Proteomic analysis of pollination-induced corolla senescence in petunia.
ABSTRACT: Senescence represents the last phase of petal development during which macromolecules and organelles are degraded and nutrients are recycled to developing tissues. To understand better the post-transcriptional changes regulating petal senescence, a proteomic approach was used to profile protein changes during the senescence of Petuniaxhybrida 'Mitchell Diploid' corollas. Total soluble proteins were extracted from unpollinated petunia corollas at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after flower opening and at 24, 48, and 72 h after pollination. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in non-senescing (unpollinated) and senescing (pollinated) corollas, and image analysis was used to determine which proteins were up- or down-regulated by the experimentally determined cut-off of 2.1-fold for P <0.05. One hundred and thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were selected for sequencing. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the identity of these proteins. Searching translated EST databases and the NCBI non-redundant protein database, it was possible to assign a putative identification to greater than 90% of these proteins. Many of the senescence up-regulated proteins were putatively involved in defence and stress responses or macromolecule catabolism. Some proteins, not previously characterized during flower senescence, were identified, including an orthologue of the tomato abscisic acid stress ripening protein 4 (ASR4). Gene expression patterns did not always correlate with protein expression, confirming that both proteomic and genomic approaches will be required to obtain a detailed understanding of the regulation of petal senescence.
Project description:The programmed degradation of macromolecules during petal senescence allows the plant to remobilize nutrients from dying to developing tissues. Ethylene is involved in regulating the timing of nucleic acid degradation in petunia, but it is not clear if ethylene has a role in the remobilization of phosphorus during petal senescence. To investigate ethylene's role in nutrient remobilization, the P content of petals (collectively called the corolla) during early development and senescence was compared in ethylene-sensitive wild type Petunia x hybrida 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD) and transgenic petunias with reduced sensitivity to ethylene (35S::etr1-1). When compared to the total P content of corollas on the day of flower opening (the early non-senescing stage), P in MD corollas had decreased 74% by the late stage of senescence (advanced wilting). By contrast, P levels were only reduced by an average of 32% during etr1-1 corolla (lines 44568 and Z00-35-10) senescence. A high-affinity phosphate transporter, PhPT1 (PhPht1;1), was cloned from senescing petunia corollas by RT-PCR. PhPT1 expression was up-regulated during MD corolla senescence and a much smaller increase was detected during the senescence of etr1-1 petunia corollas. PhPT1 mRNA levels showed a rapid increase in detached corollas (treated at 1 d after flower opening) following treatment with low levels of ethylene (0.1 microl l(-1)). Transcripts accumulated in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, indicating that PhPT1 is a primary ethylene response gene. PhPT1 is a putative phosphate transporter that may function in Pi translocation during senescence.
Project description:Pollination reduces flower longevity in many angiosperms by accelerating corolla senescence. This response requires hormone signaling between the floral organs and results in the degradation of macromolecules and organelles within the petals to allow for nutrient remobilization to developing seeds. To investigate early pollination-induced changes in petal gene expression, we utilized high-throughput sequencing to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed between corollas of pollinated Petunia × hybrida flowers and their unpollinated controls at 12, 18, and 24 hours after opening.In total, close to 0.5 billion Illumina 101 bp reads were generated, de novo assembled, and annotated, resulting in an EST library of approximately 33 K genes. Over 4,700 unique, differentially expressed genes were identified using comparisons between the pollinated and unpollinated libraries followed by pairwise comparisons of pollinated libraries to unpollinated libraries from the same time point (i.e. 12-P/U, 18-P/U, and 24-P/U) in the Bioconductor R package DESeq2. Over 500 gene ontology terms were enriched. The response to auxin stimulus and response to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid terms were enriched by 12 hours after pollination (hap). Using weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA), three pollination-specific modules were identified. Module I had increased expression across pollinated corollas at 12, 18, and 24 h, and modules II and III had a peak of expression in pollinated corollas at 18 h. A total of 15 enriched KEGG pathways were identified. Many of the genes from these pathways were involved in metabolic processes or signaling. More than 300 differentially expressed transcription factors were identified.Gene expression changes in corollas were detected within 12 hap, well before fertilization and corolla wilting or ethylene evolution. Significant changes in gene expression occurred at 18 hap, including the up-regulation of autophagy and down-regulation of ribosomal genes and genes involved in carbon fixation. This transcriptomic database will greatly expand the genetic resources available in petunia. Additionally, it will guide future research aimed at identifying the best targets for increasing flower longevity by delaying corolla senescence.
Project description:Petal senescence involves numerous programmed changes in biological and biochemical processes. Ubiquitination plays a critical role in protein degradation, a hallmark of organ senescence. Therefore, we investigated changes in the proteome and ubiquitome of senescing rose (Rosa hybrida) petals to better understand their involvement in petal senescence. Of 3859 proteins quantified in senescing petals, 1198 were upregulated, and 726 were downregulated during senescence. We identified 2208 ubiquitinated sites, including 384 with increased ubiquitination in 298 proteins and 1035 with decreased ubiquitination in 674 proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that proteins related to peptidases in proteolysis and autophagy pathways were enriched in the proteome, suggesting that protein degradation and autophagy play important roles in petal senescence. In addition, many transporter proteins accumulated in senescing petals, and several transport processes were enriched in the ubiquitome, indicating that transport of substances is associated with petal senescence and regulated by ubiquitination. Moreover, several components of the brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and signaling pathways were significantly altered at the protein and ubiquitination levels, implying that BR plays an important role in petal senescence. Our data provide a comprehensive view of rose petal senescence at the posttranslational level.
Project description:Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data provided a useful database for further research of wintersweet and other Calycanthaceae family plants.
Project description:Autophagy is one of the main mechanisms of degradation and remobilization of macromolecules, and it appears to play an important role in petal senescence. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in petal senescence. Autophagic processes were observed by electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining of senescing petals of petunia (Petunia hybrida); autophagy-related gene 8 (ATG8) homologues were isolated from petunia and the regulation of expression was analysed. Nutrient remobilization was also examined during pollination-induced petal senescence. Active autophagic processes were observed in the mesophyll cells of senescing petunia petals. Pollination induced the expression of PhATG8 homologues and was accompanied by an increase in ethylene production. Ethylene inhibitor treatment in pollinated flowers delayed the induction of PhATG8 homologues, and ethylene treatment rapidly upregulated PhATG8 homologues in petunia petals. Dry weight and nitrogen content were decreased in the petals and increased in the ovaries after pollination in detached flowers. These results indicated that pollination induces autophagy and that ethylene is a key regulator of autophagy in petal senescence of petunia. The data also demonstrated the translocation of nutrients from the petals to the ovaries during pollination-induced petal senescence.
Project description:Petal senescence involves numerous programmed changes in biological and biochemical processes. Ubiquitination plays a critical role in protein degradation, a hallmark of organ senescence. Therefore, we investigated changes in the proteome and ubiquitome of senescing rose (Rosa hybrida) petals to better understand their involvement in petal senescence. Of 3859 proteins quantified in senescing petals, 1198 were up-regulated and 726 were down-regulated during senescence. We identified 2208 ubiquitinated sites including 384 with increased ubiquitination in 298 proteins and 1035 with decreased ubiquitination in 674 proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that proteins related to peptidases in proteolysis and autophagy pathways were enriched in the proteome, suggesting that protein degradation and autophagy play important roles in petal senescence. In addition, many transporter proteins accumulated in senescing petals, and several transport processes were enriched in the ubiquitome, indicating that transport of substances is associated with petal senescence and regulated by ubiquitination. Moreover, several components of the brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and signaling pathways were significantly altered at the protein and ubiquitination levels, implying that BR plays important roles in petal senescence. Our data provide a comprehensive view of rose petal senescence at the posttranslational level.
Project description:Senescence represents the last stage of flower development. Phosphorylation is one of the key post-translational modifications that regulate protein functions in diverse biological pathways and contexts. Generally, kinases may be more required than phosphatases during plant growth and development. However, little is known about global phosphorylation change during flower senescence. In this work, we quantitatively investigated the petunia phosphoproteome following ethylene or air treatment. In total, 2170 phosphosites in 1184 protein groups were identified, among which 2059 sites in 1124 proteins were quantified. Treatment with ethylene resulted in 711 down-regulated and only 117 up-regulated phosphosites using a 1.5-fold threshold (P<0.05), showing that ethylene negatively regulates global phosphorylation levels and that phosphorylation of lots of proteins was not necessary during flower senescence. Our results show that protein dephosphorylation may play an important role of in ethylene-induced corolla senescence in petunia and that phosphatases may be more required than kinases during flower senescence. In addition, our results show that ethylene regulates ethylene and ABA signaling transduction pathways via phosphorylation level, and plant mRNA splicing machinery was a major target of ethylene-induced dephosphorylation. Moreover, ethylene treatment increases the number of alternative splicing of precursor RNAs in petunia corollas.
Project description:Ethylene-responsive element-binding factor (ERF) genes constitute one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants. In Arabidopsis and rice, only a few ERF genes have been characterized so far. Flower senescence is associated with increased ethylene production in many flowers. However, the characterization of ERF genes in flower senescence has not been reported. In this study, 13 ERF cDNAs were cloned from petunia. Based on the sequence characterization, these PhERFs could be classified into four of the 12 known ERF families. Their predicted amino acid sequences exhibited similarities to ERFs from other plant species. Expression analyses of PhERF mRNAs were performed in corollas and gynoecia of petunia flower. The 13 PhERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels during natural flower senescence. Exogenous ethylene accelerates the transcription of the various PhERF genes, and silver thiosulphate (STS) decreased the transcription of several PhERF genes in corollas and gynoecia. PhERF genes of group VII showed a strong association with the rise in ethylene production in both petals and gynoecia, and might be associated particularly with flower senescence in petunia. The effect of sugar, methyl jasmonate, and the plant hormones abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 6-benzyladenine in regulating the different PhERF transcripts was investigated. Functional nuclear localization signal analyses of two PhERF proteins (PhERF2 and PhERF3) were carried out using fluorescence microscopy. These results supported a role for petunia PhERF genes in transcriptional regulation of petunia flower senescence processes.
Project description:A comparative investigation was undertaken with pigeon pea leaves and attached flower buds/flowers/pods during their developmental stages including senescence in a natural system in experimental plots. Alterations in chloroplast pigments, total soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD, EC 184.108.40.206) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 220.127.116.11) were studied at 5-day interval from initial to 40-day stage. Chloroplast pigments and proteins of leaves increased upto 15 and 20-day stages respectively followed by a steady decline. Reproductive parts, however, exhibited rise in chloroplast pigments upto 25-day and protein till last stage as developing pods gain the amount from the senescing leaves which are nearest to them. Senescing leaves show very high POD activity than the developing and senescing pods and POD appears to be associated with chlorophyll degradation. Considerably higher activity and amount of LOX and MDA respectively have been noticed in senescing leaves than in flowers and pods. Increase in SOD activity during early stage of leaf growth and maturation indicates protective role that declined at senescent stages. Pods are unique in having very high SOD activity, only last stage of senescence does show a decline.
Project description:Rose (Rosa hybrida) plants are major ornamental species worldwide, and their commercial value greatly depends on their open flowers, as both the quality of fully open petals and long vase life are important. Petal senescence can be started and accelerated by various hormone signals, and ethylene is considered an accelerator of petal senescence in rose. To date, however, the underlying mechanism of signaling crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones such as JA in petal senescence remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated RhMYB108, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, which is highly expressed in senescing petals as well as in petals treated with exogenous ethylene and JA. Applications of exogenous ethylene and JA markedly accelerated petal senescence, while the process was delayed in response to applications of 1-MCP, an ethylene action inhibitor. In addition, silencing of RhMYB108 alter the expression of SAGs such as RhNAC029, RhNAC053, RhNAC092, RhSAG12, and RhSAG113, and finally block ethylene- and JA-induced petal senescence. Furthermore, RhMYB108 was identified to target the promoters of RhNAC053, RhNAC092, and RhSAG113. Our results reveal a model in which RhMYB108 functions as a receptor of ethylene and JA signals to modulate the onset of petal senescence by targeting and enhancing senescence-associated gene expression.