Structural analysis of the ribosome-associated complex (RAC) reveals an unusual Hsp70/Hsp40 interaction.
ABSTRACT: Yeast Zuotin and Ssz are members of the conserved Hsp40 and Hsp70 chaperone families, respectively, but compared with canonical homologs, they atypically form a stable heterodimer termed ribosome-associated complex (RAC). RAC acts as co-chaperone for another Hsp70 to assist de novo protein folding. In this study, we identified the molecular basis for the unusual Hsp70/Hsp40 pairing using amide hydrogen exchange (HX) coupled with mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. Association of Ssz with Zuotin strongly decreased the conformational dynamics mainly in the C-terminal domain of Ssz, whereas Zuotin acquired strong conformational stabilization in its N-terminal segment. Deletion of the highly flexible N terminus of Zuotin abolished stable association with Ssz in vitro and caused a phenotype resembling the loss of Ssz function in vivo. Thus, the C-terminal domain of Ssz, the N-terminal extension of Zuotin, and their mutual stabilization are the major structural determinants for RAC assembly. We furthermore found dynamic changes in the J-domain of Zuotin upon complex formation that might be crucial for RAC co-chaperone function. Taken together, we present a novel mechanism for converting Zuotin and Ssz chaperones into a functionally active dimer.
Project description:Soluble Hsp70 homologs cotranslationally interact with nascent polypeptides in all kingdoms of life. In addition, fungi possess a specialized Hsp70 system attached to ribosomes, which in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of the Hsp70 homologs Ssb1/2p, Ssz1p, and the Hsp40 homolog zuotin. Ssz1p and zuotin are assembled into a unique heterodimeric complex termed ribosome-associated complex. So far, no such specialized chaperones have been identified on ribosomes of higher eukaryotes. However, a family of proteins characterized by an N-terminal zuotin-homology domain fused to a C-terminal two-repeat Myb domain is present in animals and plants. Members of this family, like human MPP11 and mouse MIDA1, have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth. Specific targets of MPP11/MIDA1, however, have remained elusive. Here, we report that MPP11 is localized to the cytosol and associates with ribosomes. Purification of MPP11 revealed that it forms a stable complex with Hsp70L1, a distantly related homolog of Ssz1p. Complementation experiments indicate that mammalian ribosome-associated complex is functional in yeast. We conclude that despite a low degree of homology on the amino acid level cooperation of ribosome-associated chaperones with the translational apparatus is well conserved in eukaryotic cells.
Project description:The J-domain protein Zuotin is a multi-domain eukaryotic Hsp70 co-chaperone. Though it is primarily ribosome-associated, positioned at the exit of the 60S subunit tunnel where it promotes folding of nascent polypeptide chains, Zuotin also has off-ribosome functions. Domains of Zuotin needed for 60S association and interaction with Hsp70 are conserved in eukaryotes. However, whether the 4-helix bundle (4HB) domain is conserved remains an open question. We undertook evolutionary and structural approaches to clarify this issue. We found that the 4HB segment of human Zuotin also forms a bundle of 4 helices. The positive charge of Helix I, which in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is responsible for interaction with the 40S subunit, is particularly conserved. However, the C-termini of fungal and human 4HBs are not similar. In fungi the C-terminal segment forms a plug that folds back into the bundle; in S. cerevisiae it plays an important role in bundle stability and, off the ribosome, in transcriptional activation. In human, C-terminal helix IV of the 4HB is extended, protruding from the bundle. This extension serves as a linker to the regulatory SANT domains, which are present in animals, plants and protists, but not fungi. Further analysis of Zuotin sequences revealed that the plug likely arose as a result of genomic rearrangement upon SANT domain loss early in the fungal lineage. In the lineage leading to S. cerevisiae, the 4HB was subjected to positive selection with the plug becoming increasingly hydrophobic. Eventually, these hydrophobic plug residues were coopted for a novel regulatory function-activation of a recently emerged transcription factor, Pdr1. Our data suggests that Zuotin evolved off-ribosome functions twice-once involving SANT domains, then later in fungi, after SANT domain loss, by coopting the hydrophobic plug. Zuotin serves as an example of complex intertwining of molecular chaperone function and cell regulation.
Project description:The conserved ribosome-associated complex (RAC) consisting of Zuo1 (Hsp40) and Ssz1 (non-canonical Hsp70) acts together with the ribosome-bound Hsp70 chaperone Ssb in de novo protein folding at the ribosomal tunnel exit. Current models suggest that the function of Ssz1 is confined to the support of Zuo1, however, it is not known whether RAC by itself serves as a chaperone for nascent chains. Here we show that, via its rudimentary substrate binding domain (SBD), Ssz1 directly binds to emerging nascent chains prior to Ssb. Structural and biochemical analyses identify a conserved LP-motif at the Zuo1 N-terminus forming a polyproline-II helix, which binds to the Ssz1-SBD as a pseudo-substrate. The LP-motif competes with nascent chain binding to the Ssz1-SBD and modulates nascent chain transfer. The combined data indicate that Ssz1 is an active chaperone optimized for transient, low-affinity substrate binding, which ensures the flux of nascent chains through RAC/Ssb.
Project description:Regulatory protein interactions are commonly attributed to lock-and-key associations that bring interacting domains together. However, studies in some systems suggest that regulation is not achieved by binding interactions alone. We report our investigations on specific physical characteristics required of the Hsp40 J-domain to stimulate ATP hydrolysis in the Hsp40-Hsp70 molecular chaperone machine. Biophysical analysis using isothermal titration calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals the importance of helix rigidity for the maintenance of Hsp40 function. Our results suggest that the functional J-domain acts like a semi-elliptical spring, wherein the resistance to bending upon binding to the Hsp70 ATPase modulates the ATPase domain conformational change and promotes ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:Yeast Hsp104 is a ring-forming ATP-dependent protein disaggregase that, together with the cognate Hsp70 chaperone system, has the remarkable ability to rescue stress-damaged proteins from a previously aggregated state. Both upstream and downstream functions for the Hsp70 system have been reported, but it remains unclear how Hsp70/Hsp40 is coupled to Hsp104 protein remodeling activity. Hsp104 is a multidomain protein that possesses an N-terminal domain, an M-domain, and two tandem AAA(+) domains. The M-domain forms an 85-A long coiled coil and is a hallmark of the Hsp104 chaperone family. While the three-dimensional structure of Hsp104 has been determined, the function of the M-domain is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the M-domain is essential for protein disaggregation, but dispensable for Hsp104 ATPase- and substrate-translocating activities. Remarkably, replacing the Hsp104 M-domain with that of bacterial ClpB, and vice versa, switches species specificity so that our chimeras now cooperate with the noncognate Hsp70/DnaK chaperone system. Our results demonstrate that the M-domain controls Hsp104 protein remodeling activities in an Hsp70/Hsp40-dependent manner, which is required to unleash Hsp104 protein disaggregating activity.
Project description:The chaperone function of the mammalian 70-kDa heat shock proteins Hsc70 and Hsp70 is modulated by physical interactions with four previously identified chaperone cofactors: Hsp40, BAG-1, the Hsc70-interacting protein Hip, and the Hsc70-Hsp90-organizing protein Hop. Hip and Hop interact with Hsc70 via a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. In a search for additional tetratricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, we have identified a novel 35-kDa cytoplasmic protein, carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP). CHIP is highly expressed in adult striated muscle in vivo and is expressed broadly in vitro in tissue culture. Hsc70 and Hsp70 were identified as potential interaction partners for this protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In vitro binding assays demonstrated direct interactions between CHIP and both Hsc70 and Hsp70, and complexes containing CHIP and Hsc70 were identified in immunoprecipitates of human skeletal muscle cells in vivo. Using glutathione S-transferase fusions, we found that CHIP interacted with the carboxy-terminal residues 540 to 650 of Hsc70, whereas Hsc70 interacted with the amino-terminal residues 1 to 197 (containing the tetratricopeptide domain and an adjacent charged domain) of CHIP. Recombinant CHIP inhibited Hsp40-stimulated ATPase activity of Hsc70 and Hsp70, suggesting that CHIP blocks the forward reaction of the Hsc70-Hsp70 substrate-binding cycle. Consistent with this observation, both luciferase refolding and substrate binding in the presence of Hsp40 and Hsp70 were inhibited by CHIP. Taken together, these results indicate that CHIP decreases net ATPase activity and reduces chaperone efficiency, and they implicate CHIP in the negative regulation of the forward reaction of the Hsc70-Hsp70 substrate-binding cycle.
Project description:Hsp40 is a co-chaperone of Hsp70 that correctly folds polypeptides that exist in non-native forms. The C-terminal peptide-binding domain (CTD) of the human Hsp40 Hdj1 has been purified and crystallized. In the presence of the C-terminal octapeptide of human Hsp70, four types of crystals, types I-B, II, III and IV, were grown and diffracted to 1.85, 2.51, 2.10 and 2.80?Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of the octapeptide, type I-A crystals of the CTD were grown that diffracted to 2.05?Å resolution. The full-length Hdj1 was also purified and crystallized (type V crystals); the crystal diffracted to 3.90?Å resolution.
Project description:Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that plays multiple roles in protein homeostasis. In these various tasks, the activity of Hsp70 is shaped by interactions with co-chaperones, such as Hsp40. The Hsp40 family of co-chaperones binds to Hsp70 through a conserved J-domain, and these factors stimulate ATPase and protein-folding activity. Using chemical screens, we identified a compound, 115-7c, which acts as an artificial co-chaperone for Hsp70. Specifically, the activities of 115-7c mirrored those of a Hsp40; the compound stimulated the ATPase and protein-folding activities of a prokaryotic Hsp70 (DnaK) and partially compensated for a Hsp40 loss-of-function mutation in yeast. Consistent with these observations, NMR and mutagenesis studies indicate that the binding site for 115-7c is adjacent to a region on DnaK that is required for J-domain-mediated stimulation. Interestingly, we found that 115-7c and the Hsp40 do not compete for binding but act in concert. Using this information, we introduced additional steric bulk to 115-7c and converted it into an inhibitor. Thus, these chemical probes either promote or inhibit chaperone functions by regulating Hsp70-Hsp40 complex assembly at a native protein-protein interface. This unexpected mechanism may provide new avenues for exploring how chaperones and co-chaperones cooperate to shape protein homeostasis.
Project description:Hsp70 is a conserved molecular chaperone that plays an indispensable role in regulating protein folding, translocation, and degradation. The conformational dynamics of Hsp70 and its regulation by cochaperones are vital to its function. Using bulk and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) techniques, we studied the interdomain conformational distribution of human stress-inducible Hsp70A1 and the kinetics of conformational changes induced by nucleotide and the Hsp40 cochaperone Hdj1. We found that the conformations between and within the nucleotide- and substrate-binding domains show heterogeneity. The conformational distribution in the ATP-bound state can be induced by Hdj1 to form an "ADP-like" undocked conformation, which is an ATPase-stimulated state. Kinetic measurements indicate that Hdj1 binds to monomeric Hsp70 as the first step, then induces undocking of the two domains and closing of the substrate-binding cleft. Dimeric Hdj1 then facilitates dimerization of Hsp70 and formation of a heterotetrameric Hsp70-Hsp40 complex. Our results provide a kinetic view of the conformational cycle of Hsp70 and reveal the importance of the dynamic nature of Hsp70 for its function.
Project description:Hsp70 chaperones assist in a large variety of protein-folding processes in the cell. Crucial for these activities is the regulation of Hsp70 by Hsp40 cochaperones. DnaJ, the bacterial homologue of Hsp40, stimulates ATP hydrolysis by DnaK (Hsp70) and thus mediates capture of substrate protein, but is also known to possess chaperone activity of its own. The first structure of a complete functional dimeric DnaJ was determined and the mobility of its individual domains in solution was investigated. Crystal structures of the complete molecular cochaperone DnaJ from Thermus thermophilus comprising the J, GF and C-terminal domains and of the J and GF domains alone showed an ordered GF domain interacting with the J domain. Structure-based EPR spin-labelling studies as well as cross-linking results showed the existence of multiple states of DnaJ in solution with different arrangements of the various domains, which has implications for the function of DnaJ.