SIRT1 negatively regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin.
ABSTRACT: The IGF/mTOR pathway, which is modulated by nutrients, growth factors, energy status and cellular stress regulates aging in various organisms. SIRT1 is a NAD+ dependent deacetylase that is known to regulate caloric restriction mediated longevity in model organisms, and has also been linked to the insulin/IGF signaling pathway. Here we investigated the potential regulation of mTOR signaling by SIRT1 in response to nutrients and cellular stress. We demonstrate that SIRT1 deficiency results in elevated mTOR signaling, which is not abolished by stress conditions. The SIRT1 activator resveratrol reduces, whereas SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide enhances mTOR activity in a SIRT1 dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SIRT1 interacts with TSC2, a component of the mTOR inhibitory-complex upstream to mTORC1, and regulates mTOR signaling in a TSC2 dependent manner. These results demonstrate that SIRT1 negatively regulates mTOR signaling potentially through the TSC1/2 complex.
Project description:Mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a major sensor of nutrient and energy availability in the cell and regulates a variety of cellular processes, including growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Loss of the tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2) leads to constitutive activation of mTOR and downstream signaling elements, resulting in the development of tumors, neurological disorders, and at the cellular level, severe insulin/IGF-1 resistance. Here, we show that loss of TSC1 or TSC2 in cell lines and mouse or human tumors causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The resulting ER stress plays a significant role in the mTOR-mediated negative-feedback inhibition of insulin action and increases the vulnerability to apoptosis. These results demonstrate ER stress as a critical component of the pathologies associated with dysregulated mTOR activity and offer the possibility to exploit this mechanism for new therapeutic opportunities.
Project description:Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is established as an anabolic factor that can induce skeletal muscle growth by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Although this signaling pathway has been the subject of much study, the molecular mechanisms linking IGF-1 binding to mTOR activation remain poorly defined in muscle. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that IGF-1 activation of mTOR in C2C12 myotubes requires a phosphorylation-dependent, altered distribution of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1/TSC2 complex from the membrane to the cytosol. We found that IGF-1 treatment does not affect complex formation between TSC1 and TSC2, but rather IGF-1 induces an altered distribution of the TSC1/TSC2 complex in C2C12 myotubes. In response to IGF-1 treatment, there was a relative redistribution of the TSC1/TSC2 complex, composed of TSC1 and phosphorylated TSC2, from the membrane to the cytosol. IGF-1-stimulated TSC1/TSC2 phosphorylation and redistribution were completely prevented by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, but were not with the downstream mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. When a nonphosphorylatable form of TSC2 (S939A) was overexpressed, phosphorylation-dependent binding of the scaffold protein 14-3-3 to TSC2 was diminished and no redistribution of the TSC1/TSC2 complex was observed after IGF-1 stimulation. These results indicate that TSC2 phosphorylation in response to IGF-1 treatment is necessary for the altered distribution of the TSC1/TSC2 complex to the cytosol. We suggest that this translocation is likely critical for mTOR activation by dissociating the interaction between the GTPase activating protein activity of the TSC1/TSC2 complex and its downstream target, Ras homolog enriched in brain.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits IGF-I actions, but the mechanism by which AMPK functions is undefined. This study identified signaling events that were induced by AMPK that mediated inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated phosphoinosotide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation. The AMPK activator metformin stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). Expression of constitutively active forms of AMPK suppressed IGF-I-stimulated activation of Akt/TSC2/mTOR/p70S6K and protein synthesis, whereas AMPK knockdown resulted in enhanced responses to IGF-I. To determine the mechanism by which AMPK inhibited IGF-I signaling, the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was examined. Both metformin and constitutively activated AMPK enhanced phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser794, which led to decreased IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of the p85 subunit of PI3K. Overexpression of IRS-1 S794A was associated with increased IGF-I-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, p85 association, and protein synthesis. To determine whether other signaling molecules mediated the effect of AMPK, TSC2 function was examined. Cells overexpressing TSC2/S1345A (the site of AMPK phosphorylation) were less responsive to metformin-induced inhibition of p70S6 kinase. These findings are relevant to whole animal physiology because administration of metformin to mice resulted in inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K. In conclusion, AMPK functions to inhibit IGF-I-stimulated PI3K pathway activation through stimulation of IRS-1 serine 794 phosphorylation. Because IGF-I is an important stimulant of the anabolic response, this effect of AMPK could account for part of its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis, thus allowing more efficient energy use by other cellular processes.
Project description:During development, proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNP), candidate cells-of-origin for the pediatric brain tumor medulloblastoma, requires signaling by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), the pathways of which are also implicated in medulloblastoma. One of the consequences of IGF signaling is inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-suppressing tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), comprised of TSC1 and TSC2, leading to increased mRNA translation. We show that mice, in which TSC function is impaired, display increased mTOR pathway activation, enhanced CGNP proliferation, glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha/beta (GSK-3 alpha/beta) inactivation, and cytoplasmic localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), which has been proposed to cause its inactivation or gain of oncogenic functions. We observed the same characteristics in wild-type primary cultures of CGNPs in which TSC1 and/or TSC2 were knocked down, and in mouse medulloblastomas induced by ectopic Shh pathway activation. Moreover, Shh-induced mouse medulloblastomas manifested Akt-mediated TSC2 inactivation, and the mutant TSC2 allele synergized with aberrant Shh signaling to increase medulloblastoma incidence in mice. Driving exogenous TSC2 expression in Shh-induced medulloblastoma cells corrected p27(Kip1) localization and reduced proliferation. GSK-3 alpha/beta inactivation in the tumors in vivo and in primary CGNP cultures was mTOR-dependent, whereas p27(Kip1) cytoplasmic localization was regulated upstream of mTOR by TSC2. These results indicate that a balance between Shh mitogenic signaling and TSC function regulating new protein synthesis and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition is essential for the normal development and prevention of tumor formation or expansion.
Project description:mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates cell growth and metabolism. mTORC1 activity is regulated via integration of positive growth-promoting stimuli and negative stress stimuli. One stress cells confront in physiological and pathophysiological contexts is hyperosmotic stress. The mechanism by which hyperosmotic stress regulates mTORC1 activity is not well understood. We show here that mild hyperosmotic stress induces a rapid and reversible inactivation of mTORC1 via a mechanism involving multiple upstream signaling pathways. We find that hyperosmotic stress causes dynamic changes in TSC2 phosphorylation by upstream kinases, such as Akt, thereby recruiting TSC2 from the cytoplasm to lysosomes where it acts on Rheb, the direct activator of mTORC1. This work puts together a signaling pathway whereby hyperosmotic stress inactivates mTORC1.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and frequently results in prominent CNS manifestations, including epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. The TSC1/TSC2 protein complex plays a major role in controlling the Ser/Thr kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is a master regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study, we show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress regulates TSC1/TSC2 complex to limit mTOR activity. In addition, Tsc2-deficient rat hippocampal neurons and brain lysates from a Tsc1-deficient mouse model demonstrate both elevated ER and oxidative stress. In Tsc2-deficient neurons, the expression of stress markers such as CHOP and HO-1 is increased, and this increase is completely reversed by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin both in vitro and in vivo. Neurons lacking a functional TSC1/TSC2 complex have increased vulnerability to ER stress-induced cell death via the activation of the mitochondrial death pathway. Importantly, knockdown of CHOP reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis in Tsc2-deficient neurons. These observations indicate that ER stress modulates mTOR activity through the TSC protein complex and that ER stress is elevated in cells lacking this complex. They also suggest that some of the neuronal dysfunction and neurocognitive deficits seen in TSC patients may be attributable to ER and oxidative stress and therefore potentially responsive to agents moderating these pathways.
Project description:The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is well established as a key regulator of skeletal muscle size. In this study, we determined that the stress responsive gene REDD2 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses 2) is a negative regulator of mTOR signaling and is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of REDD2 in muscle cells significantly inhibited basal mTOR signaling and diminished the response of mTOR to leucine addition or mechanical stretch. The inhibitory function of REDD2 on mTOR signaling seems to be mediated downstream or independent of Akt signaling and upstream of Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain). Knock down of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) using small interfering (si)RNA potently activated mTOR signaling and was sufficient to rescue REDD2 inhibition of mTOR activity, suggesting that REDD2 functions by modulating TSC2 function. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that REDD2 does not directly interact with either TSC1 or TSC2. However, we found that REDD2 forms a complex with 14-3-3 protein and that increasing expression of REDD2 acts to competitively dissociate TSC2 from 14-3-3 and inhibits mTOR signaling. These findings demonstrate that REDD2 is a skeletal muscle specific inhibitory modulator of mTOR signaling and identify TSC2 and 14-3-3 as key molecular links between REDD2 and mTOR function.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Estrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play important roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. SirT1 is a highly conserved protein deacetylase that can regulate the insulin/IGF-1 signaling in lower organisms, as well as a growing number of transcription factors, including NF-kappaB, in mammalian cells. Whether SirT1 regulates the IGF-1 signaling for mammary gland development and function, however, is not clear. In the present study, this role of SirT1 was examined by studying SirT1-deficient mice.<h4>Methods</h4>SirT1-deficient (SirT1(ko/ko)) mice were generated by crossing a new strain of mice harboring a conditional targeted mutation in the SirT1 gene (SirT1(co/co)) with CMV-Cre transgenic mice. Whole mount and histology analyses, immunofluorescence staining, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were used to characterize mammary gland development in virgin and pregnant mice. The effect of exogenous estrogen was also examined by subcutaneous implantation of a slow-releasing pellet in the subscapular region.<h4>Results</h4>Both male and female SirT1(ko/ko) mice can be fertile despite the growth retardation phenotype. Virgin SirT1(ko/ko) mice displayed impeded ductal morphogenesis, whereas pregnant SirT1(ko/ko) mice manifested lactation failure due to an underdeveloped lobuloalveolar network. Estrogen implantation was sufficient to rescue ductal morphogenesis. Exogenous estrogen reversed the increased basal level of IGF-1 binding protein-1 expression in SirT1(ko/ko) mammary tissues, but not that of IkappaB alpha expression, suggesting that increased levels of estrogen enhanced the production of local IGF-1 and rescued ductal morphogenesis. Additionally, TNFalpha treatment enhanced the level of the newly synthesized IkappaB alpha in SirT1(ko/ko) cells. SirT1 deficiency therefore affects the cellular response to multiple extrinsic signals.<h4>Conclusion</h4>SirT1 modulates the IGF-1 signaling critical for both growth regulation and mammary gland development in mice. SirT1 deficiency deregulates the expression of IGF-1 binding protein-1 and attenuates the effect of IGF-1 signals, including estrogen-stimulated local IGF-1 signaling for the onset of ductal morphogenesis. These findings suggest that the enzymatic activity of SirT1 may influence both normal growth and malignant growth of mammary epithelial cells.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 is activated upon genotoxic and oxidative stress and in turn inhibits cell proliferation and growth through induction of specific target genes. Cell growth is positively regulated by mTOR, whose activity is inhibited by the TSC1:TSC2 complex. Although genotoxic stress has been suggested to inhibit mTOR via p53-mediated activation of mTOR inhibitors, the precise mechanism of this link was unknown. We now demonstrate that the products of two p53 target genes, Sestrin1 and Sestrin2, activate the AMP-responsive protein kinase (AMPK) and target it to phosphorylate TSC2 and stimulate its GAP activity, thereby inhibiting mTOR. Correspondingly, Sestrin2-deficient mice fail to inhibit mTOR signaling upon genotoxic challenge. Sestrin1 and Sestrin2 therefore provide an important link between genotoxic stress, p53 and the mTOR signaling pathway.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a commonly inherited renal disorder caused by defects in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. ADPKD is associated with significant morbidity, and is a major underlying cause of end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Commonly, treatment options are limited to the management of hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors, dialysis, and transplantation when ESRF develops, although several new pharmacotherapies, including rapamycin, have shown early promise in animal and human studies. Evidence implicates polycystin-1 (PC-1), the gene product of the PKD1 gene, in regulation of the mTOR pathway. Here we demonstrate a mechanism by which the intracellular, carboxy-terminal tail of polycystin-1 (CP1) regulates mTOR signaling by altering the subcellular localization of the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) tumor suppressor, a gatekeeper for mTOR activity. Phosphorylation of TSC2 at S939 by AKT causes partitioning of TSC2 away from the membrane, its GAP target Rheb, and its activating partner TSC1 to the cytosol via 14-3-3 protein binding. We found that TSC2 and a C-terminal polycystin-1 peptide (CP1) directly interact and that a membrane-tethered CP1 protects TSC2 from AKT phosphorylation at S939, retaining TSC2 at the membrane to inhibit the mTOR pathway. CP1 decreased binding of 14-3-3 proteins to TSC2 and increased the interaction between TSC2 and its activating partner TSC1. Interestingly, while membrane tethering of CP1 was required to activate TSC2 and repress mTOR, the ability of CP1 to inhibit mTOR signaling did not require primary cilia and was independent of AMPK activation. These data identify a unique mechanism for modulation of TSC2 repression of mTOR signaling via membrane retention of this tumor suppressor, and identify PC-1 as a regulator of this downstream component of the PI3K signaling cascade.