Endothelial cell responses to atheroprone flow are driven by two separate flow components: low time-average shear stress and fluid flow reversal.
ABSTRACT: To simulate the effects of shear stress in regions of the vasculature prone to developing atherosclerosis, we subjected human umbilical vein endothelial cells to reversing shear stress to mimic the hemodynamic conditions at the wall of the carotid sinus, a site of complex, reversing blood flow and commonly observed atherosclerosis. We compared the effects of reversing shear stress (time-average: 1 dyn/cm(2), maximum: +11 dyn/cm(2), minimum: -11 dyn/cm(2), 1 Hz), arterial steady shear stress (15 dyn/cm(2)), and low steady shear stress (1 dyn/cm(2)) on gene expression, cell proliferation, and monocyte adhesiveness. Microarray analysis revealed that most differentially expressed genes were similarly regulated by all three shear stress regimens compared with static culture. Comparisons of the three shear stress regimens to each other identified 138 genes regulated by low average shear stress and 22 genes regulated by fluid reversal. Low average shear stress induced increased cell proliferation compared with high shear stress. Only reversing shear stress exposure induced monocyte adhesion. The adhesion of monocytes was partially inhibited by the incubation of endothelial cells with ICAM-1 blocking antibody. Increased heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression was observed on the surface of cells exposed to reversing shear stress. Heparinase III treatment significantly reduced monocyte adhesion. Our results suggest that low steady shear stress is the major impetus for differential gene expression and cell proliferation, whereas reversing flow regulates monocyte adhesion.
Project description:In order to simulate the effects of shear stress in regions of the vasculature prone to developing atherosclerosis, we subjected human umbilical vein endothelial cells to reversing shear stress, in order to mimic hemodynamic conditions at the wall of the carotid sinus, a site of complex, reversing blood flow and commonly observed atherosclerosis. We compared the effects of reversing shear stress (time-average 1 dyne/cm2, maximum +11 dynes/cm2, minimum -11 dynes/cm2, 1 Hz), arterial steady shear stress (15 dynes/cm2), and low steady shear stress (1 dyne/cm2) in terms of gene expression, cell proliferation, and monocyte adhesiveness. Microarray analysis revealed most differentially expressed genes were similarly regulated by all three shear stress regimens when compared to static culture. Comparisons of the three shear stress regimens to each other allowed identification of 138 genes regulated by low average shear stress and 22 by fluid reversal. Functional assays indicated that low average shear stress induces increased cell proliferation as compared to high shear stress. Reversing shear stress was the only condition that induced monocyte adhesion. Monocyte adhesion was partially inhibited by incubation of the endothelial cells with ICAM-1 blocking antibody. Increased surface heparin sulfate proteoglycan expression was observed in cells exposed to reversing shear stress. When these cells were treated with heparinase III monocyte adhesion was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that low steady shear stress is the major impetus for differential gene expression and cell proliferation, while reversing flow regulates monocyte adhesion. Overall design: Gene expression in endothelial cells was measured after 24 hours of exposure to 15 dyne/cm2 steady shear stress, 1 dyne/cm2 steady shear stress, reversing flow, or static culture. Three independent experiments were performed using different lots of endothelial cells each time.
Project description:This study describes the effect of zinc on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under different shear stress regimens, which may trigger atherogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to steady shear stress (15 dynes/cm(2) or 1 dyne/cm(2)) or reversing shear stress (time average 1 dyne/cm(2)) for 24 h. In all shear stress regimes, zinc deficiency enhanced THP-1 cell adhesion, while heparinase III reduced monocyte adhesion following reversing shear stress exposure. Unlike other shear stress regimes, reversing shear stress alone enhanced monocyte adhesion, which may be associated with increased H(2)O(2) and superoxide together with relatively low levels of nitric oxide (NO) production. L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment increased monocyte adhesion under 15 dynes/cm(2) and under reversing shear stress. After reversing shear stress, monocyte adhesion dramatically increased with heparinase III treatment followed by a zinc scavenger. Static culture experiments supported the reduction of monocyte adhesion by zinc following endothelial cell cytokine activation. These results suggest that endothelial cell zinc levels are important for the inhibition of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and may be one of the key factors in the early stages of atherogenesis.
Project description:Endothelial adhesion is necessary for the hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells. However, the metastatic breast tumor cell MDA-MB-231 does not bind to the endothelium under physiological flow conditions, suggesting alternate mechanisms of adhesion. Since monocytes are highly represented in the tumor microenvironment, and also bind to endothelium during inflammation, we hypothesized that the monocytes assist in the arrest of MDA-MB-231 on the endothelium. Using in vitro models of the dynamic shear environment of the vasculature, we show that TNF-?-activated THP1/primary human monocytes and MDA-MB-231 cells form stable aggregates, and that the monocytes in these aggregates mediate the adhesion of otherwise nonadherent MDA-MB-231 cells to inflamed endothelium under flow (55±2.4 vs. 1.7±0.82 at a shear stress of 0.5 dyn/cm(2), P<0.01). We also show that the hydrodynamic forces determine the size and orientation of aggregates adhered to the endothelium, and strongly favor the attachment of small aggregates with tumor cells downstream of flow (74-86% doublets at 0.5-2 dyn/cm(2), P<0.01). The 5-fold up-regulation of ICAM-1 on TNF-?-activated MDA-MB-231 cells through the Nf-?B pathway was found to be critical in MDA-MB-231-monocyte aggregation and endothelial adhesion. Our results demonstrate that, under inflammatory conditions, monocytes may serve to disseminate tumor cells through circulation, and the tumor-monocyte-endothelial axis may represent a new therapeutic target to reduce cancer metastasis.
Project description:The objective of this study was to advance the understanding of how in vivo arterial shear forces affect vascular endothelial gene expression. Complicated blood flow patterns at arterial branches create small regions that experience fluctuations in shear stress at frequencies higher than the heart rate. To assess whether such temporal variations in shear stress can affect endothelial gene expression, a series of in vitro microarray experiments was performed. The effects of three sinusoidal waveforms (1, 2, and 3 Hz) and one physiological waveform were compared to the expression profiles under steady flow. At each frequency, three levels of mean shear stress (0, 7.5, and 15 dyn/cm2) were used. Porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed for 24 hours to each combination, replicated four times. Following shear exposure, phase contrast images of the cells were acquired, and RNA was extracted for microarray analysis against about 10,000 porcine oligonucleotides. Cell alignment with the flow was positively correlated with mean shear (p < 0.001) and independent of frequency. A two-way ANOVA identified 232 genes that were differentially regulated by frequency. The frequency sensitive genes were clustered to identify groups of genes exhibiting similar frequency responses. The largest response was seen at 2 Hz. At this frequency, several inflammatory molecules were upregulated, including VCAM, CTGF, TGF-beta2, c-jun, and IL-8, indicating a potential endothelial atherosusceptibility at this frequency. Mean shear significantly affected the expression of ~3,000 genes. Purely oscillatory flow (zero mean shear) enhanced the expression of several growth factors and adhesion molecules (E-selectin, VCAM, MCP-1, IL-8, c-jun), relative to non-reversing flow (15 dyn/cm2 mean shear). The 2 Hz upregulation of certain atherogenic molecules such as VCAM, c-jun, and IL-8 was enhanced as the mean shear was reduced. Thus, the inflammatory response evoked at certain frequencies appears to be exacerbated by low, oscillatory shear. Keywords: Shear stress response Overall design: Endothelial cells were exposed to 3 levels of mean shear stress: 0, 7.5, and 15 dyn/cm^2. At each mean level, 5 shear stress waveforms were tested: steady, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, and a physiological waveform. The amplitude of oscillation in each case was +/- 15 dyn/cm^2. Four replicates of each condition were performed for a total of 60 experiments. Each experimental sample was hybridized to an oligonucleotide array along with a standard reference sample.
Project description:Selectin-ligand interactions mediate tethering and rolling of circulating leukocytes on the vessel wall during inflammation. Extensive study has been devoted to elucidating the kinetic and mechanical constraints of receptor-ligand-interaction-mediated leukocyte adhesion, yet many questions remain unanswered. Here, we describe our design of an inverted flow chamber to compare adhesions of HL-60 cells to E-selectin in the upright and inverted orientations. This new, to our knowledge, design allowed us to evaluate the effect of gravity and to investigate the mechanisms of flow-enhanced adhesion. Cell rolling in the two orientations was qualitatively similar, and the quantitative differences can be explained by the effect of gravity, which promotes free-flowing cells to tether and detached cells to reattach to the surface in the upright orientation but prevents such attachment from happening in the inverted orientation. We characterized rolling stability by the lifetime of rolling adhesion and detachment of rolling cells, which could be easily measured in the inverted orientation, but not in the upright orientation because of the reattachment of transiently detached cells. Unlike the transient tether lifetime of E-selectin-ligand interaction, which exhibited triphasic slip-catch-slip bonds, the lifetime of rolling adhesion displayed a biphasic trend that first increased with the wall shear stress, reached a maximum at 0.4 dyn/cm(2), and then decreased gradually. We have developed a minimal mathematical model for the probability of rolling adhesion. Comparison of the theoretical predictions to data has provided model validation and allowed evaluation of the effective two-dimensional association on-rate, kon, and the binding affinity, Ka, of the E-selectin-ligand interaction. kon increased with the wall shear stress from 0.1 to 0.7 dyn/cm(2). Ka first increased with the wall shear stress, reached a maximum at 0.4 dyn/cm(2), and then decreased gradually. Our results provide insights into how the interplay between flow-dependent on-rate and off-rate of E-selectin-ligand bonds determine flow-enhanced cell rolling stability.
Project description:Physical force environment is a major factor that influences cellular homeostasis and remodelling. It is not well understood, however, as a potential role of force intensities in the induction of cellular mechanotransduction. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach, we asked whether activities of GTPase RhoA in chondrocytes are dependent on intensities of flow-induced shear stress. We hypothesized that RhoA activities can be either elevated or reduced by selecting different levels of shear-stress intensities. The result indicates that C28/I2 chondrocytes have increased RhoA activities in response to high shear stress (10 or 20?dyn/cm(2) ), whereas a decrease in activity was seen with an intermediate shear stress of 5?dyn/cm(2) . No changes were seen under low shear stress (2?dyn/cm(2) ). The observed two-level switch of RhoA activities is closely linked to the shear-stress-induced alterations in actin cytoskeleton and traction forces. In the presence of constitutively active RhoA (RhoA-V14), intermediate shear stress suppressed RhoA activities, while high shear stress failed to activate them. In chondrocytes, expression of various metalloproteinases is, in part, regulated by shear and normal stresses through a network of GTPases. Collectively, the data suggest that intensities of shear stress are critical in differential activation and inhibition of RhoA activities in chondrocytes.
Project description:Cells respond to fluid shear stress through dynamic processes involving changes in actomyosin and other cytoskeletal stresses, remodeling of cell adhesions, and cytoskeleton reorganization. In this study we simultaneously measured focal adhesion dynamics and cytoskeletal stress and reorganization in MDCK cells under fluid shear stress. The measurements used co-expression of fluorescently labeled paxillin and force sensitive FRET probes of ?-actinin. A shear stress of 0.74 dyn/cm(2) for 3 hours caused redistribution of cytoskeletal tension and significant focal adhesion remodeling. The fate of focal adhesions is determined by the stress state and stability of the linked actin stress fibers. In the interior of the cell, the mature focal adhesions disassembled within 35-40 min under flow and stress fibers disintegrated. Near the cell periphery, the focal adhesions anchoring the stress fibers perpendicular to the cell periphery disassembled, while focal adhesions associated with peripheral fibers sustained. The diminishing focal adhesions are coupled with local cytoskeletal stress release and actin stress fiber disassembly whereas sustaining peripheral focal adhesions are coupled with an increase in stress and enhancement of actin bundles. The results show that flow induced formation of peripheral actin bundles provides a favorable environment for focal adhesion remodeling along the cell periphery. Under such condition, new FAs were observed along the cell edge under flow. Our results suggest that the remodeling of FAs in epithelial cells under flow is orchestrated by actin cytoskeletal stress redistribution and structural reorganization.
Project description:The migration of lymphocytes into inflammatory tissue requires the migrating cell to overcome mechanical forces produced by blood flow. A generally accepted hypothesis is that these forces are overcome by a multistep sequence of adhesive interactions between lymphocytes and endothelial cells. This hypothesis has been recently challenged by results demonstrating wall shear stress on the order of 20 dyn/cm(2) in vivo and infrequent lymphocyte-endothelial adhesion at wall shear stress >1-2 dyn/cm(2) in vitro. Here, we show that lymphocyte slowing and transmigration in the skin is associated with microangiectasias, i.e., focal structural dilatations of microvessel segments. Microangiectasias are inducible within 4 days of the onset of inflammation and lead to a greater than 10-fold local reduction in wall shear stress. These findings support the hypothesis that a preparatory step to lymphocyte transmigration involves structural adaptations in the inflammatory microcirculation.
Project description:L-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling has been proposed to require a high rate of bond formation compared to that of P-selectin to compensate for its much higher off-rate. To test this hypothesis, a microbead system was utilized to measure relative L-selectin and P-selectin bond formation rates on their common ligand P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) under shear flow. Using video microscopy, we tracked selectin-coated microbeads to detect the formation frequency of adhesive tether bonds. From velocity distributions of noninteracting and interacting microbeads, we observed that tether bond formation rates for P-selectin on PSGL-1 decreased with increasing wall shear stress, from 0.14 +/- 0.04 bonds/microm at 0.2 dyn/cm(2) to 0.014 +/- 0.003 bonds/microm at 1.0 dyn/cm(2). In contrast, L-selectin tether bond formation increased from 0.017 +/- 0.005 bonds/microm at 0.2 dyn/cm(2) to 0.031 +/- 0.005 bonds/microm at 1.0 dyn/cm(2). L-selectin tether bond formation rates appeared to be enhanced by convective transport, whereas P-selectin rates were inhibited. The transition force for the L-selectin catch-slip transition of 44 pN/bond agreed well with theoretical models (Pereverzev et al. 2005. Biophys. J. 89:1446-1454). Despite catch bond behavior, hydrodymanic shear thresholding was not detected with L-selectin beads rolling on PSGL-1. We speculate that shear flow generated compressive forces may enhance L-selectin bond formation relative to that of P-selectin and that L-selectin bonds with PSGL-1 may be tuned for the compressive forces characteristic of leukocyte-leukocyte collisions during secondary capture on the blood vessel wall. This is the first report, to our knowledge, comparing L-selectin and P-selectin bond formation frequencies in shear flow.
Project description:Leukemic cells and human hematopoietic progenitor cells expressing CD44 receptors have the ability to attach and roll on hyaluronan. We investigated quantitatively the adhesion behavior of leukemic cell lines and hematopoietic progenitor cells on thin films of the polysaccharides hyaluronan and alginate in a microfluidic system. An applied flow enhances the interaction between CD44-positive cells and hyaluronan if a threshold shear stress of 0.2 dyn/cm(2) is exceeded. At shear stress ?1 dyn/cm(2), the cell rolling speed reaches a maximum of 15 ?m/s. Leukemic Jurkat and Kasumi-1 cells lacking CD44-expression showed no adhesion or rolling on the polysaccharides whereas the CD44-expressing leukemic cells KG-1a, HL-60, K-562, and hematopoietic progenitor cells attached and rolled on hyaluronan. Interestingly, the observations of flow-induced cell rolling are related to those found in the recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites and the mechanisms of stem-cell homing into the bone marrow.