EGF potentiated oncogenesis requires a tissue transglutaminase-dependent signaling pathway leading to Src activation.
ABSTRACT: EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling in human cancers elicits changes in protein-expression patterns that are crucial for potentiating tumor growth. Identifying those proteins with expression regulated by the EGFR and determining how they contribute to malignancy is fundamental for the development of more effective strategies to treat cancer. Here, we show that tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is one such protein. EGF up-regulates tTG expression in human breast-cancer cells, and knock-downs of tTG or the treatment of breast cancer cells with a tTG inhibitor blocks their EGF-stimulated anchorage-independent growth. We further show that the combined actions of Ras and Cdc42, leading to the activation of PI 3-kinase and NFkappaB, provide a mechanism by which EGF can up-regulate tTG in breast-cancer cells. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type tTG, but not its transamidation-defective counterpart, fully mimics the growth advantages afforded by EGF to these cancer cells. Surprisingly, the tTG-promoted growth of breast-cancer cells is dependent on its ability to activate the Src tyrosine kinase as an outcome of a complex formed between tTG and the breast-cancer marker and intermediate filament protein keratin-19. These findings identify tTG as a key participant in an EGFR/Src-signaling pathway in breast-cancer cells and a potential target for inhibiting EGFR-promoted tumor progression.
Project description:Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src) are critical components of the signaling pathways that are associated with breast cancer. However, the regulatory mechanism of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in these pathways remains unclear. Using the Net Phos 3.1 program for the analysis of kinase consensus motifs, we found two c-Src-mediated putative phosphorylation sites, tyrosine (Tyr, Y)-328 and Y331 on HDAC3, and generated a phospho-specific HDAC3 antibody against these sites. c-Src-mediated phosphorylation was observed in the cells expressing wild-type HDAC3 (HDAC3WT), but not in cells overexpressing phosphorylation-defective HDAC3 (HDAC3Y328/331A). Phosphorylated HDAC3 showed relatively higher deacetylase activity, and PP2, which is a c-Src inhibitor, blocked HDAC3 phosphorylation and reduced its enzymatic activity. EGF treatment resulted in HDAC3 phosphorylation in both MDA-MB-231 and EGFR-overexpressing MCF7 (MCF7-EGFR) cells, but not in MCF7 cells. Total internal reflection fluorescence analysis showed that HDAC3 was recruited to the plasma membrane following EGF stimulation. HDAC3 inhibition with either c-Src knockdown or PP2 treatment significantly ameliorated the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Altogether, our findings reveal an EGF signaling cascade involving EGFR, c-Src, and HDAC3 in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a GTP-binding protein/acyltransferase whose expression is upregulated in glioblastoma and associated with decreased patient survival. Here, we delineate a unique mechanism by which tTG contributes to the development of gliomas by using two glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and LN229, whose growth and survival are dependent on tTG. We show that tTG significantly enhances the signaling activity and lifespan of EGF receptors (EGFRs) in these brain cancer cells. Moreover, overexpressing tTG in T98G glioblastoma cells that normally express low levels of tTG caused a marked upregulation of EGFR expression and transforming activity. Furthermore, we show that tTG accentuates EGFR signaling by blocking c-Cbl-catalyzed EGFR ubiquitylation through the ability of tTG to bind GTP and adopt a specific conformation that enables it to interact with c-Cbl. These findings demonstrate that tTG contributes to gliomagenesis by interfering with EGFR downregulation and, thereby, promoting transformation.
Project description:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a proclivity for locoregional invasion. HNSCC mediates invasion in part through invadopodia-based proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Activation of Src, Erk1/2, Abl and Arg downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) modulates invadopodia activity through phosphorylation of the actin regulatory protein cortactin. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, Abl and Arg function downstream of Src to phosphorylate cortactin, promoting invadopodia ECM degradation activity and thus assigning a pro-invasive role for Ableson kinases. We report that Abl kinases have an opposite, negative regulatory role in HNSCC where they suppress invadopodia and tumor invasion. Impairment of Abl expression or Abl kinase activity with imatinib mesylate enhanced HNSCC matrix degradation and 3D collagen invasion, functions that were impaired in MDA-MB-231. HNSCC lines with elevated EGFR and Src activation did not contain increased Abl or Arg kinase activity, suggesting that Src could bypass Abl/Arg to phosphorylate cortactin and promote invadopodia ECM degradation. Src-transformed Abl(-/-)/Arg(-/-) fibroblasts produced ECM degrading invadopodia containing pY421 cortactin, indicating that Abl/Arg are dispensable for invadopodia function in this system. Imatinib-treated HNSCC cells had increased EGFR, Erk1/2 and Src activation, enhancing cortactin pY421 and pS405/418 required for invadopodia function. Imatinib stimulated shedding of the EGFR ligand heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) from HNSCC cells, where soluble HB-EGF enhanced invadopodia ECM degradation in HNSCC but not in MDA-MB-231. HNSCC cells treated with inhibitors of the EGFR-invadopodia pathway indicated that EGFR and Src are required for invadopodia function. Collectively, our results indicate that Abl kinases negatively regulate HNSCC invasive processes through suppression of an HB-EGF autocrine loop responsible for activating a EGFR-Src-cortactin cascade, in contrast to the invasion promoting functions of Abl kinases in breast and other cancer types. Our results provide mechanistic support for recent failed HNSCC clinical trials utilizing imatinib.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members and c-Src are co-overexpressed in many cancers. The synergistic effect of EGFR and c-Src has been shown in the tumorigenesis of breast and other cancers. Reported mechanisms of synergy include transcriptional regulation by STAT5b and the regulation of cellular ATP production by mitochondrial protein COX II. Here, we report a new mechanism of EGFR-c-Src synergy through choline kinase ? (CHKA). The first enzyme of the phosphatidyl choline production pathway, CHKA, is overexpressed in many cancers, and the product of the enzyme, phosphocholine, is also increased in tumor cells. In this report, we find that CHKA forms a complex with EGFR in a c-Src-dependent manner. Endogenous CHKA and EGFR co-immunoprecipitated from a variety of breast cancer cell lines and immortalized mammary epithelial cells. CHKA interacted with the EGFR kinase domain upon c-Src co-overexpression and was phosphorylated in a c-Src-dependent manner on Y197 and Y333. Overexpression of EGFR and c-Src increased total cellular activity and protein levels of CHKA. Mutation of CHKA Y197 and Y333 reduced complex formation, EGFR-dependent activation of CHKA enzyme activity and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent DNA synthesis. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CHKA in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells reduced EGF-dependent cell proliferation. Together, these results strongly implicate a new c-Src-dependent link between CHKA and EGFR, which contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
Project description:The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is activated through growth factor-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and subsequent dimerization. We herein explored the molecular mechanism underlying the suppression of ligand-induced EGFR dimerization by CD99 agonists and its relevance to tumor growth in vivo. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activated the formation of c-Src/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated intracellular complex and subsequently induced RhoA-and Rac1-mediated actin remodeling, resulting in EGFR dimerization and endocytosis. In contrast, CD99 agonist facilitated FAK dephosphorylation through the HRAS/ERK/PTPN12 signaling pathway, leading to inhibition of actin cytoskeletal reorganization via inactivation of the RhoA and Rac1 signaling pathways. Moreover, CD99 agonist significantly suppressed tumor growth in a BALB/c mouse model injected with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CD99-derived agonist ligand inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGFR dimerization through impairment of cytoskeletal reorganization by PTPN12-dependent c-Src/FAK inactivation, thereby suppressing breast cancer growth.
Project description:The protein crosslinking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an acyltransferase which catalyzes transamidation reactions between two proteins, or between a protein and a polyamine. It is frequently overexpressed in several different types of human cancer cells, where it has been shown to contribute to their growth, survival, and invasiveness. tTG is capable of adopting two distinct conformational states: a protein crosslinking active ("open") state, and a GTP-bound, crosslinking inactive ("closed") state. We have previously shown that the ectopic expression of mutant forms of tTG, which constitutively adopt the open conformation, are toxic to cells. This raises the possibility that strategies directed toward causing tTG to maintain an open state could potentially provide a therapeutic benefit for cancers in which tTG is highly expressed. Here, we report the identification of a small molecule, TTGM 5826, which stabilizes the open conformation of tTG. Treatment of breast and brain cancer cell lines, as well as glioma stem cells, with this molecule broadly inhibits their transformed phenotypes. Thus, TTGM 5826 represents the lead compound for a new class of small molecules that promote the toxicity of cancer cells by stabilizing the open state of tTG.
Project description:Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional protein that serves as cross-linking enzyme and integrin-binding adhesion coreceptor for fibronectin on the cell surface. Previous work showed activation of small GTPase RhoA via enzymatic transamidation by cytoplasmic tTG. Here, we report an alternative nonenzymatic mechanism of RhoA activation by cell surface tTG. Direct engagement of surface tTG with specific antibody or the fibronectin fragment containing modules I(6)II(1,2)I(7-9) increases RhoA-GTP levels. Integrin-dependent signaling to RhoA and its downstream target Rho-associated coiled-coil containing serine/threonine protein kinase (ROCK) is amplified by surface tTG. tTG expression on the cell surface elevates RhoA-GTP levels in nonadherent and adherent cells, delays maximal RhoA activation upon cell adhesion to fibronectin and accelerates a rise in RhoA activity after binding soluble integrin ligands. These data indicate that surface tTG induces integrin clustering regardless of integrin-ligand interactions. This notion is supported by visualization of integrin clusters, increased susceptibility of integrins to chemical cross-linking, and biochemical detection of large integrin complexes in cells expressing tTG. In turn, integrin aggregation by surface tTG inhibits Src kinase activity and decreases activation of the Src substrate p190RhoGAP. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of Src kinase reveals inactivation of Src signaling as the primary cause of elevated RhoA activity in cells expressing tTG. Together, these findings show that surface tTG amplifies integrin-mediated signaling to RhoA/ROCK via integrin clustering and down-regulation of the Src-p190RhoGAP regulatory pathway.
Project description:The steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) as well as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members are frequently overexpressed in epithelial tumors, and their expression is associated with poor prognosis. However, a direct role of AIB1 in EGF signaling has not been determined. To address this, we reduced endogenous AIB1 levels using RNA interference in lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. We found that a knockdown of AIB1 levels resulted in a loss of the growth response of these cell lines to EGF. Further analysis revealed that the depletion of AIB1 reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR at multiple residues both at autophosphorylation and Src kinase phosphorylation sites. AIB1 knockdown did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinases, platelet-derived growth factor receptor and HER3, or overall tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. However, EGF-dependent phosphorylation of HER2 was decreased. EGFR levels and membrane trafficking were not changed by AIB1 depletion, but there was less recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins to the EGFR. This led to a substantial reduction in EGF-induced phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase but no significant change in the activation of AKT. Vanadate treatment of cells revealed that the reduction in EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation is dependent in part on changes in cellular phosphatase activity. We propose that a portion of the oncogenic effect of AIB1 could be through control of EGFR and HER2 activity and subsequent modulation of cellular signaling pathways.
Project description:The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src and receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) have been established as collaborators in cellular signaling and their combined dysregulation plays key roles in human cancers, including breast cancer. In part due to the complexity of the biochemical network associated with the regulation of these proteins as well as their cellular functions, the role of Src in EGFR regulation remains unclear. Herein we present a new comprehensive, multi-scale dynamical model of ErbB receptor signal transduction in human mammary epithelial cells. This model, constructed manually from published biochemical literature, consists of 245 nodes representing proteins and their post-translational modifications sites, and over 1,000 biochemical interactions. Using computer simulations of the model, we find it is able to reproduce a number of cellular phenomena. Furthermore, the model predicts that overexpression of Src results in increased endocytosis of EGFR in the absence/low amount of the epidermal growth factor (EGF). Our subsequent laboratory experiments also suggest increased internalization of EGFR upon Src overexpression under EGF-deprived conditions, further supporting this model-generated hypothesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hormones and growth factors influence the proliferation and invasiveness of human mesenchymal tumors. The highly aggressive human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line harbors classical androgen receptor (AR) that responds to androgens triggering cell migration in the absence of significant mitogenesis. As occurs in many human cancer cells, HT1080 cells also express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EXPERIMENTAL: FINDINGS:We report that the pure anti-androgen Casodex inhibits the growth of HT1080 cell xenografts in immune-depressed mice, revealing a novel role of AR in fibrosarcoma progression. In HT1080 cultured cells EGF, but not androgens, robustly increases DNA synthesis. Casodex abolishes the EGF mitogenic effect, implying a crosstalk between EGFR and AR. The mechanism underlying this crosstalk has been analyzed using an AR-derived small peptide, S1, which prevents AR/Src tyrosine kinase association and androgen-dependent Src activation. Present findings show that in HT1080 cells EGF induces AR/Src Association, and the S1 peptide abolishes both the assembly of this complex and Src activation. The S1 peptide inhibits EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis, cell matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion and invasiveness of HT1080 cells. Both Casodex and S1 peptide also prevent DNA synthesis and migration triggered by EGF in various human cancer-derived cells (prostate, breast, colon and pancreas) that express AR. CONCLUSION:This study shows that targeting the AR domain involved in AR/Src association impairs EGF signaling in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. The EGF-elicited processes inhibited by the peptide (DNA synthesis, MMP-9 secretion and invasiveness) cooperate in increasing the aggressive phenotype of HT1080 cells. Therefore, AR represents a new potential therapeutic target in human fibrosarcoma, as supported by Casodex inhibition of HT1080 cell xenografts. The extension of these findings in various human cancer-derived cell lines highlights the conservation of this process across divergent cancer cells and identifies new potential targets in the therapeutic approach to human cancers.