ABSTRACT: We have developed miniature (approximately 1 microm diameter) microcavity surface-plasmon-resonance sensors (MSPRS), integrated them with microfluidics, and tested their sensitivity to refractive-index changes. We tested their biosensing capability by distinguishing the interaction of glucose oxidase (M(r) 160 kDa) with its natural substrate (beta-D-glucose, M(r) 180 Da) from its interactions with nonspecific substrates (L-glucose, D-mannose, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose). We ran the identical protocol we had used with the MSPRS on a Biacore 3000 instrument using their bare gold chip. Only the MSPRS was able to detect beta-D-glucose binding to glucose oxidase. Each MSPRS can detect the binding to its surface of fewer than 35,000 glucose oxidase molecules (representing 9.6 fg or 60 zmol of protein), about 10(6) times fewer than classical surface-plasmon-resonance biosensors.
Project description:Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) manipulation is of vital importance to construct ultracompact integrated micro/nano-optical devices and systems. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a SPP microcavity with full transverse and longitudinal mode selection and control on the surface of gold film. The designed microcavity supports the fundamental and first-order transverse modes of Gaussian mode beam with controllable longitudinal modes, respectively. The transverse mode is determined by two holographic mirrors made from deliberately designed groove patterns via the surface electromagnetic wave holography methodology, while the longitudinal mode is determined by the length of cavity. Both numerical simulations and leaky-wave SPP mode observations confirm the realization of full mode selection in the fabricated cavity. Our work opens up a powerful way to fully explore longitudinal and transverse mode control in SPP microcavities, which will be beneficial for light-matter interaction enhancement, construction of novel SPP nanolaser and microlaser, optical sensing, and optical information processing.
Project description:The response of graphene surface plasmon (SP) in the ultraviolet (UV) region and the realization of short-wavelength semiconductor lasers not only are two hot research areas of great academic and practical significance, but also are two important issues lacked of good understanding. In this work, a hybrid Fabry-Perot (F-P) microcavity, comprising of monolayer graphene covered ZnO microbelt, was constructed to investigate the fundamental physics of graphene SP and the functional extension of ZnO UV lasing. Through the coupling between graphene SP modes and conventional optical microcavity modes of ZnO, improved F-P lasing performance was realized, including the lowered lasing threshold, the improved lasing quality and the remarkably enhanced lasing intensity. The underlying mechanism of the improved lasing performance was proposed based on theoretical simulation and experimental characterization. The results are helpful to design new types of optic and photoelectronic devices based on SP coupling in graphene/semiconductor hybrid structures.
Project description:We present evidence for the existence of a hybrid state of Tamm plasmons and microcavity exciton polaritons in a II-VI material based microcavity sample covered with an Ag metal layer. The bare cavity mode shows a characteristic anticrossing with the Tamm-plasmon mode, when microreflectivity measurements are performed for different detunings between the Tamm plasmon and the cavity mode. When the Tamm-plasmon mode is in resonance with the cavity polariton four hybrid eigenstates are observed due to the coupling of the cavity-photon mode, the Tamm-plasmon mode, and the heavy- and light-hole excitons. If the bare Tamm-plasmon mode is tuned, these resonances will exhibit three anticrossings. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculations based on the transfer matrix method as well as on the coupled-oscillators model. The lowest hybrid eigenstate is observed to be red shifted by about 13?meV with respect to the lower cavity polariton state when the Tamm plasmon is resonantly coupled with the cavity polariton. This spectral shift which is caused by the metal layer can be used to create a trapping potential channel for the polaritons. Such channels can guide the polariton propagation similar to one-dimensional polariton wires.
Project description:Recently, plasmonics has been central to the manipulation of photons on the subwavelength scale, and superior infrared imagers have opened novel applications in many fields. Here, we demonstrate the first pixel-level plasmonic microcavity infrared photodetector with a single quantum well integrated between metal patches and a reflection layer. Greater than one order of magnitude enhancement of the peak responsivity has been observed. The significant improvement originates from the highly confined optical mode in the cavity, leading to a strong coupling between photons and the quantum well, resulting in the enhanced photo-electric conversion process. Such strong coupling from the localized surface plasmon mode inside the cavity is independent of incident angles, offering a unique solution to high-performance focal plane array devices. This demonstration paves the way for important infrared optoelectronic devices for sensing and imaging.
Project description:A porous silicon microcavity (PSiMC) with resonant peak wavelength of 635 nm was fabricated by electrochemical etching. Metal nanoparticles (NPs)/PSiMC enhanced fluorescence substrates were prepared by the electrostatic adherence of Au NPs that were distributed in PSiMC. The Au NPs/PSiMC device was used to characterize the target DNA immobilization and hybridization with its complementary DNA sequences marked with Rhodamine red (RRA). Fluorescence enhancement was observed on the Au NPs/PSiMC device substrate; and the minimum detection concentration of DNA ran up to 10 pM. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the MC substrate; which is so well-positioned to improve fluorescence enhancement rather the fluorescence enhancement of the high reflection band of the Bragg reflector; would welcome such a highly sensitive in biosensor.
Project description:We demonstrate a magnetometer using polymer encapsulated whispering-gallery-mode microcavity actuated by a micro-magnet. The magnetic field induces force on the micro-magnet causing deformation in the polymer around the microcavity. Subsequently the microcavity detects the change in the refractive index of the polymer resulted from the deformation. This magnetometer works in the frequency range of hertz-to-kilohertz range and achieves a sensitivity of 880 pT/Hz1/2 at 200 Hz in a micro-scale sensor volume. Polymer encapsulation of the magnetometer and fiber optical connection ensures environmental robustness and practicality of the sensor.
Project description:There is an increasing interest in using graphene (1, 2) for optoelectronic applications. (3-19) However, because graphene is an inherently weak optical absorber (only ?2.3% absorption), novel concepts need to be developed to increase the absorption and take full advantage of its unique optical properties. We demonstrate that by monolithically integrating graphene with a Fabry-Pérot microcavity, the optical absorption is 26-fold enhanced, reaching values >60%. We present a graphene-based microcavity photodetector with responsivity of 21 mA/W. Our approach can be applied to a variety of other graphene devices, such as electro-absorption modulators, variable optical attenuators, or light emitters, and provides a new route to graphene photonics with the potential for applications in communications, security, sensing and spectroscopy.
Project description:To develop peptide-conjugated liposomes for cancer imaging and therapy, the label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor (Biacore™) is a practical and also preferred strategy to examine protein-peptide interaction. A new Biacore protocol with "oriented immobilization" for peptide-binding assay, which overcomes the drawbacks of conventional protocols, was presented in this data article. These results were complementary to the research article Wang at al., , which reported a series of new cancer-targeting peptides found with HotLig software (Wang et al., 2013) , and this newly developed Biacore protocol.
Project description:Optical resonators are essential for fundamental science, applications in sensing and metrology, particle cooling, and quantum information processing. Cavities can significantly enhance interactions between light and matter. For many applications they perform this task best if the mode confinement is tight and the photon lifetime is long. Free access to the mode center is important in the design to admit atoms, molecules, nanoparticles, or solids into the light field. Here, we demonstrate how to machine microcavity arrays of extremely high quality in pristine silicon. Etched to an almost perfect parabolic shape with a surface roughness on the level of 2?Å and coated to a finesse exceeding <i>F</i>?=?500,000, these new devices can have lengths below 17?µm, confining the photons to 5?µm waists in a mode volume of 88?<sup>3</sup>. Extending the cavity length to 150?µm, on the order of the radius of curvature, in a symmetric mirror configuration yields a waist smaller than 7?µm, with photon lifetimes exceeding 64?ns. Parallelized cleanroom fabrication delivers an entire microcavity array in a single process. Photolithographic precision furthermore yields alignment structures that result in mechanically robust, pre-aligned, symmetric microcavity arrays, representing a light-matter interface with unprecedented performance.
Project description:Exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities form a highly nonlinear platform to study a variety of effects interfacing optical, condensed matter, quantum and statistical physics. We show that the complex polariton patterns generated by picosecond pulses in microcavity wire waveguides can be understood as the Cherenkov radiation emitted by bright polariton solitons, which is enabled by the unique microcavity polariton dispersion, which has momentum intervals with positive and negative group velocities. Unlike in optical fibres and semiconductor waveguides, we observe that the microcavity wire Cherenkov radiation is predominantly emitted with negative group velocity and therefore propagates backwards relative to the propagation direction of the emitting soliton. We have developed a theory of the microcavity wire polariton solitons and of their Cherenkov radiation and conducted a series of experiments, where we have measured polariton-soliton pulse compression, pulse breaking and emission of the backward Cherenkov radiation.