometrium, and in the case of LPS this recognition occurs via TLR4- and MYD88-dependent cell signaling pathways.
Project description:The endometrium is commonly infected with bacteria leading to severe disease of the uterus in cattle and humans. The endometrial epithelium is the first line of defence for this mucosal surface against bacteria and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the innate immune system for detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Antimicrobial peptides, acute phase proteins and Mucin-1 (MUC-1) also provide non-specific defences against microbes on mucosal surfaces. The present study examined the expression of innate immune defences in the bovine endometrium and tested the hypothesis that endometrial epithelial cells express functional receptors of the TLR family and the non-specific effector molecules for defence against bacteria.Bovine endometrial tissue and purified populations of primary epithelial and stromal cells were examined using RT-PCR for gene expression of TLRs, antimicrobial peptides and MUC-1. Functional responses were tested by evaluating the secretion of prostaglandin E(2) and acute phase proteins when cells were treated with bacterial PAMPs such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoproteins.The endometrium expressed TLRs 1 to 10, whilst purified populations of epithelial cells expressed TLRs 1 to 7 and 9, and stromal cells expressed TLRs 1 to 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10. The TLRs appear to be functional as epithelial cells secreted prostaglandin E(2) in response to bacterial PAMPs. In addition, the epithelial cells expressed antimicrobial peptides, such as Tracheal and Lingual Antimicrobial Peptides (TAP and LAP) and MUC-1, which were upregulated when the cells were treated with LPS. However, the epithelial cells did not express appreciable amounts of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin or serum amyloid A.Epithelial cells have an essential role in the orchestration of innate immune defence of the bovine endometrium and are likely to be the key to prevention of endometrial infection with bacteria.
Project description:Human and mouse endometrium undergo dramatic cellular reorganization during pregnancy and postpartum. Somatic stem cells maintain homeostasis of the tissue by providing a cell reservoir for regeneration. We hypothesized that endometrial cells with quiescent properties (stem/progenitor cells) were involved in the regeneration of the endometrial tissue. Given that stem cells divide infrequently, they can retain the DNA synthesis label [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] after a prolonged chase period. In this study, prepubertal mice were pulsed with BrdU and after a 6-week chase a small population of label-retaining stromal cells (LRSC) was located primarily beneath the luminal epithelium, adjacent to blood vessels, and near the endometrial-myometrial junction. Marker analyses suggested that they were of mesenchymal origin expressing CD44(+), CD90(+), CD140b(+), CD146(+), and Sca-1(+). During pregnancy, nonproliferating LRSC predominately resided at the interimplantation/placental loci of the gestational endometrium. Immediately after parturition, a significant portion of the LRSC underwent proliferation (BrdU(+)/Ki-67(+)) and expressed total and active ?-catenin. The ?-catenin expression in the LRSC was transiently elevated at postpartum day (PPD) 1. The proliferation of LRSC resulted in a significant decline in the proportion of LRSC in the postpartum uterus. The LRSC returned to dormancy at PPD7, and the percentage of LRSC remained stable thereafter until 11 weeks. This study demonstrated that LRSC can respond efficiently to physiological stimuli upon initiation of uterine involution and return to its quiescent state after postpartum repair.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Repair deficiency after endometrial injury is an important reason for intra-uterine adhesions, amenorrhea, and infertility in females. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation is effective in repairing the damaged endometrium. However, the possibility of using umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) to treat endometrial injury is rarely reported. METHODS:Ethanol (95%) was injected into rat uterus to establish a model of endometrial injury. UC-MSCs were injected through the tail vein, either as a single, twice, or thrice administration. Functional restoration of the uterus was assessed by testing embryo implantation rates. Endometrial morphological alteration was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Endometrial fibrosis, markers of epithelial and stromal cells of endometrium, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and inflammatory factors were detected using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Endometrial morphology and embryo implantation rates were significantly improved on day 8 of transplantation among single-, twice-, or thrice-administered rats. Moreover, UC-MSCs could alleviate fibrosis in general, and reduced the expression of fibrosis markers, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?. The cell proliferation marker Ki-67 had a positive expression in the injured endometrium after UC-MSC transplantation. The endometrial stromal marker vimentin and epithelial marker cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) expressions were visibly increased. The expression of vascular markers CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, and matrix metalloprotein (MMP)9 was generally upregulated. Proinflammatory factors interferon (IFN)-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-2 were significantly downregulated in the rats administered UC-MSCs twice and thrice. CONCLUSIONS:UC-MSC transplantation contributed to the repair of endometrial injury and restoration of fertility, likely through the suppression of excessive fibrosis and inflammation, and enhancement of endometrial cell proliferation and vascular remodeling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tissue regeneration disorder after endometrial injury is an important cause of intrauterine adhesions, amenorrhea, and infertility in women. Both bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation and electroacupuncture (EA) are promising therapeutic applications for endometrial injury. This study examined their combined effects on thin endometrium in rats and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. METHODS:A thin endometrial model was established in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by perfusing 95% ethanol into the right side of the uterus. The wounds were randomly treated with PBS (model group), BMSCs only (BMSC group), EA only (EA group), and BMSCs combined with EA (BMSC + EA group). Endometrial morphological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Changes in markers of epithelial and stromal endometrium cells, endometrial receptivity-related chemokines, and paracrine factors were detected using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Finally, the functional recovery of the uterus was evaluated by determining the rate of embryo implantation. RESULTS:As shown by endometrial morphology, the damaged uteri in all the treatment groups recovered to some extent, with the best effects observed in the BMSC + EA group. Further studies showed that EA promoted the migration of transplanted BMSCs to damaged uteri by activating the stromal cell-derived factor-1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (SDF-1/CXCR4) axis. As compared with the other groups, upregulated expression of endometrial cytokeratin and vimentin, increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in endometrial lesions, and improved embryo implantation rates on the 8th day of pregnancy were found in the BMSC + EA group. CONCLUSIONS:EA plays an important role in supporting BMSCs in the repair of thin endometrium, most likely by promoting the migration of BMSCs and enhancing the paracrine effect of BMSCs.
Project description:Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.
Project description:The endometrium is the lining of the uterus and site of blastocyst implantation. Each menstrual cycle, the endometrium cycles through rapid phases of growth, remodelling and breakdown. Significant vascular remodelling is also driven by trophoblast cells that form the outer layer of the blastocyst. Trophoblast invasion and remodelling enhance blood flow to the embryo ahead of placentation. Understanding the mechanisms of endometrial vascular remodelling and trophoblast invasion would provide key insights into endometrial physiology and cellular interactions critical for establishment of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to develop a tissue engineering platform to investigate the processes of endometrial angiogenesis and trophoblast invasion in a three-dimensional environment. We report adaptation of a methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin hydrogel that presents matrix stiffness in the range of the native tissue, supports the formation of endometrial endothelial cell networks with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human endometrial stromal cells as an artificial endometrial perivascular niche and the culture of an endometrial epithelial cell layer, enables culture of a hormone-responsive stromal compartment and provides the capacity to monitor the kinetics of trophoblast invasion. With these studies, we provide a series of techniques that will instruct researchers in the development of endometrial models of increasing complexity.
Project description:The present study tested whether the LPS/TLR4 signal pathway in endometrial stromal cells is essential for the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. We tested the expression of TLR4, MD2 in the endometrium without adenomyosis (CE), the eutopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EuE) and the ectopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EE). We isolated the stromal cells from CE, EuE and EE (CESC, EuESC, EESC), treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR4 antagonist and detected the cell viability. And we also measured the key protein of the TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells. We found that the viability of experimental cells treated with LPS was significantly greater than that of the non-treated cells, blocked by the TLR4 antagonist VIPER. TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells stimulated by LPS, and it was inhibited by VIPER. This study suggested that stromal cells were activated by the TLR4 signalling pathway, which processed the cellular inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth involved in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.