The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on intracellular calcium homeostasis in human endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular effects of estrogen are mediated in part by augmenting the function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity is dependent on many cofactors including Ca(2+). Hence, we investigated the effect of chronic 17 beta-estradiol treatment on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the human endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, using spectrofluorometry and Western blot, respectively. Inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase with thapsigargin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was higher in chronically 17 beta-estradiol-treated (1muM, 24h) cells loaded with Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester compared to vehicle-treated cells, suggesting a higher endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content in 17 beta-estradiol-treated cells. An enhanced Ca(2+) influx pathway in chronically 17 beta-estradiol-treated cells was also observed. In addition, 17 beta-estradiol-treated cells expressed higher levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein in comparison to vehicle-treated cells. The chronic effect of 17 beta-estradiol on Ca(2+) homeostasis and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was attenuated with the nonselective estrogen receptor inhibitor, ICI 182,780 (10muM, 7alpha, 17beta-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-Pentafluoropentyl)sulfinyl]nonyl] estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol). Furthermore, analysis of the thapsigargin-evoked Ca(2+) response in chronically 17 beta-estradiol-treated estrogen receptor alpha-knockdown cells showed no significant difference in Ca(2+) response compared to vehicle-treated estrogen receptor alpha-knockdown cells, indicating that the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis by 17 beta-estradiol is mediated through an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent pathway. These data revealed an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis accompanying the enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in 17 beta-estradiol-treated human endothelial cells.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have indicated that postmenopausal women have a higher incidence of intracranial aneurysms than men in the same age group.To investigate whether estrogen or estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate protective effects against the formation of intracranial aneurysms.Intracranial aneurysms were induced in mice by combining a single injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid with deoxycorticosterone acetate salt hypertension. The mice were treated with estrogen (17?-estradiol), an ER? agonist (propyl pyrazole triol), and an ER? agonist (diarylpropionitrile) with and without a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.The ovariectomized female mice had a significantly higher incidence of aneurysms than the male mice, which was consistent with findings in previous epidemiological studies. In ovariectomized female mice, an ER? agonist, but not an ER? agonist or 17?-estradiol, significantly reduced the incidence of aneurysms. The protective effect of the ER? agonist was absent in the ovariectomized ER? knockout mice. The protective effect of the ER? agonist was negated by treatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.The effects of sex, menopause, and estrogen treatment observed in this animal study were consistent with previous epidemiological findings. Stimulation of estrogen receptor-? was protective against the formation of intracranial aneurysms in ovariectomized female mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has been shown that the activation of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) plays an important cardioprotective role against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism for this protection is not clear. We hypothesize that estrogen protects by ER-beta activation, which leads to S-nitrosylation (SNO) of key cardioprotective proteins. METHODS AND RESULTS:We treated ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice with the ER-beta selective agonist 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-proprionitrile (DPN), 17beta-estradiol (E2), or vehicle using Alzet minipumps for 2 weeks. Isolated hearts were Langendorff perfused and subjected to ischemia and reperfusion. Compared with vehicle-treated hearts, DPN- and E2-treated hearts had significantly better postischemic functional recovery and decreased infarct size. To test the specificity of DPN, we treated ER-beta-knockout mice with DPN. However, no cardioprotective effect of DPN was found in ER-beta-knockout mice, indicating that the DPN-induced cardioprotection occurs through the activation of ER-beta. Using DyLight-maleimide fluors and a modified biotin switch method, we used a 2-dimensional DyLight fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis proteomic method to quantify differences in SNO of proteins. DPN- and E2-treated hearts showed an increase in SNO of a number of proteins. Interestingly, many of these proteins also had been shown to have increased SNO in preconditioned hearts. In addition, the DPN-induced cardioprotection and increased SNO were abolished by treatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS:The activation of ER-beta by DPN treatment leads to increased protein SNO and cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, suggesting that long-term estrogen exposure protects hearts largely via activation of ER-beta and nitric oxide/SNO signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Raloxifene improves cardiovascular function. This study examines the hypothesis that therapeutic concentrations of raloxifene augment endothelium-dependent relaxation via up-regulation of eNOS expression and activity in porcine coronary arteries. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Isometric tension was measured in rings from isolated arteries. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in arterial endothelial cells were detected by Ca(2+) fluorescence imaging. Phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-1177 was assayed by Western blot analysis. KEY RESULTS: In arterial rings pre-contracted with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methano-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619), treatment with raloxifene (1-3 nM) augmented bradykinin- or substance P-induced relaxation and this effect was antagonized by ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist. The enhanced relaxation was abolished in rings treated with inhibitors of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-dependent dilation, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) plus 1H-[1,2,4]oxadizolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In contrast, effects of raloxifene were unaffected after inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors by charybdotoxin plus apamin. Raloxifene (3 nM) did not influence endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. 17beta-Estradiol (3-10 nM) also enhanced bradykinin-induced relaxation, which was inhibited by ICI 182,780. Treatment with raloxifene (3 nM) did not affect bradykinin-stimulated rise in endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i). Raloxifene, 17beta-estradiol, and bradykinin increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and ICI 182,780 prevented effects of raloxifene or 17beta-estradiol but not that of bradykinin. Raloxifene had neither additive nor antagonistic effects on 17beta-estradiol-induced eNOS phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Raloxifene in therapeutically relevant concentrations augmented endothelial function in porcine coronary arteries in vitro through ICI 182,780-sensitive mechanisms that were associated with increased phosphorylation of eNOS but independent of changes in endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i).
Project description:Although sex differences in asthma severity are recognized, the mechanisms by which sex steroids such as estrogen influence the airway are still under investigation. Airway tone, a key aspect of asthma, represents a balance between bronchoconstriction and dilation. Nitric oxide (NO) from the bronchial epithelium is an endogenous bronchodilator. We hypothesized that estrogens facilitate bronchodilation by generating NO in bronchial epithelium. In acutely dissociated human bronchial epithelial cells from female patients exposure to 17?-estradiol (E(2); 10 pM-100 nM) resulted in rapid increase of diaminofluorescein fluorescence (NO indicator) within minutes, comparable with that induced by ATP (20 ?M). Estrogen receptor (ER) isoform-specific agonists (R,R)-5,11-diethyl-5,6,11,12-tetrahydro-2,8-chrysenediol (THC) (ER?) and diaryl-propionitrile (DPN) (ER?) stimulated NO production to comparable levels and at comparable rates, whereas the ER antagonist 7?,17?-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentyl)sulfinyl]nonyl]estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol (ICI 182,780) (1 ?M) was inhibitory. Estrogen effects on NO were mediated via caveolin-1 (blocked using the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide) and by increased intracellular calcium concentration [prevented by 20 ?M 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester but not by blocking Ca(2+) influx using LaCl(3)]. Estrogen increased endothelial NO synthase activation (inhibited by 100 ?M N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester) and phosphorylated Akt. In epithelium-intact human bronchial rings contracted with acetylcholine (1 ?M), E(2), THC, and DPN all produced acute bronchodilation in a dose-dependent fashion. Such bronchodilatory effects were substantially reduced by epithelial denudation. Overall, these data indicate that estrogens, acting via ER? or ER?, can acutely produce NO in airway epithelium (akin to vascular endothelium). Estrogen-induced NO and its impairment may contribute to altered bronchodilation in women with asthma.
Project description:The dysfunction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase may be involved in development of atherosclerosis; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of atherosclerosis are poorly understood. Here, we investigated gene expressionsin relation to atherosclerosis using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-deficient mice. Overall design: 3 samples of aorta from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-deficient mice were compared with 3 samples of aorta from age-matched normal mouse controls
Project description:Cardiovascular benefits from estradiol activation of nitric oxide endothelial production may depend on vascular wall and on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) polymorphisms. We have evaluated the microcirculation in vivo through nailfold videocapillaroscopy, before and after acute nasal estradiol administration at baseline and after increased sheer stress (postocclusive reactive hyperemia response) in 100 postmenopausal women, being 70 controls (healthy) and 30 simultaneously hypertensive and diabetic (HD), correlating their responses to PvuII and XbaI ESR1 polymorphisms and to VNTR, T-786C and G894T NOS3 variants. In HD women, C variant allele of ESR1 Pvull was associated to higher vasodilatation after estradiol (1.72 vs 1.64 mm/s, p?=?0.01 compared to TT homozygotes) while G894T and T-786C NOS3 polymorphisms were connected to lower increment after shear stress (15% among wild type and 10% among variant alleles, p?=?0.02 and 0.04). The G variant allele of ESR1 XbaI polymorphism was associated to higher HOMA-IR (3.54 vs. 1.64, p?=?0.01) in HD and higher glucose levels in healthy women (91.8 vs. 87.1 mg/dl, p?=?0.01), in which increased waist and HOMA-IR were also related to the G allele in NOS3 G894T (waist 93.5 vs 88.2 cm, p?=?0.02; HOMA-IR 2.89 vs 1.48, p?=?0.05). ESR1 Pvull, NOS3 G894T and T-786C polymorphism analysis may be considered in HD postmenopausal women for endothelial response prediction following estrogen therapy but were not discriminatory for endothelial response in healthy women. ESR1 XbaI and G894T NOS3 polymorphisms may be useful in accessing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes risks in all women, even before menopause and occurrence of metabolic disease.
Project description:Estrogens promote bone health in part by increasing osteocyte survival, an effect that requires activation of the protein kinases Akt and ERK1/2, but the molecular mechanisms involved are only partly understood. Because estrogens increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and NO can have anti-apoptotic effects, we examined the role of NO/cGMP signaling in estrogen regulation of osteocyte survival. Etoposide-induced death of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells, assessed by trypan blue staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL assays, was completely prevented when cells were pre-treated with 17?-estradiol. This protective effect was mimicked when cells were pre-treated with a membrane-permeable cGMP analog and blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of NO synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, or cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), supporting a requirement for NO/cGMP/PKG signaling downstream of 17?-estradiol. siRNA-mediated knockdown and viral reconstitution of individual PKG isoforms demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of estradiol and cGMP were mediated by PKG I? and PKG II. Akt and ERK1/2 activation by 17?-estradiol required PKG II, and cGMP mimicked the effects of estradiol on Akt and ERK, including induction of ERK nuclear translocation. cGMP induced BAD phosphorylation on several sites, and experiments with phosphorylation-deficient BAD mutants demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of cGMP and 17?-estradiol required BAD phosphorylation on Ser(136) and Ser(155); these sites were targeted by Akt and PKG I, respectively, and regulate BAD interaction with Bcl-2. In conclusion, 17?-estradiol protects osteocytes against apoptosis by activating the NO/cGMP/PKG cascade; PKG II is required for estradiol-induced activation of ERK and Akt, and PKG I? contributes to pro-survival signaling by directly phosphorylating BAD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinical observations suggest that anaphylaxis is more common in adult women compared with adult men, although the mechanistic basis for this sex bias is not well understood. OBJECTIVES:We sought to document sex-dependent differences in a mouse model of anaphylaxis and explore the role of female sex hormones and the mechanisms responsible. METHODS:Passive systemic anaphylaxis was induced in female and male mice by using histamine, as well as IgE or IgG receptor aggregation. Anaphylaxis was assessed by monitoring body temperature, release of mast cell mediators and/or hematocrit, and lung weight as a measure of vascular permeability. A combination of ovariectomy, estrogen receptor antagonism, and estrogen administration techniques were used to establish estrogen involvement. RESULTS:Anaphylactic responses were more pronounced in female than male mice. The enhanced severity of anaphylaxis in female mice was eliminated after pretreatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist or ovariectomy but restored after administration of estradiol in ovariectomized mice, demonstrating that the sex-specific differences are due to the female steroid estradiol. Estrogen did not affect mast cell responsiveness or anaphylaxis onset. Instead, it increased tissue expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Blockage of NOS activity with the inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester or genetic eNOS deficiency abolished the sex-related differences. CONCLUSION:Our study defines a contribution of estrogen through its regulation of eNOS expression and nitric oxide production to vascular hyperpermeability and intensified anaphylactic responses in female mice, providing additional mechanistic insights into risk factors and possible implications for clinical management in the further exploration of human anaphylaxis.
Project description:Cells mobilized from the bone marrow can contribute to endothelial regeneration and repair. Nevertheless, cardiovascular diseases are associated with diminished numbers and function of these cells, attenuating their healing potential. Gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can restore the activity of circulating cells. Furthermore, estrogen accelerates the reendothelialization capacity of early outgrowth cells (EOCs). We hypothesized that overexpressing eNOS alone or in combination with estrogen stimulation in EOCs would potentiate the beneficial effects of these cells in regulating smooth muscle cell (SMC) function. Native human EOCs did not have any effect on human coronary artery SMC (hCASMC) proliferation or migration. Transfecting EOCs with a human eNOS plasmid and/or stimulating with 17?-estradiol (E2) increased NO production 3-fold and enhanced EOC survival. Moreover, in co-culture studies, eNOS overexpressing or E2-stimulated EOCs reduced hCASMC migration (by 23% and 56% respectively), vs. control EOCs. These effects do not implicate ERK1/2 or focal adhesion kinases. Nevertheless, NOS-EOCs had no effect on hCASMC proliferation. These results suggest that overexpressing or activating eNOS in EOCs increases their survival and enhances their capacity to regulate SMC migration through paracrine effects. These data elucidate how eNOS overexpression or activation in EOCs can prevent vascular remodeling.
Project description:Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca(2+) leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (?-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When ?-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent evidence has indicated that CaMKII activation can be regulated by cellular oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigate how the cellular second messenger, nitric oxide, mediates CaMKII activity downstream of the adrenergic signaling cascade and promotes the generation of arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in intact cardiomyocytes. Both SCaWs and SR Ca(2+) leak were measured in intact rabbit and mouse ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca-dependent fluorescent dye, fluo-4. CaMKII activity in vitro and immunoblotting for phosphorylated residues on CaMKII, nitric oxide synthase, and Akt were measured to confirm activity of these enzymes as part of the adrenergic cascade. We demonstrate that stimulation of the ?-AR pathway by isoproterenol increased the CaMKII-dependent SR Ca(2+) leak. This increased leak was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 but not nitric oxide synthase 3. In ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mice, isoproterenol stimulation also increased the CaMKII-dependent leak. Critically, in myocytes isolated from nitric oxide synthase 1 knock-out mice this effect is ablated. We show that isoproterenol stimulation leads to an increase in nitric oxide production, and nitric oxide alone is sufficient to activate CaMKII and increase SR Ca(2+) leak. Mechanistically, our data links Akt to nitric oxide synthase 1 activation downstream of ?-AR stimulation. Collectively, this evidence supports the hypothesis that CaMKII is regulated by nitric oxide as part of the adrenergic cascade leading to arrhythmogenesis.