Enhanced infection of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in a mouse model of antibody-induced severe dengue disease.
ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) causes disease ranging from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to the potentially lethal dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). DHF/DSS usually occurs in patients who have acquired DENV-reactive antibodies prior to infection, either from a previous infection with a heterologous DENV serotype or from an immune mother. Hence, it has been hypothesized that subneutralizing levels of antibodies exacerbate disease, a phenomenon termed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). However, given the lack of suitable animal models for DENV infection, the mechanism of ADE and its contribution to pathology remain elusive. Here we demonstrate in mice that DENV-specific antibodies can sufficiently increase severity of disease so that a mostly nonlethal illness becomes a fatal disease resembling human DHF/DSS. Antibodies promote massive infection of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), resulting in increased systemic levels of virus. Thus, a subprotective humoral response may, under some circumstances, have pathological consequences.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) infection in the presence of reactive, non-neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) (RNNIg) is the greatest risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Progression to DHF/DSS is attributed to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE); however, because only a fraction of infections occurring in the presence of RNNIg advance to DHF/DSS, the presence of RNNIg alone cannot account for disease severity. We discovered that DHF/DSS patients respond to infection by producing IgGs with enhanced affinity for the activating Fc receptor Fc?RIIIA due to afucosylated Fc glycans and IgG1 subclass. RNNIg enriched for afucosylated IgG1 triggered platelet reduction in vivo and was a significant risk factor for thrombocytopenia. Thus, therapeutics and vaccines restricting production of afucosylated, IgG1 RNNIg during infection may prevent ADE of DENV disease.
Project description:Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are severe disease manifestations that can occur following sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4). At present, there are no licensed therapies to treat DENV-induced disease. DHF and DSS are thought to be mediated by serotype cross-reactive antibodies that facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by binding to viral antigens and then Fc? receptors (Fc?R) on target myeloid cells. Using genetically engineered DENV-specific antibodies, it has been shown that the interaction between the Fc portion of serotype cross-reactive antibodies and Fc?R is required to induce ADE. Additionally, it was demonstrated that these antibodies were as neutralizing as their non-modified variants, were incapable of inducing ADE, and were therapeutic following a lethal, antibody-enhanced infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that avian IgY, which do not interact with mammalian Fc?R, would provide a novel therapy for DENV-induced disease. We demonstrate here that goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY neutralized DENV2 and did not induce ADE in vitro. Anti-DENV2 IgY was also protective in vivo when administered 24 hours following a lethal DENV2 infection. We were also able to demonstrate via epitope mapping that both full-length and alternatively spliced anti-DENV2 IgY recognized different epitopes, including epitopes that have not been previously identified. These observations provide evidence for the potential therapeutic applications of goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY.
Project description:Possible risk mediators in primary dengue virus (DenV) infection that favor secondary DenV infection to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and shock syndrome (DSS) via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) have not yet been described. Here, DenV infection enhanced the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation molecules in dendritic cells (DCs) through TLR2/MyD88 pathway. TLR2 appeared to facilitate DenV infection in DCs that were less permissive than macrophages for viral replication. In experiments using separate evaluations of DenV-infected and uninfected bystander DCs, infected DCs showed impaired maturation accompanied with TLR2-dependent production of inflammatory cytokines, by which uninfected bystander DCs showed increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Differential phosphorylation of MAPK and STAT3 was also detected between DenV-infected and uninfected DCs. Furthermore, DenV infection stimulated Th2-polarized humoral and cellular immunity against foreign and DenV Ag via TLR2/MyD88 pathway, and DenV-infected DCs were revealed to facilitate Th2-biased immune responses in TLR2-dependent manner. TLR2/MyD88-mediated Th2-biased Ab responses to primary DenV infection increased the infectivity of secondary homotypic or heterotypic DenV via ADE. Collectively, these results indicate that TLR2/MyD88 pathway in DC-priming receptors can drive Th2-biased immune responses during primary DenV infection, which could favor secondary DenV infection to DHF/DSS via ADE.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The majority of dengue patients infected with any serotype of dengue virus (DENV) are asymptomatic, but the remainder may develop a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild dengue fever (DF) to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Severe cases occur more often in patients who experience a secondary infection with a different virus serotype. A phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been proposed to explain the onset of these severe cases, but the exact mechanism of ADE remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Virus neutralization and ADE assays were performed using ultracentrifugation supernatants of acute-phase sera from patients with secondary infections or human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) as anti-DENV antibodies. Virus sources included infectious serum-derived viruses from the ultracentrifugation precipitates, laboratory-culture adapted DENV, or recombinant DENVs derived from patient sera. In contrast to the high levels of ADE observed with laboratory virus strains, low ADE was observed with autologous patient-derived viruses, when patient sera were used to provide the antibody component in the ADE assays. Similar results were obtained using samples from DF and DHF patients. Recombinant-viruses derived from DHF patients showed only minor differences in neutralization and ADE activity in the presence of HuMAbs or plasma derived from the same DHF patient. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Serum or plasma taken from patients during the acute phase of a secondary infection showed high levels of ADE, but no neutralization activity, when assayed in the presence of laboratory-adapted virus strains. By contrast, serum or plasma from the same patient showed high levels of neutralization activity but failed to induce significant ADE when the assays were performed with autologous virus. These results demonstrate the significance of the virus source when measuring ADE. They also suggest that repeated passage of DENV in cell culture has endowed it with the capacity to induce high levels of ADE.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common cause of viral hemorrhagic fever, and it may lead to life-threating dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Because most cases of DHF/DSS occur in patients with secondary DENV infection, anti-DENV antibodies are generally considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS. Previously, we have found that antithrombin antibodies (ATAs) with both antithrombotic and profibrinolytic activities are present in the sera of dengue patients. However, the mechanism by which these autoantibodies are induced is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that antibodies induced by DENV immunization in mice and rabbits could bind to DENV antigens as well as to human thrombin and plasminogen (Plg). The binding of anti-DENV antibodies to thrombin and Plg was inhibited by preadsorption with DENV nonstructural protein 1. In addition, affinity-purified ATAs from DENV-immunized rabbit sera could inhibit thrombin activity and enhance Plg activation both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that molecular mimicry between DENV and coagulation factors can induce the production of autoantibodies with biological effects similar to those of ATAs found in dengue patients. These coagulation-factor cross-reactive anti-DENV antibodies can interfere with the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis, which may lead to the tendency of DHF/DSS patients to bleed.<h4>Importance</h4>Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in tropical and subtropical areas. Over 50 million DENV infection cases develop each year, and more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue-induced hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Currently, there is no vaccine or drug treatment for DENV. In the present study, we demonstrated that DENV immunization could induce thrombin and plasminogen (Plg) cross-reactive antibodies, which were able to inhibit thrombin activity and enhance Plg activation. These results suggest that molecular mimicry between DENV antigens, thrombin, and Plg may elicit antibodies that disturb hemostasis. The selection of appropriate candidate antigens for use in DENV vaccines should prevent these potentially dangerous autoimmune responses.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) causes pathologies ranging from the febrile illness dengue fever to the potentially lethal severe dengue disease. A major risk factor for developing severe dengue disease is the presence of subprotective DENV-reactive Abs from a previous infection (or from an immune mother), which can induce Ab-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). However, infection in the presence of subprotective anti-DENV Abs does not always result in severe disease, suggesting that other factors influence disease severity. In this study we investigated how CD8(+) T cell responses influence the outcome of Ab-mediated severe dengue disease. Mice were primed with aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted UV-inactivated DENV prior to challenge with DENV. Priming failed to induce robust CD8(+) T cell responses, and it induced nonneutralizing Ab responses that increased disease severity upon infection. Transfer of exogenous DENV-activated CD8(+) T cells into primed mice prior to infection prevented Ab-dependent enhancement and dramatically reduced viral load. Our results suggest that in the presence of subprotective anti-DENV Abs, efficient CD8(+) T cell responses reduce the risk of Ab-mediated severe dengue disease.
Project description:One of several mechanisms that leads to the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Monocytes can be infected by the ADE phenomenon, which occurs in dengue secondary infection. This study aimed to investigate the proteins involved in ADE of DENV infection in the human monocytic cell line U937. The phosphoproteins were used to perform and analyze for protein expression using mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS). The differential phosphoproteins revealed 1131 altered proteins compared between isotype- and DENV-specific antibody-treated monocytes. The altered proteins revealed 558 upregulated proteins and 573 downregulated proteins. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which is an enzyme that had a high-ranking fold change and that catalyzes the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds within a protein molecule, was selected for further study. PDI was found to be important for dengue virus infectivity during the ADE model. The effect of PDI inhibition was also shown to be involved in the early stage of life cycle by time-of-drug-addition assay. These results suggest that PDI is important for protein translation and virion assembly of dengue virus during infection in human monocytes, and it may play a significant role as a chaperone to stabilize dengue protein synthesis.
Project description:Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection is identified as the main risk factor of severe Dengue diseases. Through opsonization by subneutralizing or non-neutralizing antibodies, DENV infection suppresses innate cell immunity to facilitate viral replication. However, it is largely unknown whether suppression of type-I IFN is necessary for a successful ADE infection. Here, we report that both DENV and DENV-ADE infection induce an early ISG (NOS2) expression through RLR-MAVS signalling axis independent of the IFNs signaling. Besides, DENV-ADE suppress this early antiviral response through increased autophagy formation rather than induction of IL-10 secretion. The early induced autophagic proteins ATG5-ATG12 participate in suppression of MAVS mediated ISGs induction. Our findings suggest a mechanism for DENV to evade the early antiviral response before IFN signalling activation. Altogether, these results add knowledge about the complexity of ADE infection and contribute further to research on therapeutic strategies.
Project description:ABSTRACT Dengue virus infection mainly causes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and/or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). However, ADE (antibody-dependent enhancement) is one of the main pathogenic factors, and its pathogenic mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Recently, with the development of high-throughput sequencing, an increased number of RNAs have been confirmed to play a vital regulatory role in the process of virus infection. However, there is a lack of research on dengue virus infection and ADE. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to detect differentially expressed RNAs (DE RNAs) profiles in mock-infected, DENV-3-infected, and ADE-infected THP-1 cells. Firstly, we found 69 circRNAs, 259 miRNAs, and 18 mRNAs were differentially expressed in THP-1 vs DENV-3. In THP-1 vs ADE, 94 circRNAs, 263 miRNAs, and 111 mRNAs were differentially expressed. In DENV-3 vs ADE, 68 circRNAs, 105 miRNAs, and 94 mRNAs were differentially expressed. Functional enrichment analysis of these DE RNAs mainly focused on immune system, viral infectious diseases, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and NOD/RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathways. In DENV-3 vs ADE, notably, the expression of HBB was up-regulated, which was a Fcγ Receptor-mediated phagocytosis protein. Additionally, we predicted the encoding ability of DE circRNAs, and it was found that a small peptide was encoded by novel_circ_001562 and that its amino acid sequence was consistent with that of DDX60L, which is a class of interferon-stimulated genes. Finally, we constructed the ceRNA regulatory network pathway. Therefore, our study provides a new strategy for further investigation on DENV-host interactions.
Project description:Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is the severe and life-threatening syndrome that can develop after infection with any one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. DHF occurs almost exclusively in individuals with secondary heterologous DENV infections and infants with primary DENV infections born to dengue immune mothers. The widely accepted explanation for the pathogenesis of DHF in these settings, particularly during infancy, is antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of DENV infection.We conducted a prospective nested case-control study of DENV infections during infancy. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 4,441 mothers and infants in up to two pre-illness study visits, and surveillance was performed for symptomatic and inapparent DENV infections. Pre-illness plasma samples were used to measure the associations between maternally derived anti-DENV3 antibody-neutralizing and -enhancing capacities at the time of DENV3 infection and development of infant DHF. The study captured 60 infants with DENV infections across a wide spectrum of disease severity. DENV3 was the predominant serotype among the infants with symptomatic (35/40) and inapparent (15/20) DENV infections, and 59/60 infants had a primary DENV infection. The estimated in vitro anti-DENV3 neutralizing capacity at birth positively correlated with the age of symptomatic primary DENV3 illness in infants. At the time of symptomatic DENV3 infection, essentially all infants had low anti-DENV3 neutralizing activity (50% plaque reduction neutralizing titers [PRNT(50)] </=50) and measurable DENV3 ADE activity. The infants who developed DHF did not have significantly higher frequencies or levels of DENV3 ADE activity compared to symptomatic infants without DHF. A higher weight-for-age in the first 3 mo of life and at illness presentation was associated with a greater risk for DHF from a primary DENV infection during infancy.This prospective nested case-control study of primarily DENV3 infections during infancy has shown that infants exhibit a full range of disease severity after primary DENV infections. The results support an initial in vivo protective role for maternally derived antibody, and suggest that a DENV3 PRNT(50) >50 is associated with protection from symptomatic DENV3 illness. We did not find a significant association between DENV3 ADE activity at illness onset and the development of DHF compared with less severe symptomatic illness. The results of this study should encourage rethinking or refinement of the current ADE pathogenesis model for infant DHF and stimulate new directions of research into mechanisms responsible for the development of DHF during infancy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00377754.