Leaky RyR2 trigger ventricular arrhythmias in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
ABSTRACT: Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Electrical and functional abnormalities have been attributed to cardiac fibrosis; however, electrical abnormalities may occur in the absence of overt cardiac histopathology. Here we show that structural and functional remodeling of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) occurs in the mdx mouse model of DMD. RyR2 from mdx hearts were S-nitrosylated and depleted of calstabin2 (FKBP12.6), resulting in "leaky" RyR2 channels and a diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak. Inhibiting the depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 complex with the Ca(2+) channel stabilizer S107 ("rycal") inhibited the SR Ca(2+) leak, inhibited aberrant depolarization in isolated cardiomyocytes, and prevented arrhythmias in vivo. This suggests that diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak via RyR2 due to S-nitrosylation of the channel and calstabin2 depletion from the channel complex likely triggers cardiac arrhythmias. Normalization of the RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak prevents fatal sudden cardiac arrhythmias in DMD.
Project description:Myocardial ischemic disease is the major cause of death worldwide. After myocardial infarction, reperfusion of infracted heart has been an important objective of strategies to improve outcomes. However, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by inflammation, arrhythmias, cardiomyocyte damage, and, at the cellular level, disturbance in Ca(2+) and redox homeostasis. In this study, we sought to determine how acute inflammatory response contributes to reperfusion injury and Ca(2+) homeostasis disturbance after acute ischemia. Using a rat model of I/R, we show that circulating levels of TNF-? and cardiac caspase-8 activity were increased within 6 h of reperfusion, leading to myocardial nitric oxide and mitochondrial ROS production. At 1 and 15 d after reperfusion, caspase-8 activation resulted in S-nitrosylation of the RyR2 and depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 complex, resulting in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. Pharmacological inhibition of caspase-8 before reperfusion with Q-LETD-OPh or prevention of calstabin2 depletion from the RyR2 complex with the Ca(2+) channel stabilizer S107 ("rycal") inhibited the SR Ca(2+) leak, reduced ventricular arrhythmias, infarct size, and left ventricular remodeling after 15 d of reperfusion. TNF-?-induced caspase-8 activation leads to leaky RyR2 channels that contribute to myocardial remodeling after I/R. Thus, early prevention of SR Ca(2+) leak trough normalization of RyR2 function is cardioprotective.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, however the mechanism(s) causing AF remain poorly understood and therapy is suboptimal. The ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major calcium (Ca2+) release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) required for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle.In the present study, we sought to determine whether intracellular diastolic SR Ca2+ leak via RyR2 plays a role in triggering AF and whether inhibiting this leak can prevent AF.We generated 3 knock-in mice with mutations introduced into RyR2 that result in leaky channels and cause exercise induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in humans [catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)]. We examined AF susceptibility in these three CPVT mouse models harboring RyR2 mutations to explore the role of diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in AF. AF was stimulated with an intra-esophageal burst pacing protocol in the 3 CPVT mouse models (RyR2-R2474S+/-, 70%; RyR2-N2386I+/-, 60%; RyR2-L433P+/-, 35.71%) but not in wild-type (WT) mice (P<0.05). Consistent with these in vivo results, there was a significant diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes isolated from the CPVT mouse models. Calstabin2 (FKBP12.6) is an RyR2 subunit that stabilizes the closed state of RyR2 and prevents a Ca2+ leak through the channel. Atrial RyR2 from RyR2-R2474S+/- mice were oxidized, and the RyR2 macromolecular complex was depleted of calstabin2. The Rycal drug S107 stabilizes the closed state of RyR2 by inhibiting the oxidation/phosphorylation induced dissociation of calstabin2 from the channel. S107 reduced the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes and decreased burst pacing-induced AF in vivo. S107 did not reduce the increased prevalence of burst pacing-induced AF in calstabin2-deficient mice, confirming that calstabin2 is required for the mechanism of action of the drug.The present study demonstrates that RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes is associated with AF in CPVT mice. Moreover, the Rycal S107 inhibited diastolic SR Ca2+ leak through RyR2 and pacing-induced AF associated with CPVT mutations.
Project description:Increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak via the cardiac ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR2) is thought to play a role in heart failure (HF) progression. Inhibition of this leak is an emerging therapeutic strategy. To explore the role of chronic PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 in HF pathogenesis and treatment, we generated a knockin mouse with aspartic acid replacing serine 2808 (mice are referred to herein as RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice). This mutation mimics constitutive PKA hyperphosphorylation of RyR2, which causes depletion of the stabilizing subunit FKBP12.6 (also known as calstabin2), resulting in leaky RyR2. RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice developed age-dependent cardiomyopathy, elevated RyR2 oxidation and nitrosylation, reduced SR Ca2+ store content, and increased diastolic SR Ca2+ leak. After myocardial infarction, RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice exhibited increased mortality compared with WT littermates. Treatment with S107, a 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative that stabilizes RyR2-calstabin2 interactions, inhibited the RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca2+ leak and reduced HF progression in WT and RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice. In contrast, ?-adrenergic receptor blockers improved cardiac function in WT but not in RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice.Thus, chronic PKA hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 results in a diastolic leak that causes cardiac dysfunction. Reversing PKA hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 is an important mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of ?-blocker therapy in HF.
Project description:Mutations in the cardiac type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) have been linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations cause fatal ventricular arrhythmias in young individuals during ?-adrenergic stimulation.This study sought to determine the effects of a novel RyR2-G230C mutation and whether this mutation and RyR2-P2328S alter the sensitivity of the channel to luminal calcium (Ca(2+)).Functional characterizations of recombinant human RyR2-G230C channels were performed under conditions mimicking stress. Human RyR2 mutant channels were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells together with calstabin2. RyR2 channels were measured to examine the regulation of the channels by cytosolic versus luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+). A 50-year-old white man with repeated syncopal episodes after exercise had a cardiac arrest and harbored the mutation RyR2-G230C. cAMP-dependent protein kinase-phosphorylated RyR2-G230C channels exhibited a significantly higher open probability at diastolic Ca(2+) concentrations, associated with a depletion of calstabin2. The luminal Ca(2+) sensitivities of RyR2-G230C and RyR2-P2328S channels were WT-like.The RyR2-G230C mutant exhibits similar biophysical defects compared with previously characterized CPVT mutations: decreased binding of the stabilizing subunit calstabin2 and a leftward shift in the Ca(2+) dependence for activation under conditions that simulate exercise, consistent with a "leaky" channel. Both RyR2-G230C and RyR2-P2328S channels exhibit normal luminal Ca(2+) activation. Thus, diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak caused by reduced calstabin2 binding and a leftward shift in the Ca(2+) dependence for activation by diastolic levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) is a common mechanism underlying CPVT.
Project description:To examine the presence and effect of calstabin2-deficiency in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).Thirteen Boxer dogs with ARVC.Tissue samples were collected for histopathology, oligonucleotide microarray, PCR, immunoelectrophoresis, ryanodine channel immunoprecipitation and single-channel recordings, and calstabin2 DNA sequencing.In cardiomyopathic Boxer dogs, myocardial calstabin2 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased as compared to healthy control dogs (calstabin2 protein normalized to tetrameric cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) complex: affected, 0.51+/-0.04; control, 3.81+/-0.22; P<0.0001). Calstabin2 deficiency in diseased dog hearts was associated with a significantly increased open probability of single RyR2 channels indicating intracellular Ca(2+) leak. PCR-based sequencing of the promoter, exonic and splice site regions of the canine calstabin2 gene did not identify any causative mutations.Calstabin2 deficiency is a potential mechanism of Ca(2+) leak-induced ventricular arrhythmias and heart disease in Boxer dogs with ARVC.
Project description:Defective regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium release channel, required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart, has been linked to cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. For example, diastolic calcium "leak" via RyR2 channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum has been identified as an important factor contributing to impaired contractility in heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death. In patients with heart failure, chronic activation of the "fight or flight" stress response leads to protein kinase A (PKA) hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser-2808. PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 Ser-2808 reduces the binding affinity of the channel-stabilizing subunit calstabin2, resulting in leaky RyR2 channels. We developed RyR2-S2808A mice to determine whether Ser-2808 is the functional PKA phosphorylation site on RyR2. Furthermore, mice in which the RyR2 channel cannot be PKA phosphorylated were relatively protected against the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Taken together, these data show that PKA phosphorylation of Ser-2808 on the RyR2 channel appears to be a critical mediator of progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction.
Project description:The Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) is required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart and is also present in the brain. Mutations in RyR2 have been linked to exercise-induced sudden cardiac death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations result in "leaky" RyR2 channels due to the decreased binding of the calstabin2 (FKBP12.6) subunit, which stabilizes the closed state of the channel. We found that mice heterozygous for the R2474S mutation in Ryr2 (Ryr2-R2474S mice) exhibited spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures (which occurred in the absence of cardiac arrhythmias), exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Treatment with a novel RyR2-specific compound (S107) that enhances the binding of calstabin2 to the mutant Ryr2-R2474S channel inhibited the channel leak and prevented cardiac arrhythmias and raised the seizure threshold. Thus, CPVT-associated mutant leaky Ryr2-R2474S channels in the brain can cause seizures in mice, independent of cardiac arrhythmias. Based on these data, we propose that CPVT is a combined neurocardiac disorder in which leaky RyR2 channels in the brain cause epilepsy, and the same leaky channels in the heart cause exercise-induced sudden cardiac death.
Project description:Heart contraction vitally depends on tightly controlled intracellular Ca regulation. Because contraction is mainly driven by Ca released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), this organelle plays a particularly important role in Ca regulation. The type two ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major SR Ca release channel in ventricular myocytes. Several cardiac pathologies, including myocardial infarction and heart failure, are associated with increased RyR2 activity and diastolic SR Ca leak. It has been suggested that the increased RyR2 activity plays an important role in arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. Several studies have linked increased SR Ca leak during myocardial infarction and heart failure to the activation of RyR2 in response to oxidative stress. This activation might include direct oxidation of RyR2 as well as indirect activation via phosphorylation or altered interactions with regulatory proteins. Out of ninety cysteine residues per RyR2 subunit, twenty one were reported to be in reduced state that could be potential targets for redox modifications that include S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, and disulfide cross-linking. Despite its clinical significance, molecular mechanisms of RyR dysfunction during oxidative stress are not fully understood. Herein we review the most recent insights into redox-dependent modulation of RyR2 during oxidative stress and heart diseases.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmic syndrome caused by mutations in genes encoding the calcium-regulation proteins cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2). Mechanistic studies indicate that CPVT is mediated by diastolic Ca(2+) overload and increased Ca(2+) leak through the RyR2 channel, implying that treatment targeting these defects might be efficacious in CPVT.CPVT mouse models that lack CASQ2 were treated with Ca(2+) -channel inhibitors, ?-adrenergic inhibitors, or Mg(2+) . Treatment effects on ventricular arrhythmia, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein expression and Ca(2+) transients of isolated myocytes were assessed. Each study agent reduced the frequency of stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia in mutant mice. The Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil was most efficacious and completely prevented arrhythmia in 85% of mice. Verapamil significantly increased the SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes, diminished diastolic Ca(2+) overload, increased systolic Ca(2+) amplitude, and prevented Ca(2+) oscillations in stressed mutant myocytes.Ca(2+) channel inhibition by verapamil rectified abnormal calcium handling in CPVT myocytes and prevented ventricular arrhythmias. Verapamil-induced partial normalization of SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes implicates CASQ2 as modulator of RyR2 activity, rather than or in addition to, Ca(2+) buffer protein. Agents such as verapamil that attenuate cardiomyocyte calcium overload are appropriate for assessing clinical efficacy in human CPVT.
Project description:Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is the second most common cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recent studies have implicated enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak via type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) as a cause of VT in the mdx mouse model of DMD. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying induction of SR Ca(2+) leak and VT are poorly understood.To test whether enhanced Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of RyR2 underlies SR Ca(2+) leak and induction of VT in mdx mice.Programmed electrical stimulation was performed on anesthetized mice and confocal imaging of Ca(2+) release events in isolated ventricular myocytes.Programmed electrical stimulation revealed inducible VT in mdx mice, which was inhibited by CaMKII inhibition or mutation S2814A in RyR2. Myocytes from mdx mice exhibited more Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves compared with wild-type mice, in particular at faster pacing rates. Arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves were inhibited by CaMKII but not by protein kinase A inhibition. Moreover, mutation S2814A but not S2808A in RyR2 suppressed spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in myocytes from mdx mice.CaMKII blockade and genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevent VT induction in a mouse model of DMD. In ventricular myocytes from mdx mice, spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves can be suppressed by CaMKII inhibition or mutation S2814A in RyR2. Thus, the inhibition of CaMKII-induced SR Ca(2+) leak might be a new strategy to prevent arrhythmias in patients with DMD without heart failure.