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Predicting CD62L expression during the CD8+ T-cell response in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Acute infection leads to CD8(+) T-cell activation, division and differentiation. Following clearance of infection, cells revert to two distinct subsets of memory, central (T(CM)) and effector (T(EM)) memory. Adoptive transfer of naive T-cell receptor transgenic (TCR-tg) T cells has been used to study the differentiation of these memory subsets, which are often discriminated by expression of CD62L. Naive CD8(+) T cells are CD62L(high), and CD62L expression is lost during the 'effector' phase. Adoptive transfer studies show that higher transfer frequencies result in diminished T-cell expansion and a higher proportion CD62L(high). This suggests a relationship between CD62L expression and cell division, where division leads to conversion from CD62L(high) to CD62L(low) phenotype. To address this hypothesis we adoptively transferred graded numbers of OT-1 TCR-tg T cells from naive donors and tracked the kinetics and phenotype of the immune response after infection. We developed a simple mathematical model of division-linked CD62L differentiation, which we compared with the experimental data. Our results show that division-linked differentiation predicts the differences in proportion of cells CD62L(high) observed between responses of different adoptive transfer number and within individual mice. We calculate that approximately 20% of CD62L(high) cells convert to CD62L(low) during each division.
Project description:T-cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy enables for the rapid creation of antigen-specific T cells from mice of any strain and represents a valuable tool for preclinical immunotherapy studies. Here, we describe the superiority of ?-retroviral vectors compared with lentiviral vectors for transduction of murine T cells and surprisingly illustrate robust gene-transfer into phenotypically naive/memory-stem cell like (TN/TSCM; CD62L(hi)/CD44(low)) and central memory (TCM; CD62L(hi)/CD44(hi)) CD8+ T cells using murine stem cell-based ?-retroviral vectors (MSGV1). We created MSGV1 vectors for a major histocompatibility complex-class I-restricted TCR specific for the melanocyte-differentiation antigen, glycoprotein 100 (MSGV1-pmel-1), and a major histocompatibility complex-class II-restricted TCR specific for tyrosinase-related protein-1 (MSGV1-TRP-1), and found that robust gene expression required codon optimization of TCR sequences for the pmel-1 TCR. To test for functionality, we adoptively transferred TCR-engineered T cells into mice bearing B16 melanomas and observed delayed growth of established tumors with pmel-1 TCR engineered CD8+ T cells and significant tumor regression with TRP-1 TCR transduced CD4 T cells. We simultaneously created lentiviral vectors encoding the pmel-1 TCR, but found that these vectors mediated low TCR expression in murine T cells, but robust gene expression in other murine and human cell lines. These results indicate that preclinical murine models of adoptive immunotherapies are more practical using ?-retroviral rather than lentiviral vectors.
Project description:Adoptive-transfer experiments with relatively large input numbers ( approximately 10(6)) of T cell receptor-transgenic (TCR-tg) T cells are widely used to model endogenous T cell responses to infection or immunization. We show that input numbers of naive TCR-tg T cells sufficient to squelch the endogenous response to the same epitope substantially alter the kinetics, proliferative expansion, phenotype, and efficiency of memory generation by the TCR-tg T cells in response to infection. Thus, responses from nonphysiologic input numbers of TCR-tg T cells fail to accurately mimic the endogenous T cell response. Importantly, seeding as few as approximately 10-50 TCR-tg T cells, which constitute a fraction of the endogenous repertoire, allowed vigorous proliferation and analysis of TCR-tg cells after infection in a scenario representing normal physiology for any individual TCR. These data strongly suggest that modeling the endogenous T cell response with TCR-tg cells will require every effort to approximate the endogenous precursor frequency.
Project description:We previously have reported that neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination improves neurogenesis and behavior in early life through affecting the neuroimmune milieu in the brain, but it is uncertain whether activation phenotypes and functional changes in T lymphocytes shape brain development. Here, we studied the effects of BCG vaccination via the adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes from the BALB/c wild-type mice into naive mice. Our results show that mice adoptive BCG-induced lymphocytes (BCG->naive mice) showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like performance when completing an elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Meanwhile, BCG->naive mice possess more cell proliferation and newborn neurons than PBS->naive and nude mice in the hippocampus. IFN-? and IL-4 levels in the serum of BCG->naive mice also increased, while TNF-? and IL-1? levels were reduced relative to those of PBS->naive and nude mice. We further found that BCG->naive mice showed different repartition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell to naive (CD62L+CD44low), effector memory (CD62L-CD44hi), central memory (CD62L+CD44hi) and acute/activated effector (CD62L-CD44low) cells in the spleen. Importantly, the adoptive transfer of BCG-induced T lymphocytes infiltrated into the dura mater and brain parenchyma of the nude mice. Activation phenotypes and functional changes in T lymphocytes are very likely to affect the neuroimmune milieu in the brain, and alterations in ratios of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells may affect the expression of correlative cytokines in the serum, accounting for our behavioral results. We conclude thus that the adoptive transfer of BCG-induced T lymphocytes contributes to hippocampal cell proliferation and tempers anxiety-like behavior in immune deficient mice. Our work shows that BCG vaccination improves hippocampal cell proliferation outcomes and behaviors, likely as a result of splenic effector/memory T lymphocytes regulating the neuroimmune niche in the brain.
Project description:Chlamydia is responsible for millions of new infections annually, and current efforts focus on understanding cellular immunity for targeted vaccine development. The Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell response is characterized by the production of IFN-?, and polyfunctional Th1 responses are associated with enhanced protection. A major limitation in studying these responses is the paucity of tools available for detection, quantification, and characterization of polyfunctional Ag-specific T cells. We addressed this problem by developing a TCR-transgenic (Tg) mouse with CD4 T cells that respond to a common Ag in Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis Using an adoptive-transfer approach, we show that naive Tg CD4 T cells become activated, proliferate, migrate to the infected tissue, and acquire a polyfunctional Th1 phenotype in infected mice. Polyfunctional Tg Th1 effectors demonstrated enhanced IFN-? production compared with polyclonal cells, protected immune-deficient mice against lethality, mediated bacterial clearance, and orchestrated an anamnestic response. Adoptive transfer of Chlamydia-specific CD4 TCR-Tg T cells with polyfunctional capacity offers a powerful approach for analysis of protective effector and memory responses against chlamydial infection and demonstrates that an effective monoclonal CD4 T cell response may successfully guide subunit vaccination strategies.
Project description:Viral infections and reactivations remain a serious obstacle to successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). When antiviral drug treatment fails, adoptive virus-specific T-cell transfer provides an effective alternative. Assuming that naive T cells (TN) are mainly responsible for GvHD, methods were developed to generate naive T-cell-depleted products while preserving immune memory against viral infections. We compared two major strategies to deplete potentially alloreactive T cells: CD45RA and CD62L depletion and analyzed phenotype and functionality of the resulting CD45RA-/CD62L- naive T-cell-depleted as well as CD45RA?/CD62L? naive T-cell-enriched fractions in the CMV pp65 and IE1 antigen model. CD45RA depletion resulted in loss of terminally differentiated effector memory T cells re-expressing CD45RA (TEMRA), and CD62L depletion in loss of central memory T cells (TCM). Based on these differences in target cell-dependent and target cell-independent assays, antigen-specific T-cell responses in CD62L-depleted fraction were consistently 3?5 fold higher than those in CD45RA-depleted fraction. Interestingly, we also observed high donor variability in the CD45RA-depleted fraction, resulting in a substantial loss of immune memory. Accordingly, we identified donors with expected response (DER) and unexpected response (DUR). Taken together, our results showed that a naive T-cell depletion method should be chosen individually, based on the immunophenotypic composition of the T-cell populations present.
Project description:The precise pathways of memory T-cell differentiation are incompletely understood. Here we exploit transgenic mice expressing fluorescent cell cycle indicators to longitudinally track the division dynamics of individual CD8(+) T cells. During influenza virus infection in vivo, naive T cells enter a CD62L(intermediate) state of fast proliferation, which continues for at least nine generations. At the peak of the anti-viral immune response, a subpopulation of these cells markedly reduces their cycling speed and acquires a CD62L(hi) central memory cell phenotype. Construction of T-cell family division trees in vitro reveals two patterns of proliferation dynamics. While cells initially divide rapidly with moderate stochastic variations of cycling times after each generation, a slow-cycling subpopulation displaying a CD62L(hi) memory phenotype appears after eight divisions. Phenotype and cell cycle duration are inherited by the progeny of slow cyclers. We propose that memory precursors cell-intrinsically modulate their proliferative activity to diversify differentiation pathways.
Project description:High-dose chemotherapy may kill not only tumor cells but also immunocytes, and frequently induces severe lymphocytopenia. On the other hand, patients who recover from the nadir maintain immunity against infection, suggesting the existence of an unknown memory T-cell population with stress resistance, long-living capacity, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, the differentiation system of T-cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T-cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. Here we report a novel human T-cell memory population, "young memory" T (TYM) cells. TYM cells are defined by positive expression of CD73, which represents high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity and CXCR3 among CD8(+)CD45RA(+)CD62L(+) T cells. TYM proliferate upon TCR stimulation, with differentiation capacity into TCM and TEM and drug resistance. Moreover, TYM are involved in memory function for viral and tumor-associated antigens in healthy donors and cancer patients, respectively. Regulation of TYM might be very attractive for peptide vaccination, adoptive cell-transfer therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Project description:The canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in thymocyte development and T cell migration, but little is known about its role in naive-to-effector differentiation in human peripheral T cells. We show that activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling arrests human peripheral blood and cord blood T lymphocytes in the naive stage and blocks their transition into functional T effector cells. Wnt signaling was induced in polyclonally activated human T cells by treatment either with the glycogen synthase kinase 3? inhibitor TWS119 or the physiological Wnt agonist Wnt-3a, and these T cells preserved a naive CD45RA(+)CD62L(+) phenotype compared with control-activated T cells that progressed to a CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) effector phenotype, and this occurred in a TWS119 dose-dependent manner. TWS119-induced Wnt signaling reduced T cell expansion, as a result of a block in cell division, and impaired acquisition of T cell effector function, measured by degranulation and IFN-? production in response to T cell activation. The block in T cell division may be attributed to the reduced IL-2R? expression in TWS119-treated T cells that lowers their capacity to use autocrine IL-2 for expansion. Collectively, our data suggest that Wnt/?-catenin signaling is a negative regulator of naive-to-effector T cell differentiation in human T lymphocytes. The arrest in T cell differentiation induced by Wnt signaling might have relevant clinical applications such as to preserve the naive T cell compartment in Ag-specific T cells generated ex vivo for adoptive T cell immunotherapy.
Project description:Regulatory T (T reg) cells are required for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Both TGF-? signaling and epigenetic modifications are important for Foxp3 induction, but how TGF-? signaling participates in the epigenetic regulation of Foxp3 remains largely unknown. Here we showed that T cell-specific ablation of Uhrf1 resulted in T reg-biased differentiation in TCR-stimulated naive T cells in the absence of TGF-? signaling, and these Foxp3+ T cells had a suppressive function. Adoptive transfer of Uhrf1 -/- naive T cells could significantly suppress colitis due to increased iT reg cell generation. Mechanistically, Uhrf1 was induced upon TCR stimulation and participated in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns of T reg cell-specific genes during cell division, while it was phosphorylated upon TGF-? stimulation and sequestered outside the nucleus, and ultimately underwent proteasome-dependent degradation. Collectively, our study reveals a novel epigenetic mechanism of TGF-?-mediated iT reg cell differentiation by modulating Uhrf1 activity and suggests that Uhrf1 may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases for generating stable iT reg cells.
Project description:In experimental models in which the Ag-stimulation history of memory CD8 T cell populations was clearly defined (adoptive transfer of a known number of TCR-transgenic memory CD8 T cells), all facets of the ensuing CD8 T cell responses, including proliferative expansion, duration and extent of contraction, diversification of memory CD8 T cell transcriptomes, and life-long survival, were dependent on the number of prior Ag encounters. However, the extent to which sequential adoptive-transfer models reflect the physiological scenario in which memory CD8 T cells are generated by repetitive Ag challenges of individual hosts (no adoptive transfer involved) is not known. Direct comparison of endogenous memory CD8 T cell responses generated in repetitively infected hosts revealed that recurrent homologous boosting was required to preserve the numbers and increase the phenotypic and functional complexity of the developing memory CD8 T cell pool. Although life-long survival of the memory CD8 T cells was not impacted, phenotype (i.e., upregulation of CD62L) and function (i.e., homeostatic turnover, Ag-stimulated IL-2 production) of repeatedly stimulated memory CD8 T cells were dependent on time after last Ag encounter. Therefore, repetitive Ag challenges of individual hosts can substantially influence the numerical and functional attributes of polyclonal memory CD8 T cells, a notion with important implications for the design of future vaccination strategies aimed at increasing the number of protective memory CD8 T cells.