Action Spectroscopy on Dense Samples of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides WT Based on Nanosecond Laser-Flash C Photo-CIDNP MAS NMR.
ABSTRACT: Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (photo-CIDNP MAS NMR) allows for the investigation of the electronic structure of the photochemical machinery of photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) at atomic resolution. For such experiments, either continuous radiation from white xenon lamps or green laser pulses are applied to optically dense samples. In order to explore their optical properties, optically thick samples of isolated and quinone-removed RCs of the purple bacteria of Rhodobacter sphaeroides wild type are studied by nanosecond laser-flash (13)C photo-CIDNP MAS NMR using excitation wavelengths between 720 and 940 nm. Action spectra of both the transient nuclear polarization as well as the nuclear hyperpolarization, remaining in the electronic ground state at the end of the photocycle, are obtained. It is shown that the signal intensity is limited by the amount of accessible RCs and that the different mechanisms of the photo-CIDNP production rely on the same photophysical origin, which is the photocycle induced by one single photon.
Project description:Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) of nuclei other than (1)H offers a tremendous potential for sensitivity enhancement in liquid state NMR under mild, physiologically relevant conditions. Photo-CIDNP enhancements of (15)N magnetization are much larger than those typically observed for (1)H. However, the low gyromagnetic ratio of (15)N prevents a full fruition of the potential signal-to-noise gains attainable via (15)N photo-CIDNP. Here, we propose two novel pulse sequences, EPIC- and CHANCE-HSQC, tailored to overcome the above limitation. EPIC-HSQC exploits the strong (1)H polarization and its subsequent transfer to non-equilibrium N(z) magnetization prior to (15)N photo-CIDNP laser irradiation. CHANCE-HSQC synergistically combines (1)H and (15)N photo-CIDNP. The above pulse sequences, tested on tryptophan (Trp) and the Trp-containing protein apoHmpH, were found to display up to 2-fold higher sensitivity than the reference NPE-SE-HSQC pulse train (based on simple (15)N photo-CIDNP followed by N-H polarization transfer), and up to a ca. 3-fold increase in sensitivity over the corresponding dark pulse schemes (lacking laser irradiation). The observed effects are consistent with the predictions from a theoretical model of photo-CIDNP and prove the potential of (15)N and (1)H photo-CIDNP in liquid state heteronuclear correlation NMR.
Project description:NMR is a powerful yet intrinsically insensitive technique. The applicability of NMR to chemical and biological systems would be substantially extended by new approaches going beyond current signal-to-noise capabilities. Here, we exploit the large enhancements arising from (13)C photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization ((13)C photo-CIDNP) in solution to improve biomolecular NMR sensitivity in the context of heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy. The (13)C-PRINT pulse sequence presented here involves an initial (13)C nuclear spin polarization via photo-CIDNP followed by conversion to anti-phase coherence and transfer to (1)H for detection. We observe substantial enhancements, up to ?200-fold, relative to the dark (laser off) experiment. Resonances of both side-chain and backbone CH pairs are enhanced for the three aromatic residues Trp, His, and Tyr, the ?(32) peptide, and the drkN SH3 protein. The sensitivity of this experiment, defined as signal-to-noise per square root of unit time (S/N)(t), is unprecedented in the NMR polarization enhancement literature dealing with polypeptides in solution. Up to a 16-fold larger (S/N)(t) than for the (1)H-(13)C SE-HSQC reference sequence is achieved, for the ?(32) peptide. Data collection time is reduced up to 256-fold, highlighting the advantages of (1)H-detected (13)C photo-CIDNP in solution NMR.
Project description:Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) is a powerful approach for sensitivity enhancement in NMR spectroscopy. In liquids, intermolecular photo-CIDNP depends on the transient bimolecular reaction between photoexcited dye and sample of interest. Hence the extent of polarization is sample-concentration dependent. This study introduces fluorescein (FL) as a photo-CIDNP dye whose performance is exquisitely tailored to data collection at extremely low sample concentrations. The photo-CIDNP resonance intensities of tryptophan in the presence of either FL or FMN (i.e., the routinely employed flavin mononucleotide photosensitizer) in the liquid state show that FL yields superior sensitivity and enables rapid data collection down to an unprecedented 1 ?M concentration. This result was achieved on a conventional spectrometer operating at 14.1 T and equipped with a room-temperature probe (i.e., noncryogenic). Kinetic simulations show that the excellent behavior of FL arises from its long excited-state triplet lifetime and superior photostability relative to conventional photo-CIDNP sensitizers.
Project description:Composed of the two bacteriochlorophyll cofactors, P(L) and P(M), the special pair functions as the primary electron donor in bacterial reaction centers of purple bacteria of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Under light absorption, an electron is transferred to a bacteriopheophytin and a radical pair is produced. The occurrence of the radical pair is linked to the production of enhanced nuclear polarization called photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP). This effect can be used to study the electronic structure of the special pair at atomic resolution by detection of the strongly enhanced nuclear polarization with laser-flash photo-CIDNP magic-angle spinning NMR on the carotenoid-less mutant R26. In the electronic ground state, P(L) is strongly disturbed, carrying a slightly negative charge. In the radical cation state, the ratio of total electron spin densities between P(L) and P(M) is 2:1, although it is 2.5:1 for the pyrrole carbons, 2.2:1 for all porphyrinic carbons, and 4:1 for the pyrrole nitrogen. It is shown that the symmetry break between the electronic structures in the electronic ground state and in the radical cation state is an intrinsic property of the special pair supermolecule, which is particularly attributable to a modification of the structure of P(L). The significant difference in electron density distribution between the ground and radical cation states is explained by an electric polarization effect of the nearby histidine.
Project description:The solid-state photo-chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) effect generates non-equilibrium nuclear spin polarization in frozen electron-transfer proteins upon illumination and radical-pair formation. The effect can be observed in various natural photosynthetic reaction center proteins using magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and in a flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain of the blue-light receptor phototropin. In the latter system, a functionally instrumental cysteine has been mutated to interrupt the natural cysteine-involving photochemistry allowing for an electron transfer from a more distant tryptophan to the excited flavin mononucleotide chromophore. We explored the solid-state photo-CIDNP effect and its mechanisms in phototropin-LOV1-C57S from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by using field-cycling solution NMR. We observed the 13C and, to our knowledge, for the first time, 15N photo-CIDNP signals from phototropin-LOV1-C57S. Additionally, the 1H photo-CIDNP signals of residual water in the deuterated buffer of the protein were detected. The relative strengths of the photo-CIDNP effect from the three types of nuclei, 1H, 13C and 15N were measured in dependence of the magnetic field, showing their maximum polarizations at different magnetic fields. Theoretical level crossing analysis demonstrates that anisotropic mechanisms play the dominant role at high magnetic fields.
Project description:Conjugates of 2'-deoxyguanosine, L-tryptophan and benzophenone designed to study pathways of fast radical reactions by the photo Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (photo-CIDNP) method were obtained by the phosphotriester block liquid phase synthesis. The phosphotriester approach to the oligonucleotide synthesis was shown to be a versatile and economic strategy for preparing the required amount of high quality samples of nucleotide-amino acid conjugates.
Project description:Substrates containing 19 F can serve as background-free reporter molecules for NMR and MRI. However, in?vivo applications are still limited due to the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when compared with 1 H NMR. Although hyperpolarization can increase the SNR, to date, only photo-chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) allows for hyperpolarization without harmful metal catalysts. Photo-CIDNP was shown to significantly enhance 19 F NMR signals of 3-fluoro-DL-tyrosine in aqueous solution using flavins as photosensitizers. However, lasers were used for photoexcitation, which is expensive and requires appropriate protection procedures in a medical or lab environment. Herein, we report 19 F MR hyperpolarization at 4.7?T and 7?T with a biocompatible system using a low-cost and easy-to-handle LED-based set-up. First hyperpolarized 19 F MR images could be acquired, because photo-CIDNP enabled repetitive hyperpolarization without adding new substrates.
Project description:The solid-state photo-CIDNP (photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) effect allows for increase of signal and sensitivity in magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The effect occurs in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) proteins upon illumination and induction of cyclic electron transfer. Here we show that the strength of the effect allows for observation of the cofactors forming the spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP) in isolated proteins, in natural photosynthetic membranes as well as in entire plants. To this end, we measured entire selectively 13C isotope enriched duckweed plants (Spirodela oligorrhiza) directly in the MAS rotor. Comparison of 13C photo-CIDNP MAS NMR spectra of photosystem II (PS2) obtained from different levels of RC isolation, from entire plant to isolated RC complex, demonstrates the intactness of the photochemical machinery upon isolation. The SCRP in PS2 is structurally and functionally very similar in duckweed and spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The analysis of the photo-CIDNP MAS NMR spectra reveals a monomeric Chl a donor. There is an experimental evidence for matrix involvement, most likely due to the axial donor histidine, in the formation of the SCRP. Data do not suggest a chemical modification of C-131 carbonyl position of the donor cofactor.
Project description:NMR is an extremely powerful, yet insensitive technique. Many available nuclear polarization methods that address sensitivity are not directly applicable to low-concentration biomolecules in liquids and are often too invasive. Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) is no exception. It needs high-power laser irradiation, which often leads to sample degradation, and photosensitizer reduction. Here, we introduce a novel tri-enzyme system that significantly overcomes the above challenges, rendering photo-CIDNP a practically applicable technique for NMR sensitivity enhancement in solution. The specificity of the nitrate reductase (NR) enzyme is exploited to selectively in situ reoxidize the reduced photo-CIDNP dye FMNH2. At the same time, the oxygen-scavenging ability of glucose oxidase (GO) and catalase (CAT) is synergistically employed to prevent sample photodegradation. The resulting tri-enzyme system (NR-GO-CAT) enables prolonged sensitivity-enhanced data collection in 1D and 2D heteronuclear NMR, leading to the highest photo-CIDNP sensitivity enhancement (48-fold relative to SE-HSQC) achieved to date for amino acids and polypeptides in solution. NR-GO-CAT extends the concentration limit of photo-CIDNP NMR down to the low micromolar range. In addition, sensitivity (relative to the reference SE-HSQC) is found to be inversely proportional to sample concentration, paving the way for the future analysis of even more diluted samples.
Project description:Low-concentration photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (LC-photo-CIDNP) has recently emerged as a powerful technology for the detection of aromatic amino acids and proteins in solution in the low-micromolar to nanomolar concentration range. LC-photo-CIDNP is typically carried out in the presence of high-power lasers, which are costly and maintenance-heavy. Here, we show that LC-photo-CIDNP can be performed with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are inexpensive and much less cumbersome than lasers, laser diodes, flash lamps, or other light sources. When nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sample concentration is within the low-micromolar to nanomolar range, as in LC-photo-CIDNP, replacement of lasers with LEDs leads to no losses in sensitivity. We also investigate the effect of optical-fiber thickness and compare excitation rate constants of an Ar ion laser (488 nm) and a 466 nm LED, taking LED emission bandwidths into account. In addition, importantly, we develop a novel pulse sequence (<sup>13</sup>C RASPRINT) to perform ultrarapid LC-photo-CIDNP data collection. Remarkably, <sup>13</sup>C RASPRINT leads to 4-fold savings in data collection time. The latter advance relies on the fact that photo-CID nuclear hyperpolarization does not suffer from the longitudinal-relaxation recovery requirements of conventional NMR. Finally, we combine both the above improvements, resulting in facile and rapid (?16 s-2.5 min) collection of 1 and 2D NMR data on aromatic amino acids and proteins in solution at nanomolar to low micromolar concentration.