Cardiac tamponade and successful pericardiocentesis in an extremely low birth weight neonate with percutaneously inserted central venous line: a case report.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade are rare but life-threatening complications of percutaneosuly inserted central line (PICL) use in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates, with an incidence reported between 0.07% and 2% of PICLs placement. Timely diagnosis and pericardiocentesis has been proven to be life-saving. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 620 g birth weight neonate who presented with sudden cardiac instability 18 days after the insertion of a PICL and in spite of a presumed satisfactory position of the catheter tip. The transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated severe pericardial effusion with evidence of cardiac tamponade. Successful urgent subxiphoid pericardiocentesis was performed; totally 2 ml of whitish fluid was collected, which resulted consistent to the composition of the hyperosmolar TPN solution infused. CONCLUSION: Cardiac tamponade should be considered in any newborn with a peripherally inserted central catheter who presents with cardiorespiratory instability (bradycardia, cyanosis and metabolic acidosis), even when lines are believed to be placed correctly.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel pericardiocentesis technique using an in-plane parasternal medial-to-lateral approach with the use of a high-frequency probe in patients with cardiac tamponade.Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion and tamponade physiology. Ultrasound guidance for pericardiocentesis is currently considered the standard of care. Several approaches have been described recently, which differ mainly on the site of puncture (subxiphoid, apical, or parasternal). Although they share the use of low-frequency probes, there is absence of complete control of needle trajectory and real-time needle visualization. An in-plane and real-time technique has only been described anecdotally.A retrospective analysis of 11 patients (63% men, mean age: 37.7±21.2 years) presenting with cardiac tamponade admitted to the tertiary-care emergency department and treated with parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis was carried out. The underlying causes of cardiac tamponade were different among the population. All the pericardiocentesis were successfully performed in the emergency department, without complications, relieving the hemodynamic instability. The mean time taken to perform the eight-step procedure was 309±76.4?s, with no procedure-related complications.The parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis is a new technique theoretically free of complications and it enables real-time monitoring of needle trajectory. For the first time, a pericardiocentesis approach with a medial-to-lateral needle trajectory and real-time, in-plane, needle visualization was performed in a tamponade patient population.
Project description:RATIONALE:BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAF/MEKi) are targeted therapy for proto-oncogene BRAF mutated metastatic unresectable melanoma. Compared to monotherapy, an increased cardiovascular toxicity is reported with the combination of Dabrafenib and Trametinib. This case report documents Grade 4 cardiac treatment emergent adverse effect of pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade induced by this combination therapy. PATIENT CONCERNS:A 52 year old man presented with clinical stage II unresectable melanoma with BRAF mutation, was initiated on treatement with Dabrafenib and Trametinib. He complained of generalised edema and increased his weight by 27 kg. This progressed to shortness of breath and he underwent echocardiogram which revealed cardiac tamponade. DIAGNOSES:Emergent pericardiocentesis was performed. No definited pathology was demonstrated in laboratory analysis of pericardial fluid. Re- initiating treatment resulted in cardiac tamponade and pericardiotomy was performed by video-assisted thoracic surgical (VATS). Pericardial biopsy revealed nonspecific chronic inflammation. INTERVENTIONS:Discontinuation of treatment with Dabrafenib and Trametinib and diuretics resolved peripheral edema. Cardiac function normalized after pericardiocentesis and pericardiotomy. OUTCOMES:Treatment with Dabrafenib and Trametinib caused significant peripheral edema and pericardial effusion resulting in cardiac tamponade. Naranjo score suggests probable association of treatment induced pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. LESSONS:This is the first documented report of pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade induced by Dabrafenib and Trametinib. Cardiac toxicity of BRAF/MEK inhibitors is rare but clinicans must monitor for treatment emergent adverse effects.
Project description:Fulminant myocarditis (FM) causes rapid onset severe heart failure requiring inotropes or mechanical circulatory support. Myocarditis is sometimes associated with pericardial effusion, however, how this effusion affects the hemodynamics in patients with FM under venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) management has not been fully reported. We show a case of FM presenting with cardiac tamponade during VA-ECMO management. A 64-year-old female diagnosed as having FM showed a rapid hemodynamic collapse and that led to the application of VA-ECMO. Although her left ventricular ejection fraction did not improve despite proper hemodynamics management for several days, a pericardial effusion accumulated gradually. Apparent elevation of right atrial pressure and reduction of blood pressure were not observed, however, we performed pericardiocentesis because we were not able to wean off VA-ECMO. After the drainage of pericardial effusion, the blood pressure and cardiac output elevated as did the left ventricular ejection fraction. We successfully removed VA-ECMO and the patient was discharged without any complications. This is a case report in which a cardiac tamponade under VA-ECMO did not show typical signs and pericardiocentesis contributed to withdrawal of a VA-ECMO system. <Learning objective: Typical findings of cardiac tamponade are less likely to appear in patients with fulminant myocarditis under venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management (VA-ECMO). Drainage of pericardial effusion delivers dramatic improvement in blood pressure, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction. When VA-ECMO cannot be weaned off, pericardiocentesis should be considered in patients with fulminant myocarditis who showed gradual accumulation of pericardial effusion.>.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pericardiocentesis is frequently performed when fluid needs to be removed from the pericardial sac, for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, however, it can still be a high-risk procedure in inexperienced hands and/or an emergent setting.<h4>Case presentation</h4>A 78-year-old male made an emergency call complaining of the back pain. When the ambulance crew arrived at his home, he was in a state of shock due to cardiac tamponade diagnosed by portable echocardiography. The pericardiocentesis was performed using a puncture needle on site, and the patient was immediately transferred to our hospital by helicopter. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a small protrusion of contrast media on the inferior wall of the left ventricle, suggesting cardiac rupture due to acute myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiography was then performed, which confirmed occlusion of the posterior descending branch of the left circumflex coronary artery. In addition, extravasation of contrast medium due to coronary artery perforation was observed in the acute marginal branch of the right coronary artery. We considered that coronary artery perforation had occurred as a complication of the pericardial puncture. We therefore performed transcatheter coil embolization of the perforated branch, and angiography confirmed immediate vessel sealing and hemostasis. After the procedure, the patient made steady progress without a further increase in pericardial effusion, and was discharged on the 50th day after admission.<h4>Conclusions</h4>When performing pericardial drainage, it is important that the physician recognizes the correct procedure and complications of pericardiocentesis, and endeavors to minimize the occurrence of serious complications. As with the patient presented, coil embolization is an effective treatment for distal coronary artery perforation caused by pericardiocentesis.
Project description:Background:Malignant pericardial effusion is a common consequence of various types of cancer. The diagnosis of cardiac tamponade in malignant effusion may be challenging, as the typical echocardiographic signs are not met. Patients with cancer can present with cardiac tamponade in form of tachycardia (rather that hypotension) that improves after pericardiocentesis. Case summary:A 70-year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with rapid development of shortness of breath over a week. Her past medical history included oesophageal carcinoma 1?year before presentation. This was complicated by dysphagia for which the patient underwent oesophageal stenting 5?months before admission. On admission, the patient was in respiratory distress, tachycardia; however, she was normotensive. Echocardiography revealed massive circumferential pericardial effusion. Apart from significant respiratory variation in mitral and tricuspid inflow, the echocardiographic features of tamponade were absent. We discuss on how we applied European Society of Cardiology guidelines in order to calculate the pericardiocentesis score and make a firm management plan. Despite that the patient was normotensive, the pericardiocentesis score was 13.5, so urgent pericardiocentesis was done followed by immediate improvement. Discussion:This case demonstrates that oncology patients can present with tamponade in the form of tachycardia rather than hypotension as the slow course of effusion formation allows the body to compensate by increasing the heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance, thus maintaining the blood pressure. The application of 'pericardiocentesis score' is very helpful in such patients. Score equal or greater than 6 necessitates urgent pericardiocentesis even if the blood pressure is normal.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Amoebiasis is a prevalent infection in the tropics. Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation. Cardiac tamponade is an uncommon complication of amoebic liver abscess that may need urgent pericardiocentesis. <h4>Case summary</h4> A 25-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and fever for 1 month. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a 4.7 × 4.7?cm abscess in the left lobe of the liver. Percutaneous pigtail drainage was performed to evacuate the abscess. After 2 days, the patient developed signs of cardiac tamponade and bilateral pleural effusion, requiring urgent pericardiocentesis and chest drain insertion. Persistent posterior collection of thick abscess in pericardium needed pericardial window for complete drainage. The patient recovered completely after pericardial window. There was no evidence of chronic constrictive pericarditis after 1 year of follow-up. <h4>Discussion</h4> A rare complication of the amoebic liver abscess was observed in this young adult who developed cardiac tamponade, requiring an urgent pericardiocentesis, and later requiring pericardial window. Management includes amoebicidal and luminicidal drugs for complete eradication of Entamoeba histolytica.
Project description:Delayed cardiac tamponade after a penetrating chest injury is a rare complication. The clinical diagnosis of tamponade is facilitated with imaging. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male who was brought to emergency after multiple stab wounds to the chest. After resuscitation and repair of laceration of right internal mammary artery and right ventricle, he was discharged but later returned with shortness of breath. Echocardiography revealed a rare case of delayed pericardial tamponade causing left ventricular collapse. The pericardial effusion was treated with emergent pericardiocentesis and later required a thoracoscopy guided pericardial window for definitive management.
Project description:Background:Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormone, with iodine deficiency remains the foremost cause. It is more common in women with increasing incidence in the elderly. The manifestations of hypothyroidism results from the hypometabolism in the body at cellular level and affects all organs. Although there can be an incidental diagnosis of the disorder, the presentation with cardiac signs and symptoms is rare. We report a case of primary hypothyroidism with dysmorphic features manifesting as massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade at presentation. Case summary:A female aged 20 years presented with lethargy, constipation, and dyspnoea of 6?months duration. On examination, she was short-statured and had dysmorphic features with hypotension, raised jugular venous pressure (JVP), muffled heart sounds, and thyroid stimulating hormone >100 uIU/mL. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly and 2DEcho confirmed cardiac tamponade for which emergency pericardiocentesis was done. Discussion:Cardiovascular manifestations in hypothyroidism are dyspnoea and decreased exercise tolerance. Bradycardia, diastolic hypertension, cardiomegaly, and non-pitting or pitting peripheral oedema may be seen on physical examination. Mild pericardial effusion is common and generally asymptomatic. Massive pericardial effusion being manifested at presentation primarily as a sign of hypothyroidism is rare. A few cases have been mentioned in the literature in India and western population. Rarely, hypothyroidism presents with massive pericardial effusion resulting in cardiac tamponade as in our case.
Project description:Pneumopericardium is defined by the presence of air in the pericardial cavity. It is a rare entity occurring most commonly after trauma. Pneumopericardium resulting after pericardiocentesis is even rarer. We report a case of 46-year-old man, with end-stage renal disease on chronic hemodialysis and who developed a large circumferential pericardial effusion of 40 mm in diastole with swinging heart and diastolic right atrium collapse requiring pericardiocentesis. Few days after, the patient complained of pleuritic chest pain and echocardiogram revealed several tiny sparkling echogenic spots swirling in the pericardial sac. Computed tomography scans revealed a marked anterior pneumopericardium that was conservatively managed.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently evolved as a pandemic disease. Although the respiratory system is predominantly affected, cardiovascular complications have been frequently identified, including acute myocarditis, myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, arrhythmias and venous thromboembolic events. Pericardial disease has been rarely reported. We present a case of acute life-threatening cardiac tamponade caused by a small pericardial effusion in a mechanically ventilated patient with severe COVID-19 associated pneumonia. The patient presented acute circulatory collapse with hemodynamic features of cardiogenic or obstructive shock. Bedside echocardiography permitted prompt diagnosis and life-saving pericardiocentesis. Further investigation revealed no other apparent cause of pericardial effusion except for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cardiac tamponade may complicate COVID-19 and should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute hemodynamic deterioration in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients.