CT of sclerotic bone lesions: imaging features differentiating tuberous sclerosis complex with lymphangioleiomyomatosis from sporadic lymphangioleiomymatosis.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine if sclerotic bone lesions evident at body computed tomography (CT) are of value as a diagnostic criterion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and in the differentiation of TSC with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) from sporadic LAM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Informed consent was signed by all patients in this HIPAA-compliant study approved by the institutional review board. Retrospective analysis was performed of the body CT studies of 472 patients: 365 with sporadic LAM, 82 with TSC/LAM, and 25 with TSC. The images were reviewed by using a picture archiving and communication system workstation with bone settings (window width, 1500 HU; window level, 300 HU) and fit-to-screen option. CT image characteristics assessed included shape, size, and distribution of sclerotic bone lesions with subsequent calculation of differences in the frequency of these lesions. RESULTS: Most commonly the sclerotic bone lesions were round, measured 0.3 cm (range, 0.2-3.2), and were distributed throughout the spine. The frequencies differed among the three patient groups Four or more sclerotic bone lesions were detected in all 25 (100%) of those with TSC, with a sensitivity of .89 (72 of 82) and specificity of .97 (355 of 367) in the differentiation of sporadic LAM from TSC/LAM (P < .01). CONCLUSION: The number of sclerotic bone lesions at body CT is of potential value in the diagnosis of TSC and in the differentiation of patients with sporadic LAM from those with TSC/LAM. (c) RSNA, 2010.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. TSC has high frequency of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. However, an animal model that replicates TSC craniofacial bone lesions has not yet been described. The roles of Tsc1 and the sequelae of Tsc1 dysfunction in bone are unknown. In this study, we generated a mouse model of TSC with a deletion of Tsc1 in neural crest-derived (NCD) cells that recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesions in TSC. Analysis of this mouse model demonstrated that TSC1 deletion led to enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD bones and the increase in bone formation is responsible for the aberrantly increased bone mass. Lineage mapping revealed that TSC1 deficient NCD cells overpopulated the NCD bones. Mechanistically, hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitors at an early postnatal stage accounts for the increased osteoblast pool. Intriguingly, early postnatal treatment with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, can completely rescue the aberrant bone mass, but late treatment cannot. Our data suggest that enhanced mTOR signaling in NCD cells can increase bone mass through enlargement of the osteoprogenitor pool, which likely explains the sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients.
Project description:Tuberous-sclerosis-complex (TSC) is associated with a high lifetime risk of severe complications. Clinical manifestations are largely variable and diagnosis is often missed. Sclerotic-bone-lesions (SBL) could represent a potential imaging biomarker for the diagnosis of TSC. In this study, computed tomography (CT) data sets of 49 TSC patients (31 females) were included and compared to an age/sex matched control group. Imaging features of SBLs included frequency, size and location pattern. Sensitivities, specificities and cutoff values for the diagnosis of TSC were established for the skull, thorax, and abdomen/pelvis. In TSC patients, 3439 SBLs were detected, including 665 skull SBLs, 1426 thoracal SBLs and 1348 abdominal/pelvic SBLs. In the matched control-collective, 157 SBLs could be found. The frequency of SBLs enabled a reliable differentiation between TSC patients and the control collective with the following sensitivities and specificities. Skull: ?5 SBLs, 0.783, 1; thorax: ?4 SBLs, 0.967, 0.967; abdomen/pelvis: ?5 SBLs: 0.938, 0.906. SBL size was significantly larger compared to controls (p?<?0.05). Based on the frequency, size and location pattern of SBLs TSC can be suspected. SBLs may serve as a potential imaging biomarker in the workup of TSC patients.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis syndrome (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome affecting multiple organs, including renal angiomyolipomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). LAM is a female-predominant interstitial lung disease characterized by the progressive cyst formation and respiratory failure, which is also seen in sporadic patients without TSC. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause TSC, result in hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and are also seen in LAM cells in sporadic LAM. We recently reported that prostaglandin biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 were deregulated in TSC and LAM. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasma membrane phospholipids into prostaglandins. In this study, we identified upregulation of adipocyte AdPLA2 (PLA2G16) in LAM nodule cells using publicly available expression data. We showed that the levels of AdPLA2 transcript and protein were higher in LAM lungs compared with control lungs. We then showed that TSC2 negatively regulates the expression of AdPLA2, and loss of TSC2 is associated with elevated production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in cell culture models. Mouse model studies also showed increased expression of AdPLA2 in xenograft tumors, estrogen-induced lung metastatic lesions of Tsc2 null leiomyoma-derived cells, and spontaneous renal cystadenomas from Tsc2+/- mice. Importantly, rapamycin treatment did not affect the expression of AdPLA2 and the production of PGE2 by TSC2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (Tsc2-/-MEFs), rat uterine leiomyoma-derived ELT3 cells, and LAM patient-associated renal angiomyolipoma-derived "mesenchymal" cells. Furthermore, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphate (MAFP), a potent irreversible PLA2 inhibitor, selectively suppressed the growth and induced apoptosis of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived cells relative to TSC2-addback cells. Our findings suggest that AdPLA2 plays an important role in promoting tumorigenesis and disease progression by modulating the production of prostaglandins and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in TSC and LAM.
Project description:Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease affecting some women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Sporadic LAM can develop in women without TSC, owing to somatic mutations in the TSC2 gene. Accumulating evidence supports the view of LAM as a low-grade, destructive, metastasizing neoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the metastatic capability of LAM cells remain poorly understood. The observed behavior of LAM cells with respect to their infiltrative growth pattern, metastatic potential, and altered cell differentiation bears similarity to cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, we report increased levels of active Src kinase in LAM lungs and in TSC2(-/-) cells, caused by a reduction of autophagy. Furthermore, increased Src kinase activation promoted migration, invasion, and inhibition of E-cadherin expression in TSC2(-/-) cells by upregulating the transcription factor Snail. Notably, Src kinase inhibitors reduced migration and invasion properties of TSC2(-/-) cells and attenuated lung colonization of intravenously injected TSC2(-/-) cells in vivo to a greater extent than control TSC2(+/+) cells. Our results reveal mechanistic basis for the pathogenicity of LAM cells and they rationalize Src kinase as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of LAM and TSC.
Project description:PURPOSE:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by inactivating mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, characterized by neurocognitive impairment and benign tumors of the brain, skin, heart, and kidneys. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a diffuse proliferation of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells associated with cystic destruction of the lung. LAM occurs almost exclusively in women, as a TSC manifestation or a sporadic disorder (TSC1/TSC2 somatic mutations). Biomarkers of whole-body tumor burden/activity and response to rapalogs or other therapies remain needed in TSC/LAM. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:These preclinical studies aimed to assess feasibility of [18F]fluorocholine (FCH) and [18F]fluoroacetate (FACE) as TSC/LAM metabolic imaging biomarkers. RESULTS:We previously reported that TSC2-deficient cells enhance phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. Here, we show that TSC2-deficient cells exhibit rapid uptake of [18F]FCH in vivo and can be visualized by PET imaging in preclinical models of TSC/LAM, including subcutaneous tumors and pulmonary nodules. Treatment with rapamycin (72 hours) suppressed [18F]FCH standardized uptake value (SUV) by >50% in tumors. Interestingly, [18F]FCH-PET imaging of TSC2-deficient xenografts in ovariectomized mice also showed a significant decrease in tumor SUV. Finally, we found rapamycin-insensitive uptake of FACE by TSC2-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo, reflecting its mitochondrial accumulation via inhibition of aconitase, a TCA cycle enzyme. CONCLUSIONS:Preclinical models of TSC2 deficiency represent informative platforms to identify tracers of potential clinical interest. Our findings provide mechanistic evidence for testing the potential of [18F]FCH and [18F]FACE as metabolic imaging biomarkers for TSC and LAM proliferative lesions, and novel insights into the metabolic reprogramming of TSC tumors.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The EXIST-2 (NCT00790400) study demonstrated the superiority of everolimus over placebo for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). This post hoc analysis of EXIST-2 study aimed to assess angiomyolipoma tumor behavior among patients who submitted to continued radiographic examination following discontinuation of everolimus in the noninterventional follow-up phase. METHODS:For patients who discontinued everolimus at the completion of extension phase for reasons other than angiomyolipoma progression, a single CT/MRI scan of the kidney was collected after 1 year of treatment discontinuation. Changes from baseline and from the time of everolimus discontinuation in the sum of volumes of target angiomyolipoma lesions were assessed in the non-interventional follow-up phase (data cutoff date, November 6, 2015). RESULTS:Of the 112 patients who received ?1 dose of everolimus and discontinued treatment by the end of extension phase, 34 (30.4%) were eligible for participation in the non-interventional follow-up phase. Sixteen of 34 patients were evaluable for angiomyolipoma tumor behavior as they had at least one valid efficacy assessment (i.e. kidney CT/MRI scan) after everolimus discontinuation. During the non-interventional follow-up phase, compared with baseline, two patients (12.5%) experienced angiomyolipoma progression (angiomyolipoma-related bleeding [n = 1], increased kidney volume [n = 1]). Five patients out of 16 (31.3%) experienced angiomyolipoma progression when compared with the angiomyolipoma tumor assessment at everolimus discontinuation. The median (range) percentage change in angiomyolipoma tumor volume (cm3) from baseline was -70.56 (-88.30; -49.64) at time of everolimus discontinuation (n = 11), and -50.55 (-79.40; -23.16) at week 48 (n = 7) after discontinuation of everolimus. One patient death was reported due to angiomyolipoma hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS:Angiomyolipoma lesions displayed an increase in volume following discontinuation of everolimus in patients with renal angiomyolipoma or sporadic LAM associated with TSC, but there was no evidence of rapid regrowth. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00790400.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the frequency of uterine leiomyomas and hysterectomy in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a disease characterized by proliferation of abnormal-appearing smooth muscle-like cells.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective study.<h4>Setting</h4>Natural history study at the National Institutes of Health.<h4>Patient(s)</h4>456 patients with sporadic LAM and LAM associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (LAM/TSC).<h4>Intervention(s)</h4>Review of records and pelvic computed axial tomography scans.<h4>Main outcome measure(s)</h4>Prevalence of uterine leiomyomas and hysterectomy.<h4>Result(s)</h4>A total of 174 women had uterine leiomyomas (38%). One hundred eighteen were diagnosed by computed tomographic scan and 56 were diagnosed by hysterectomy. Among 323 patients who did not have hysterectomy, 105 of 270 patients (39%) with sporadic LAM and 13 of 53 (25%) with LAM/TSC had uterine leiomyomas. Hysterectomy was performed in 108 of 378 subjects with sporadic LAM and 25 of 78 with LAM/TSC. Fifty-six patients were found to have uterine fibroids on hysterectomy. The most common indications for hysterectomy were uterine leiomyoma, LAM, and endometriosis.<h4>Conclusion(s)</h4>Uterine leiomyomas are not more common in LAM than in the general population. However, in LAM, the frequency of hysterectomy is higher because of it having been recommended for treatment of LAM.
Project description:To explore the diagnostic method in assessing the malignancy of pulmonary adenocarcinoma characterized by ground glass opacities (GGO) on computed tomography (CT).Preoperative CT data for preinvasive and invasive lung adenocarcinomas were analyzed retrospectively. GGO lesions that were detected on lung windows but absent using the mediastinal window were subject to adjustment of the window width, which was reduced with the fixed interval of 100 HU until the lesions were no longer evident, with a fixed mediastinal window level of 40 HU. The shape, smoking habits, size of the lesion on the lung window, and window width at which lesions disappeared were compared and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cut-off of the lesion size and window width to differentiate between these invasive and preinvasive lesions.Of the 209 lung adenocarcinomas, 102 were preinvasive (25 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and 77 adenocarcinoma in situ), while 107 were invasive (78 minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and 29 invasive adenocarcinoma). The shape, lesion size, and window width at which lesions were no longer evident differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). The size of 8.9 mm and a window width of 1250 HU were the optimal cut-off to differentiate between preinvasive and invasive lesions.The shape, size of the lesion, and window width on high-resolution CT may be useful in assessing the invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma that manifests as GGO. Irregular lesions that disappear at window width <1250 HU, with a diameter of > 8.9 mm are more likely to be invasive.
Project description:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) can be sporadic or associated with TSC and is characterized by widespread pulmonary proliferation of abnormal ?-smooth muscle (ASM)-like cells. We investigated the features of ASM cells isolated from chylous thorax of a patient affected by LAM associated with TSC, named LAM/TSC cells, bearing a germline TSC2 mutation and an epigenetic defect causing the absence of tuberin. Proliferation of LAM/TSC cells is epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent and blockade of EGF receptor causes cell death as we previously showed in cells lacking tuberin. LAM/TSC cells spontaneously detach probably for the inactivation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt/mTOR pathway and display the ability to survive independently from adhesion. Non-adherent LAM/TSC cells show an extremely low proliferation rate consistent with tumour stem-cell characteristics. Moreover, LAM/TSC cells bear characteristics of stemness and secrete high amount of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Anti-EGF receptor antibodies and rapamycin affect proliferation and viability of non-adherent cells. In conclusion, the understanding of LAM/TSC cell features is important in the assessment of cell invasiveness in LAM and TSC and should provide a useful model to test therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling their migratory ability.
Project description:The majority of women with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) present with cystic lung disease, and most require lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prospective diagnostic usefulness of a serologic test for vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), a lymphangiogenic growth factor.We prospectively measured serum VEGF-D levels by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 48 women presenting with cystic lung disease. Diagnostic test performance was determined from a cohort of 195 women, with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), TSC-LAM, sporadic LAM (S-LAM), and other cystic lung diseases in the differential diagnosis, including biopsy-proven or genetically proven pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, emphysema, Sjögren syndrome, or Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly greater in S-LAM (median 1,175 [interquartile range (IQR): 780-2,013] pg/mL; n = 56) than in other cystic lung diseases (median 281 [IQR 203-351] pg/mL; n = 44, P < .001). In the cohort evaluated prospectively, 12 of the 15 individuals ultimately diagnosed with LAM by biopsy had VEGF-D levels of > 800 pg/mL, whereas levels were < 600 pg/mL in all 18 subjects later diagnosed with other causes of cystic lung disease. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that VEGF-D effectively identified LAM, with an area under the curve of 0.961(95% CI, 0.923-0.992). A VEGF-D level of > 600 pg/mL was highly associated with a diagnosis of LAM (specificity 97.6%, likelihood ratio 35.2) and values > 800 pg/mL were diagnostically specific. Serum VEGF-D levels were significantly elevated in women with TSC-LAM (median 3,465 [IQR 1,970-7,195] pg/mL) compared with women with TSC only (median 370 [IQR 291-520] pg/mL), P < .001).A serum VEGF-D level of > 800 pg/mL in a woman with typical cystic changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan is diagnostically specific for S-LAM and identifies LAM in women with TSC. A negative VEGF-D result does not exclude the diagnosis of LAM. The usefulness of serum VEGF-D testing in men or in women who do not have cystic lung disease on HRCT scan is unknown.