Targeted deletion of the gamma-adducin gene (Add3) in mice reveals differences in alpha-adducin interactions in erythroid and nonerythroid cells.
ABSTRACT: In red blood cells (RBCs) adducin heterotetramers localize to the spectrin-actin junction of the peripheral membrane skeleton. We previously reported that deletion of beta-adducin results in osmotically fragile, microcytic RBCs and a phenotype of hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Notably, alpha-adducin was significantly reduced, while gamma-adducin, normally present in limited amounts, was increased approximately 5-fold, suggesting that alpha-adducin requires a heterologous binding partner for stability and function, and that gamma-adducin can partially substitute for the absence of beta-adducin. To test these assumptions we generated gamma-adducin null mice. gamma-adducin null RBCs appear normal on Wright's stained peripheral blood smears and by scanning electron microscopy. All membrane skeleton proteins examined are present in normal amounts, and all hematological parameters measured are normal. Despite a loss of approximately 70% of alpha-adducin in gamma-adducin null platelets, no bleeding defect is observed and platelet structure appears normal. Moreover, systemic blood pressure and pulse are normal in gamma-adducin null mice. gamma- and beta-adducin null mice were intercrossed to generate double null mice. Loss of gamma-adducin does not exacerbate the beta-adducin null HS phenotype although the amount alpha-adducin is reduced to barely detectable levels. The stability of alpha-adducin in the absence of a heterologous binding partner varies considerably in various tissues. The amount of alpha-adducin is modestly reduced ( approximately 15%) in the kidney, while in the spleen and brain is reduced by approximately 50% with the loss of a heterologous beta- or gamma-adducin binding partner. These results suggest that the structural properties of adducin differ significantly between erythroid and various nonerythroid cell types.
Project description:In the red blood cell (RBC), adducin is present primarily as tetramers of alpha- and beta-subunits at spectrin-actin junctions, or junctional complexes. Mouse RBCs also contain small amounts of gamma-adducin. Platelets contain alpha- and gamma-adducin only. Adducin functions as a barbed-end actin capping protein to regulate actin filament length and recruits spectrin to the ends of actin filaments. To further define adducin's role in vivo, we generated alpha-adducin knockout mice. alpha-Adducin is absent in all tissues examined in homozygous null mice. In RBCs, beta- and gamma-adducin are also absent, indicating that alpha-adducin is the limiting subunit in tetramer formation at the spectrin-actin junction. Similarly, gamma-adducin is absent in alpha-null platelets. alpha-Adducin-null mice display compensated hemolytic anemia with features characteristic of RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis (HS), including spherocytes with significant loss of surface area, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell dehydration, and increased osmotic fragility. Platelets maintain their normal discoid shape, and bleeding times are normal. alpha-Adducin-null mice show growth retardation at birth and throughout adulthood. Approximately 50% develop lethal communicating hydrocephalus with striking dilation of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles. These data indicate that adducin plays a role in RBC membrane stability and in cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis.
Project description:Adducins are cytoskeletal actin-binding proteins (alpha, beta, gamma) that function as heterodimers and heterotetramers and are encoded by distinct genes. Experimental and clinical evidence implicates alpha- and beta-adducin variants in hypertension and renal dysfunction. Here, we have addressed the role of alpha- and beta-adducin on glomerular function and disease using beta-adducin null mice, congenic substrains for alpha- and beta-adducin from the Milan hypertensive (MHS) and Milan normotensive (MNS) rats and patients with IgA nephropathy. Targeted deletion of beta-adducin in mice reduced urinary protein excretion, preceded by an increase of podocyte protein expression (phospho-nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, Fyn). The introgression of polymorphic MHS beta-adducin locus into MNS (Add2, 529R) rats was associated with an early reduction of podocyte protein expression (nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, podocin, Fyn), followed by severe glomerular and interstitial lesions and increased urinary protein excretion. These alterations were markedly attenuated when the polymorphic MHS alpha-adducin locus was also present (Add1, 316Y). In patients with IgA nephropathy, the rate of decline of renal function over time was associated to polymorphic beta-adducin (ADD2, 1797T, rs4984) with a significant interaction with alpha-adducin (ADD1, 460W, rs4961). These findings suggest that adducin genetic variants participate in the development of glomerular lesions by modulating the expression of specific podocyte proteins.
Project description:Spherocytosis is one of the most common inherited disorders, yet presents with a wide range of clinical severity. While several genes have been found mutated in patients with spherocytosis, the molecular basis for the variability in severity of haemolytic anaemia is not entirely understood. To identify candidate proteins involved in haemolytic anaemia pathophysiology, we utilized a label-free comparative proteomic approach to detect differences in red blood cells (RBCs) from normal and ?-adducin (Add2) knock-out mice. We detected seven proteins that were decreased and 48 proteins that were increased in ?-adducin null RBC ghosts. Since haemolytic anaemias are characterized by reticulocytosis, we compared reticulocyte-enriched samples from phenylhydrazine-treated mice with mature RBCs from untreated mice. Among the 48 proteins increased in Add2 knockout RBCs, only 11 were also increased in reticulocytes. Of the proteins decreased in Add2 knockout RBCs, ?-adducin showed the greatest intensity difference, followed by SLC9A1, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger previously termed NHE1. We verified these mass spectrometry results by immunoblot. This is the first example of SLC9A1deficiency in haemolytic anaemia and suggests new insights into the mechanisms leading to fragile RBCs.
Project description:The three adducin proteins (α, β, and γ) share extensive sequence, structural, and functional homology. Heterodimers of α- and β-adducin are vital components of the red cell membrane skeleton, which is required to maintain red cell elasticity and structural integrity. In addition to anemia, targeted deletion of the α-adducin gene (Add1) reveals unexpected, strain-dependent non-erythroid phenotypes. On an inbred 129 genetic background, Add1 null mice show abnormal inward curvature of the cervicothoracic spine with complete penetrance. More surprisingly, a subset of 129-Add1 null mice develop severe megaesophagus, while examination of peripheral nerves reveals a reduced number of axons in 129-Add1 null mice at four months of age. These unforeseen phenotypes, described here, reveal new functions for adducin and provide new models of mammalian disease.
Project description:Adducins are a family of membrane skeleton proteins composed of alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunits that promote actin and spectrin association in erythrocytes. The alpha- and gamma-subunits are expressed ubiquitously, while the beta-subunit is found in brain and erythropoietic tissues. The brain beta-adducin protein is similar in size to that of spleen, but the mRNA transcript is a brain-specific one that has not been yet characterized, having an estimated length of 8-9 kb instead of the 3-4 kb of spleen mRNA. Here, we show the molecular basis for these differences by determining the structure of the brain-specific beta-adducin transcript in rats, mice and humans. We identified a brain-specific promoter in rodents that, apparently, was not conserved in humans. In addition, we present evidence that the brain-mRNAs are formed by a common mechanism consisting in the tissue-specific use of alternative polyadenylation sites generating unusually long 3'-untranslated region of up to 6.6 kb. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of highly-conserved regions flanking the brain-specific polyadenylation site that suggest the involvement of these sequences in the translational regulation, stability and/or subcellular localization of the beta-adducin transcript in the brain.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cerebral palsy is estimated to affect nearly 1 in 500 children, and although prenatal and perinatal contributors have been well characterized, at least 20% of cases are believed to be inherited. Previous studies have identified mutations in the actin-capping protein KANK1 and the adaptor protein-4 complex in forms of inherited cerebral palsy, suggesting a role for components of the dynamic cytoskeleton in the genesis of the disease. METHODS:We studied a multiplex consanguineous Jordanian family by homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, then used patient-derived fibroblasts to examine functional consequences of the mutation we identified in vitro. We subsequently studied the effects of adducin loss of function in Drosophila. RESULTS:We identified a homozygous c.1100G>A (p.G367D) mutation in ADD3, encoding gamma adducin in all affected members of the index family. Follow-up experiments in patient fibroblasts found that the p.G367D mutation, which occurs within the putative oligomerization critical region, impairs the ability of gamma adducin to associate with the alpha subunit. This mutation impairs the normal actin-capping function of adducin, leading to both abnormal proliferation and migration in cultured patient fibroblasts. Loss of function studies of the Drosophila adducin ortholog hts confirmed a critical role for adducin in locomotion. INTERPRETATION:Although likely a rare cause of cerebral palsy, our findings indicate a critical role for adducins in regulating the activity of the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that impaired adducin function may lead to neuromotor impairment and further implicating abnormalities of the dynamic cytoskeleton as a pathogenic mechanism contributing to cerebral palsy.
Project description:The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) plays a key role in renal salt reabsorption and the determination of systemic BP, but the molecular mechanisms governing the regulation of NCC are not completely understood. Here, through pull-down experiments coupled to mass spectrometry, we found that γ-adducin interacts with the NCC transporter. γ-Adducin colocalized with NCC to the distal convoluted tubule. (22)Na(+) uptake experiments in the Xenopus laevis oocyte showed that γ-adducin stimulated NCC activity in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that occurred upstream from With No Lysine (WNK) 4 kinase. The binding site of γ-adducin mapped to the N terminus of NCC and encompassed three previously reported phosphorylation sites. Supporting this site of interaction, competition with the N-terminal domain of NCC abolished the stimulatory effect of γ-adducin on the transporter. γ-Adducin failed to increase NCC activity when these phosphorylation sites were constitutively inactive or active. In addition, γ-adducin bound only to the dephosphorylated N terminus of NCC. Taken together, our observations suggest that γ-adducin dynamically regulates NCC, likely by amending the phosphorylation state, and consequently the activity, of the transporter. These data suggest that γ-adducin may influence BP homeostasis by modulating renal NaCl transport.
Project description:Pleiotrophin (PTN) was found to regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-adducin through the PTN/receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)beta/zeta signaling pathway. We now demonstrate that PTN stimulates the phosphorylation of serines 713 and 726 in the myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase (PK) C substrate domain of beta-adducin through activation of either PKC alpha or beta. We also demonstrate that PTN stimulates translocation of phosphoserine 713 and 726 beta-adducin either to nuclei, where it associates with nuclear chromatin and with centrioles of dividing cells, or to a membrane-associated site, depending on the phase of cell growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PTN stimulates the degradation of beta-adducin in PTN-stimulated cells. Phosphorylation of serines 713 and 726 in beta-adducin is known to markedly reduce the affinity of beta-adducin for spectrin and actin and to uncouple actin/spectrin/beta-adducin multimeric complexes needed for cytoskeletal stability. The data thus suggest that the PTN-stimulated phosphorylation of serines 713 and 726 in beta-adducin disrupts cytoskeletal protein complexes and integrity, features demonstrated in both PTN-stimulated cells and of highly malignant cells that constitutively express the endogenous Ptn gene. The data also support the important conclusion that PTN determines the cellular location of beta-adducin phosphorylated in serines 713 and 726 and raise the possibility that beta-adducin functions in support of structure of heterochromatin and centrioles during mitosis.
Project description:Adducin promotes assembly of spectrin-actin complexes, and is a target for regulation by calmodulin, protein kinase C, and rho kinase. We demonstrate here that adducin is required to stabilize preformed lateral membranes of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells through interaction with beta2-spectrin. We use a Tet-on regulated inducible small interfering RNA (siRNA) system to deplete alpha-adducin from confluent HBE cells. Depletion of alpha-adducin resulted in increased detergent solubility of spectrin after normal membrane biogenesis during mitosis. Conversely, depletion of beta2-spectrin resulted in loss of adducin from the lateral membrane. siRNA-resistant alpha-adducin prevented loss of lateral membrane, but only if alpha-adducin retained the MARCKS domain that mediates spectrin-actin interactions. Phospho-mimetic versions of adducin with S/D substitutions at protein kinase C phosphorylation sites in the MARCKS domain were not active in rescue. We find that adducin modulates long-range organization of the lateral membrane based on several criteria. First, the lateral membrane of adducin-depleted cells exhibited reduced height, increased curvature, and expansion into the basal surface. Moreover, E-cadherin-GFP, which normally is restricted in lateral mobility, rapidly diffuses over distances up to 10 microm. We conclude that adducin acting through spectrin provides a novel mechanism to regulate global properties of the lateral membrane of bronchial epithelial cells.
Project description:Five spontaneous, allelic mutations in the alpha-spectrin gene, Spna1, have been identified in mice (spherocytosis [sph], sph(1J), sph(2J), sph(2BC), sph(Dem)). All cause severe hemolytic anemia. Here, analysis of 3 new alleles reveals previously unknown consequences of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin deficiency. In sph(3J), a missense mutation (H2012Y) in repeat 19 introduces a cryptic splice site resulting in premature termination of translation. In sph(Ihj), a premature stop codon occurs (Q1853Stop) in repeat 18. Both mutations result in markedly reduced RBC membrane spectrin content, decreased band 3, and absent beta-adducin. Reevaluation of available, previously described sph alleles reveals band 3 and adducin deficiency as well. In sph(4J), a missense mutation occurs in the C-terminal EF hand domain (C2384Y). Notably, an equally severe hemolytic anemia occurs despite minimally decreased membrane spectrin with normal band 3 levels and present, although reduced, beta-adducin. The severity of anemia in sph(4J) indicates that the highly conserved cysteine residue at the C-terminus of alpha-spectrin participates in interactions critical to membrane stability. The data reinforce the notion that a membrane bridge in addition to the classic protein 4.1-p55-glycophorin C linkage exists at the RBC junctional complex that involves interactions between spectrin, adducin, and band 3.