Identification of furan metabolites derived from cysteine-cis-2-butene-1,4-dial-lysine cross-links.
ABSTRACT: Furan is a rodent hepatotoxicant and carcinogen. Because this compound is an important industrial intermediate and has been detected in heat-processed foods and smoke, humans are likely exposed to this toxic compound. Characterization of urinary metabolites of furan will lead to the development of biomarkers to assess human health risks associated with furan exposure. Previous studies indicate that furan is oxidized to a reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), in a reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450. Five previously characterized metabolites are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles such as glutathione and protein. They include the monoglutathione reaction product, N-[4-carboxy-4-(3-mercapto-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-l-cysteinylglycine cyclic sulfide, and its downstream metabolite, S-[1-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]methylthiol, as well as (R)-2-acetylamino-6-(2,5-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-hexanoic acid and N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine and its sulfoxide. The last two compounds are downstream metabolites of a BDA-derived cysteine-lysine cross-link, S-[1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine. In this report, we present the characterization of seven additional urinary furan metabolites, all of which are derived from this cross-link. The cysteinyl residue is subject to several biotransformation reactions, including N-acetylation and S-oxidation. Alternatively, it can undergo beta-elimination followed by S-methylation to a methylthiol intermediate that is further oxidized to a sulfoxide. The lysine portion of the cross-link either is N-acetylated or undergoes a transamination reaction to generate an alpha-ketoacid metabolite that undergoes oxidative decarboxylation. Some of these metabolites are among the most abundant furan metabolites present in urine as judged by LC-MS/MS analysis, indicating that the oxidation of furan to BDA and BDA's subsequent reaction with cellular cysteine and lysine residues may represent a significant in vivo pathway of furan biotransformation. Because they are derived from cellular BDA reaction products, these metabolites are markers of furan exposure and bioactivation and could be explored as potential biomarkers in human studies.
Project description:Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. On the basis of these observations and the large potential for human exposure, furan has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. The mechanism of tumor induction by furan is unknown. However, the toxicity requires cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan. The product of this oxidation, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), reacts readily with glutathione, amino acids, and DNA and is a bacterial mutagen in Ames assay strain TA104. Characterization of the urinary metabolites of furan is expected to provide information regarding the structure(s) of the reactive metabolite(s). Recently, several urinary metabolites have been identified. We reported the presence of a monoglutathione-BDA reaction product, N-[4-carboxy-4-(3-mercapto-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-l-cysteinylglycine cyclic sulfide. Three additional urinary metabolites of furan were also characterized as follows: R-2-acetylamino-6-(2,5-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-hexanoic acid, N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine, and its sulfoxide. It was postulated that these three metabolites are derived from degraded protein adducts. However, the possibility that these metabolites result from the reaction of BDA with free lysine and/or cysteine was not ruled out. In this latter case, one might predict that the reaction of thiol-BDA with free lysine would not occur exclusively on the epsilon-amino group. Reaction of BDA with N-acetylcysteine or GSH in the presence of lysine indicated that both the alpha- and the epsilon-amino groups of lysine can be modified by thiol-BDA. The N-acetylcysteine-BDA-N-acetyllysine urinary metabolites were solely linked through the epsilon-amino group of lysine. A GSH-BDA-lysine cross-link was a significant hepatocyte metabolite of furan. In this case, the major product resulted from reaction with the epsilon-amino group of lysine; however, small amounts of the alpha-amino reaction product were also observed. Western analysis of liver and hepatocyte protein extracts using anti-GSH antibody indicated that GSH was covalently linked to proteins in tissues or cells exposed to furan. Our data support the hypothesis that GSH-BDA can react with either free lysine or protein lysine groups. These data suggest that there are multiple pathways by which furan can modify cellular nucleophiles. In one pathway, BDA reacts directly with proteins to form cysteine-lysine reaction products. In another, BDA reacts with GSH to form GSH-BDA conjugates, which then react with cellular nucleophiles like free lysine or lysine moieties in proteins. Both pathways will give rise to N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine. Given the abundance of these metabolites in urine of furan-treated rats, these pathways appear to be major pathways of furan biotransformation in vivo.
Project description:Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen, but the human health effects of furan exposure remain unknown. The oxidation of furan by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is necessary for furan toxicity. The product of this reaction is the reactive ?,?-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). To determine whether human liver microsomes metabolize furan to BDA, a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to detect and quantify BDA by trapping this reactive metabolite with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and N-acetyl-l-lysine (NAL). Reaction of NAC and NAL with BDA generates N-acetyl-S-[1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-l-cysteine (NAC-BDA-NAL). Formation of NAC-BDA-NAL was quantified in 21 different human liver microsomal preparations. The levels of metabolism were comparable to that observed in F-344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse liver microsomes, two species known to be sensitive to furan-induced toxicity. Studies with recombinant human liver P450s indicated that CYP2E1 is the most active human liver furan oxidase. The activity of CYP2E1 as measured by p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity was correlated to the extent of NAC-BDA-NAL formation in human liver microsomes. The formation of NAC-BDA-NAL was blocked by CYP2E1 inhibitors but not other P450 inhibitors. These results suggest that humans are capable of oxidizing furan to its toxic metabolite, BDA, at rates comparable to those of species sensitive to furan exposure. Therefore, humans may be susceptible to furan's toxic effects.
Project description:Furan, a possible human carcinogen, is found in heat treated foods and tobacco smoke. Previous studies have shown that humans are capable of converting furan to its reactive metabolite, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), and therefore may be susceptible to furan toxicity. Human risk assessment of furan exposure has been stymied because of the lack of mechanism-based exposure biomarkers. Therefore, a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for six furan metabolites was applied to measure their levels in urine from furan-exposed rodents as well as in human urine from smokers and nonsmokers. The metabolites that result from direct reaction of BDA with lysine (BDA-N(?)-acetyllysine) and from cysteine-BDA-lysine cross-links (N-acetylcysteine-BDA-lysine, N-acetylcysteine-BDA-N(?)-acetyllysine, and their sulfoxides) were targeted in this study. Five of the six metabolites were identified in urine from rodents treated with furan by gavage. BDA-N(?)-acetyllysine, N-acetylcysteine-BDA-lysine, and its sulfoxide were detected in most human urine samples from three different groups. The levels of N-acetylcysteine-BDA-lysine sulfoxide were more than 10 times higher than that of the corresponding sulfide in many samples. The amount of this metabolite was higher in smokers relative to that in nonsmokers and was significantly reduced following smoking cessation. Our results indicate a strong relationship between BDA-derived metabolites and smoking. Future studies will determine if levels of these biomarkers are associated with adverse health effects in humans.
Project description:Furan is a liver toxicant and carcinogen in rodents. Although humans are most likely exposed to furan through a variety of sources, the effect of furan exposure on human health is still unknown. In rodents, furan requires metabolism to exert its toxic effects. The initial product of the cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation is a reactive ?,?-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). BDA is toxic and mutagenic and consequently is considered responsible for the toxic effects of furan. The urinary metabolites of furan in rats are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, and precursors to these metabolites are detected in furan-exposed hepatocytes. Many of these precursors are 2-(S-glutathionyl)butanedial-amine cross-links in which the amines are amino acids and polyamines. Because these metabolites are derived from the reaction of BDA with cellular nucleophiles, their levels are a measure of the internal dose of this reactive metabolite. To compare the ability of human hepatocytes to convert furan to the same metabolites as rodent hepatocytes, furan was incubated with cryopreserved human and rodent hepatocytes. A semiquantitative liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed for a number of the previously characterized furan metabolites. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of the metabolites demonstrated that furan is metabolized in a similar manner in all three species. These results indicate that humans may be susceptible to the toxic effects of furan.
Project description:Furan is toxic and carcinogenic in rodents. Because of the large potential for human exposure, furan is classified as a possible human carcinogen. The detailed mechanism by which furan causes toxicity and cancer is not yet known. Since furan toxicity requires cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan, we have characterized the urinary and hepatocyte metabolites of furan to gain insight into the chemical nature of the reactive intermediate. Previous studies in hepatocytes indicated that furan is oxidized to the reactive ?,?-unsaturated dialdehyde, cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which reacts with glutathione (GSH) to form 2-(S-glutathionyl)succinaldehyde (GSH-BDA). This intermediate forms pyrrole cross-links with cellular amines such as lysine and glutamine. In this article, we demonstrate that GSH-BDA also forms cross-links with ornithine, putrescine, and spermidine when furan is incubated with rat hepatocytes. The relative levels of these metabolites are not completely explained by hepatocellular levels of the amines or by their reactivity with GSH-BDA. Mercapturic acid derivatives of the spermidine cross-links were detected in the urine of furan-treated rats, which indicates that this metabolic pathway occurs in vivo. Their detection in furan-treated hepatocytes and in urine from furan-treated rats indicates that polyamines may play an important role in the toxicity of furan.
Project description:Screening identified 2-(3-((4,6-dioxo-2-thioxotetrahydropyrimidin-5(2H)-ylidene)methyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile as an MDM2-p53 inhibitor (IC50 = 12.3 ?M). MDM2-p53 and MDMX-p53 activity was seen for 5-((1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione (MDM2 IC50 = 0.11 ?M; MDMX IC50 = 4.2 ?M) and 5-((1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methylene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (MDM2 IC50 = 0.15 ?M; MDMX IC50 = 4.2 ?M), and cellular activity consistent with p53 activation in MDM2 amplified cells. Further SAR studies demonstrated the requirement for the triarylpyrrole moiety for MDMX-p53 activity but not for MDM2-p53 inhibition.
Project description:Background:Pyrazolines show different biological activities. In recent years, interest in the chemistry of hydrazonoyl halides has been renewed. 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles are one of the most common heterocyclic pharmacophores with a wide range of biological activities. Results:Ethyl 2-(5-(furan-2-yl)-3-(p-tolyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylate, 2-(5-(furan-2-yl)-3-(p-tolyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)thiazol-4(5H)-one, and 1-(2-(5-(furan-2-yl)-3-(p-tolyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-methylthiazol-5-yl)ethan-1-one were synthesized from the reaction of 5-(furan-2-yl)-3-(p-tolyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide with different halogenated compounds. Thiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole and pyrano[2,3-d]thiazole derivatives were also synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated based on elemental analysis, spectral data, and alternative synthetic routes whenever possible. Additionally, the newly synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. Conclusions:A new series of novel functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, 1,3-thiazoles, and pyrazoline-containing moieties were synthesized using hydrazonoyl halides as precursors and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The antimicrobial results of the examined compounds revealed promising results and some derivatives have activities similar to the references used.
Project description:Metabolism of the hepatotoxicant furan leads to protein adduct formation in the target organ. The initial bioactivation step involves cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of furan, generating cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA). BDA reacts with lysine to form pyrrolin-2-one adducts. Metabolic studies indicate that BDA also reacts with glutathione (GSH) to generate 2-(S-glutathionyl)butanedial (GSH-BDA), which then reacts with lysine to form GSH-BDA-lysine cross-links. To explore the relative reactivity of these two reactive intermediates, cytochrome c was reacted with BDA in the presence and absence of GSH. As judged by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, BDA reacts extensively with cytochrome c to form adducts that add 66 Da to the protein, consistent with the formation of pyrrolinone adducts. Addition of GSH to the reaction mixture reduced the overall extent of adduct formation. The mass of the adducted protein was shifted by 355 Da as expected for GSH-BDA-protein cross-link formation. LC-MS/MS analysis of the tryptic digests of the alkylated protein indicated that the majority of adducts occurred on lysine residues, with BDA reacting less selectively than GSH-BDA. Both types of adducts may contribute to the toxic effects of furan.
Project description:New insights concerning the reaction mechanism in the cycloaddition reaction of benzimidazolium ylides to activated alkynes are presented. The proposed pathway leading both to 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)anilines and to pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-ones involves an opening of the imidazole ring from the cycloaddition product, followed by a nucleophilic attack of the aminic nitrogen to a proximal carbonyl group and the elimination of a leaving group. The mechanistic considerations are fully supported by experimental data, including the XRD resolved structure of the key reaction intermediate.
Project description:A simple approach was developed for the synthesis of methyl 4-imidazolylpyrrole-2-carboxylates from easily available compounds, 5-methoxyisoxazoles and phenacylimidazolium salts under hybrid Fe(II)/Et3N relay catalysis. The products were easily transformed into the corresponding 3-(5-methoxycarbonyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium-3-yl)pyrrol-1-ides, which in turn can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions into the corresponding betaines. A carbene tautomeric form of the 4-methoxycarbonyl-substituted imidazolylpyrrolides was trapped by reaction with sulfur affording the corresponding imidazolethiones under very mild conditions.