Bibersteinia trehalosi inhibits the growth of Mannheimia haemolytica by a proximity-dependent mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is the only pathogen that consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. Paradoxically, Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from BHS pneumonic lungs much more frequently than M. haemolytica. These observations suggest that there may be an interaction between these bacteria, and we hypothesized that B. trehalosi overgrows or otherwise inhibits the growth of M. haemolytica. Growth curves (monoculture) demonstrated that B. trehalosi has a shorter doubling time ( approximately 10 min versus approximately 27 min) and consistently achieves 3-log higher cell density (CFU/ml) compared to M. haemolytica. During coculture M. haemolytica growth was inhibited when B. trehalosi entered stationary phase (6 h) resulting in a final cell density for M. haemolytica that was 6 to 9 logs lower than expected with growth in the absence of B. trehalosi. Coculture supernatant failed to inhibit M. haemolytica growth on agar or in broth, indicating no obvious involvement of lytic phages, bacteriocins, or quorum-sensing systems. This observation was confirmed by limited growth inhibition of M. haemolytica when both pathogens were cultured in the same media but separated by a filter (0.4-microm pore size) that limited contact between the two bacterial populations. There was significant growth inhibition of M. haemolytica when the populations were separated by membranes with a pore size of 8 mum that allowed free contact. These observations demonstrate that B. trehalosi can both outgrow and inhibit M. haemolytica growth with the latter related to a proximity- or contact-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Bibersteinia trehalosi is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. B. trehalosi is closely related to Mannheimia haemolytica and is often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. We present three complete closed genome sequences of this species generated using an automated assembly pipeline.
Project description:The OmpA (or heat-modifiable) protein is a major structural component of the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. The protein contains eight membrane-traversing beta-strands and four surface-exposed loops. The genetic diversity and molecular evolution of OmpA were investigated in 31 Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, 6 Mannheimia glucosida, and 4 Pasteurella trehalosi strains by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis. The OmpA proteins of M. haemolytica and M. glucosida contain four hypervariable domains located at the distal ends of the surface-exposed loops. The hypervariable domains of OmpA proteins from bovine and ovine M. haemolytica isolates are very different but are highly conserved among strains from each of these two host species. Fourteen different alleles representing four distinct phylogenetic classes, classes I to IV, were identified in M. haemolytica and M. glucosida. Class I, II, and IV alleles were associated with bovine M. haemolytica, ovine M. haemolytica, and M. glucosida strains, respectively, whereas class III alleles were present in certain M. haemolytica and M. glucosida isolates. Class I and II alleles were associated with divergent lineages of bovine and ovine M. haemolytica strains, respectively, indicating a history of horizontal DNA transfer and assortative (entire gene) recombination. Class III alleles have mosaic structures and were derived by horizontal DNA transfer and intragenic recombination. Our findings suggest that OmpA is under strong selective pressure from the host species and that it plays an important role in host adaptation. It is proposed that the OmpA protein of M. haemolytica acts as a ligand and is involved in binding to specific host cell receptor molecules in cattle and sheep. P. trehalosi expresses two OmpA homologs that are encoded by different tandemly arranged ompA genes. The P. trehalosi ompA genes are highly diverged from those of M. haemolytica and M. glucosida, and evidence is presented to suggest that at least one of these genes was acquired by horizontal DNA transfer.
Project description:The tbpBA operon was sequenced in 42 representative isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica (32), Mannheimia glucosida (6) and Bibersteinia trehalosi (4). A total of 27 tbpB and 20 tbpA alleles were identified whilst the tbpBA operon was represented by 28 unique alleles that could be assigned to seven classes. There were 1566 (34.8% variation) polymorphic nucleotide sites and 482 (32.1% variation) variable inferred amino acid positions among the 42 tbpBA sequences. The tbpBA operons of serotype A2 M. haemolytica isolates are, with one exception, substantially more diverse than those of the other M. haemolytica serotypes and most likely have a different ancestral origin. The tbpBA phylogeny has been severely disrupted by numerous small- and large-scale intragenic recombination events. In addition, assortative (entire gene) recombination events, involving either the entire tbpBA operon or the individual tbpB and tbpA genes, have played a major role in shaping tbpBA structure and it's distribution in the three species. Our findings indicate that a common gene pool exists for tbpBA in M. haemolytica, M. glucosida and B. trehalosi. In particular, B. trehalosi, M. glucosida and ovine M. haemolytica isolates share a large portion of the tbpA gene, and this probably reflects selection for a conserved TbpA protein that provides effective iron uptake in sheep. Bovine and ovine serotype A2 lineages have very different tbpBA alleles. Bovine-like tbpBA alleles have been partially, or completely, replaced by ovine-like tbpBA alleles in ovine serotype A2 isolates, suggesting that different transferrin receptors are required by serotype A2 isolates for optimum iron uptake in cattle and sheep. Conversely, the tbpBA alleles of bovine-pathogenic serotype A1 and A6 isolates are very similar to those of closely related ovine isolates, suggesting a recent and common evolutionary origin.
Project description:The mosaic structure and molecular evolution of the leukotoxin operon (lktCABD) was investigated by nucleotide sequence comparison of the lktC, lktB, and lktD genes in 23 Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, 6 Mannheimia glucosida, and 4 Pasteurella trehalosi strains. Sequence variation in the lktA gene has been described previously (R. L. Davies et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:1394-1404, 2001). The leukotoxin operon of M. haemolytica has a complex mosaic structure and has been derived by extensive inter- and intraspecies horizontal DNA transfer and intragenic recombination events. However, the pattern of recombination varies throughout the operon and among the different evolutionary lineages of M. haemolytica. The lktA and lktB genes have the most complex mosaic structures with segments derived from up to four different sources, including M. glucosida and P. trehalosi. In contrast, the lktD gene is highly conserved in M. haemolytica. The lktC, lktA, and lktB genes of strains representing the major ovine lineages contain recombinant segments derived from bovine or bovine-like serotype A2 strains. These findings support the previous conclusion that host switching of bovine A2 strains from cattle to sheep has played a major role in the evolution of the leukotoxin operon in ovine strains of M. haemolytica. Homologous segments of donor and recipient alleles are identical, or nearly identical, indicating that the recombinational exchanges occurred relatively recent in evolutionary terms. The 5' and 3' ends of the operon are highly conserved in M. haemolytica, which suggests that multiple horizontal exchanges of the complete operon have occurred by a common mechanism such as transduction. Although the lktA and lktB genes both have complex mosaic structures and high nucleotide substitution rates, the amino acid diversity of LktB is significantly lower than that of LktA due to a higher degree of evolutionary constraint against amino acid replacement. The recombinational exchanges within the leukotoxin operon have had greatest effect on LktA and probably provide an adaptive advantage against the host antibody response by generating novel antigenic variation at surface-exposed sites.
Project description:A cross-sectional study was employed with the aim to explore the serological status of goats; we evaluated the presence of serum antibodies of the circulating serotypes of the genus Pasteurella. A total of 124 serum samples were collected from randomly selected goats and subsequently serotyped using indirect haemagglutination test.In the current study, the overall prevalence of pasteurellosis in goats was 31.4%. Additionally, a total of eight serotypes of Pasteurella were serotyped. It is evident that 25% out of 124 sampled animals were found infected by four or more circulating serotypes and 6.4% animals were also found positive for all serotypes. Accordingly, the prevalence of Pasteurella multocida serotype A were 16.9%, Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 26.6%, M. haemolytica serotype A2 18.5%, M. haemolytica serotype A7 16.1%, Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T3 20.9%, B. trehalosi serotype T4 21.7%, B. trehalosi serotype T10 27.4%, and B. trehalosi serotype T15 was 25.8%. Therefore, although there has been vaccination campaign with monovalent vaccine P. multocida type A, the diseases still exerts negative impacts through death of goats to smallholder farmers. Therefore, to control the disease the government should provide multivalent vaccine of the above serotypes.
Project description:The genome of a multidrug-resistant strain of Bibersteinia trehalosi isolated from a calf with chronic pneumonia is presented. The draft genome sequences have been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank.
Project description:A real-time PCR assay for the leukotoxin gene of Bibersteinia trehalosi was developed and validated to better identify this pathogen, which is a cause of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep. The specificity of the PCR primers was evaluated with DNA from 59 known isolates of the Pasteurellaceae family. For validation, 162 field samples were compared using both the new assay and an indirect method using 2 sets of published protocols. The real-time PCR assay was found to be specific for the leukotoxin gene of B. trehalosi and provides a rapid and direct approach for detecting leukotoxin-producing forms of this organism from samples containing mixed species of leukotoxin-positive Pasteurellaceae.
Project description:We examined and compared both the methylomes and the modification-related gene content of four sequenced strains of Bibersteinia trehalosi isolated from the nasopharyngeal tracts of Nebraska cattle with symptoms of bovine respiratory disease complex. The methylation patterns and the encoded DNA methyltransferase (MTase) gene sets were different between each strain, with the only common pattern being that of Dam (GATC). Among the observed patterns were three novel motifs attributable to Type I restriction-modification systems. In some cases the differences in methylation patterns corresponded to the gain or loss of MTase genes, or to recombination at target recognition domains that resulted in changes of enzyme specificity. However, in other cases the differences could be attributed to differential expression of the same MTase gene across strains. The most obvious regulatory mechanism responsible for these differences was slipped strand mispairing within short sequence repeat regions. The combined action of these evolutionary forces allows for alteration of different parts of the methylome at different time scales. We hypothesize that pleiotropic transcriptional modulation resulting from the observed methylomic changes may be involved with the switch between the commensal and pathogenic states of this common member of ruminant microflora.